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Why trace elements are important

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Abstract

The widespread presence of trace elements is shown by reviewing their roles during the mining, beneficiation and combustion of coal and during metal mining and treatments. Special attention is given to Hg, to the environmentally important mineral, pyrite, to radioactivity, to waste disposal, to reclamation after mining and to health aspects. The 26 trace elements that are considered to be of environmental interest are listed. Important topics for future research are discussed. Although many trace element problems are under control, constant vigilance is a sine qua non and ongoing research is important.

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... Hazardous trace elements, including 22 kinds by listed Ren et al. (1999a), refer to those trace elements that are toxic, radioactive, carcinogenic or potentially harmful to the environment (Zhao 1997;Zhao et al. 1998;Ren et al. 1999aRen et al. , 2006. Swaine (2000) studied the environmental interest in trace elements in coal. ...
... There are many researches on trace elements in domestic Chinese coals (Chen et al. 1986;Sun and Jervis 1986;Wang and Ren 1994;Huang et al. 1999Huang et al. , 2001Liu et al. 1999a;Ren et al. 1999a, b;Bai et al. 2004;Tang and Huang 2004;Dai et al. 2006bDai et al. , 2012aDai et al. , b, 2014Dai et al. , 2018Song et al. 2010;Cheng et al. 2013;Bai et al. 2014Bai et al. , 2017aXie et al. 2014;Zhang et al. 2016;Zhou et al. 2017;Wang et al. 2019b) and in coals from other nations (Gluskoter 1975;Bouška 1981;Swaine 1990Swaine , 2000Swaine and Goodarzi 1995;Finkelman 1993Finkelman , 1995Finkelman and Gross 1999;Ketris and Yudovich 2009;Say-Gee and Wan 2011;Nakajima and Taira 2014;Hot et al. 2016;Arbuzov et al. 2019). The authoritative background values of trace elements in Chinese coals were obtained by Dai et al. (2012a, b) and an evaluation formula of enrichment coefficients of trace elements was established by Dai et al. (2014). ...
... There are many researches on trace elements in domestic Chinese coals (Chen et al. 1986;Sun and Jervis 1986;Wang and Ren 1994;Huang et al. 1999Huang et al. , 2001Liu et al. 1999a;Ren et al. 1999a, b;Bai et al. 2004;Tang and Huang 2004;Dai et al. 2006bDai et al. , 2012aDai et al. , b, 2014Dai et al. , 2018Song et al. 2010;Cheng et al. 2013;Bai et al. 2014Bai et al. , 2017aXie et al. 2014;Zhang et al. 2016;Zhou et al. 2017;Wang et al. 2019b) and in coals from other nations (Gluskoter 1975;Bouška 1981;Swaine 1990Swaine , 2000Swaine and Goodarzi 1995;Finkelman 1993Finkelman , 1995Finkelman and Gross 1999;Ketris and Yudovich 2009;Say-Gee and Wan 2011;Nakajima and Taira 2014;Hot et al. 2016;Arbuzov et al. 2019). The authoritative background values of trace elements in Chinese coals were obtained by Dai et al. (2012a, b) and an evaluation formula of enrichment coefficients of trace elements was established by Dai et al. (2014). ...
Article
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In China, the connection between coal utilization and environmental pollution has been increasingly evident due to the rapid growth in energy consumption. Clean coal technology (CCT) is one of the effective methods to address coal-associated pollution. However, CCT needs the practical and theoretical support of clean coal geology (CCG). In this paper, a new definition of CCG is proposed, based on the definitions of coal, coal geology, and CCT, combined with the development of national CCG. CCG is the discipline comprehensively researching the genesis, nature, distribution, cleaning potential, clean utilization and environmental effects of resources (coal, coal bed methane, and other coal-associated resources) that can be cleaned by CCT. The research content of CCG is discussed from different aspects, such as cleaning potential evaluation, geological guarantee for coal mining, ash yields and sulfur contents, trace elements, pollution caused by coal, and mine reclamation. The progress of CCG in China is also briefly divided into four stages and delineated. Finally, scientific problems in CCG are summarized and an outlook for CCG is given.
... На основе экологической значимости в углях выделяют четыре группы элементов, представляющих интерес: I (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Se), IIA (B, Cl, Mn, F, Mo, Ni, Pb), IIB (Be, Cu, P, Th, U, V, Zn) и III (Ba, Co, Sb, Sn, Tl) [Swaine, Goodarzi, 1995]. Группы IIA и IIB можно рассматривать как одну [Swaine, 2000]. Элементы группы I опасны при некоторых обстоятельствах с наиболее неблагоприятными эффектами, связанными с As и Se, группу IIA следует учитывать при рекультивации и работе с отходами, группы IIB и III не оказывают вредного воздействия [Swaine, Goodarzi, 1995]. ...
... Концентрации U (среднее 6.2 ppm) и Th (среднее 14.2 ppm) определены в кровле, подошве пласта и углистом сланце. Среднее содержание Th в изученном пласте выше, чем в большинстве углей, согласно [Swaine, 2000]. В углистом сланце концентрации Co (35 ppm), F (1008 ppm), Sn (12 ppm), Th (34 ppm) выше нормы в углях по [Swaine, 2000]. ...
... Среднее содержание Th в изученном пласте выше, чем в большинстве углей, согласно [Swaine, 2000]. В углистом сланце концентрации Co (35 ppm), F (1008 ppm), Sn (12 ppm), Th (34 ppm) выше нормы в углях по [Swaine, 2000]. Содержание Zn в сланце практически достигает верхней границы нормы (300 ppm [Swaine, 2000]) и составляет 294 ppm. ...
Article
It is now known that coals throughout the world contain many valuable elements. In the Irkutsk Region, coal mining is provided by the resources of the Irkutsk coal-bearing basin. The Irkutsk basin is a large area of the Jurassic continental sedimentary deposits in the south of the Siberian craton, with the Cheremkhovo, Prisayan and Kuda formations. The upper Cheremkhovo formation is the primary coal-bearing formation of the Irkutsk basin. This paper presents the geochemical data on the Karataevsky coal mine. Trace element concentrations were obtained using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The average Th content (14.24 ppm) in the studied coal seam is higher than that in most of the world coals. The Co (35 ppm), F (1008 ppm), Sn (12 ppm), Th (34 ppm) concentrations in the coal shale consisting primarily of kaolinite (90 %) are higher than in ordinary coals. The coals should be used considering the concentrations of potentially hazardous elements that are high relative to the world coals. The studied coals can be interesting in terms of their slight enrichment in Y, with an average concentration of 19.7 ppm, which is 2.4 times higher than that in the world coal.
... Anthropogenic activities can increase trace-metal concentrations in aquatic ecosystems to levels potentially toxic to aquatic life. Sources of trace-metal contaminants in freshwaters include metal and coal mining and processing, industrial discharges, atmospheric deposition from coal combustion and metal smelting, and leaching from contaminated terrestrial environments (Swaine et al., 2000;Clements et al., 2000;Deonarine et al., 2015;Vareda et al., 2019). Complicating management is the fact that environmental contamination by single trace metals is rare, as freshwaters affected by such sources are often characterized by elevated concentrations of multiple trace metals (Swaine, 2000;Vareda et al., 2019). ...
... Sources of trace-metal contaminants in freshwaters include metal and coal mining and processing, industrial discharges, atmospheric deposition from coal combustion and metal smelting, and leaching from contaminated terrestrial environments (Swaine et al., 2000;Clements et al., 2000;Deonarine et al., 2015;Vareda et al., 2019). Complicating management is the fact that environmental contamination by single trace metals is rare, as freshwaters affected by such sources are often characterized by elevated concentrations of multiple trace metals (Swaine, 2000;Vareda et al., 2019). ...
Article
Trace metals rarely contaminate freshwaters independently, hence regulatory limits based on single-metal toxicity may be underprotective of aquatic life. This could be especially the case for rare and sensitive fauna like freshwater mussels, such as those suppressed in the Clinch and Powell Rivers in eastern USA where trace metals are long-term contaminants but at concentrations below regulatory limits. We hypothesized metal mixtures may be exerting combined effects on mussels, resulting in greater toxicity than would be predicted based on single-metal exposures. To test that hypothesis, we conducted two experiments exposing juvenile rainbow mussels (Villosa iris) for 42 days to dissolved copper, nickel, and zinc, individually and in three-metal mixtures, in an environmentally-relevant context of water with chemistry (hardness 155 mg/L as CaCO3, dissolved organic carbon 1.7 - 2.3 mg/L, pH 8.4) similar to that of the Clinch River, which receives alkaline mine drainage. We used a toxic unit approach, selecting test concentrations based on literature values for the lower of 28-day survival or growth (length) effect concentrations for Villosa iris or Lampsilis siliquoidea (fatmucket). Our first experiment confirmed survival and growth effects when acute and chronic water quality criteria, respectively, are approached and/or exceeded. Our second experiment, at lower concentrations, showed no effects on survival but combined effects on growth were evident: a mixture of Cu, Ni, and Zn (7.2 ± 1.2, 65.3 ± 6.1, 183 ± 32 μg/L, respectively) inhibited growth (dry weight) by 95% versus 73%, 74%, and 83% inhibition for single-metal exposures to Cu, Ni, and Zn of similar concentration (8.0 ± 1.1, 63.5 ± 4.8, 193 ± 31 μg/L, respectively). Furthermore, a mixture of Cu, Ni, and Zn with individual concentrations 21%, 29%, and 37% of their water quality criteria (3.4 ± 1.2, 21.8 ± 1.8, and 62.1 ± 8.4 µg/L, respectively) inhibited growth (dry weight) by 61% relative to controls. Our observation of combined effects suggests that regulatory limits based on single-metal toxicity may be underprotective of freshwater mussels when multiple metals are present.
... Some TEs act as the interface and catalyst in atmospheric photochemical reaction, making airborne TEs become significant roles in fog-haze formation (Li et al., 2017b;Fu and Chen, 2017;Behera et al., 2015). In recent years, airborne TEs have been linked to various adverse effects on human health, as well as on the ecosystem (Larison et al., 2000;Marsden, 2003;Swaine, 2000). Moreover, when the damages of TEs in the human body can be noticed, they have usually reached an irreversible stage (Senesil et al., 1999;Swaine, 2000). ...
... In recent years, airborne TEs have been linked to various adverse effects on human health, as well as on the ecosystem (Larison et al., 2000;Marsden, 2003;Swaine, 2000). Moreover, when the damages of TEs in the human body can be noticed, they have usually reached an irreversible stage (Senesil et al., 1999;Swaine, 2000). In order to evaluate the adverse effects of atmospheric TEs, quantitative assessments of atmospheric emissions of TEs from anthropogenic sources have been conducted in Europe and America (Pacyna et al., 2007(Pacyna et al., , 2006a; Pacyna and Pacyna, 2001;Streets et al., 2009). ...
Article
Natural sources, such as soil and wind-erosion dust (SWD), biomass open burning (BOB), sea salt spray (SSAS) and biogenic source (BIO), are major contributors to atmospheric emissions of trace elements (TEs) globally. In this study, we used a comprehensive approach to account for area-, production- and biofuel consumption-based emission factor calculation methods, and thus developed an integrated high-resolution emission inventory for 15 types of TEs (As, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) originated from natural sources in China for the year 2015. The results show that national emissions of TEs in 2015 range from 7.45 tons (Hg) to 1, 400 tons (Zn) except for the extremely high emissions of Mn (10, 677 tons). SWD and BIO are identified as the top two source contributors, accounting for approximately 67.7% and 26.1% of the total emissions, respectively. Absolute emissions of TEs from natural sources are high in the Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Tibet autonomous regions with large areas of bare soil and desert. However, emission intensity of TEs per unit area in the Southern provinces of China is higher than those in Northern China and Southwestern China, with the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces displaying the highest emission intensity. Our results suggest that controlling SWD can play a significant role in reducing fugitive particulate matter and the associated emissions of TEs from natural sources in China; and desertification control is particularly critical in the Northwest provinces where the majority of deserts are located.
... The characteristics of coal and oil shale depend on their contents of organic components (macerals) as well as minerals and other inorganic constituents (mineral matter) [9,10]. The contents of some of the major and trace mineral-inorganic elements are closely related to the mineral content of clastic sedimentary rocks [11][12][13][14][15][16]. Rare earth elements (REEs) have the qualities of chemical stability, coherent behavior during different geochemical processes and predictable patterns of fractionation [17,18]. ...
Article
Coal and oil shale in the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation of the northern Qaidam Basin (China) have been characterized and compared using total organic carbon (TOC) content, oil yield, and proximate as well as major, trace and rare earth element (REE) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show that coal is represented by lignite and bituminous coal and oil shale is of medium quality. In both coal and oil shale, Si, Al, K, Ti and Na originate from a mixed clastic sedimentary component comprised of clay minerals, quartz and feldspars. In coal, rare earth elements (REEs) are related to phosphate minerals, whereas those in oil shale have inorganic affinities and are mainly associated with clay minerals and quartz. REEs in coal and oil shale are of terrigenous origin. Both coal and oil shale in the Yuqia area are possibly the products of source rocks that have experienced moderate chemical weathering during a warm and humid climate, and they have similar source rocks of felsic volcanic and sedimentary rocks.
... The concentrations of Ba and Sr were observed to be higher due to the association of minerals such as calcite or dolomite or phosphates (Ward, 1991;Saikia et al., 2014). Earlier studies reported that U, Cr, and Ni in OB samples are mainly associated with clay minerals and organic matter (Swaine, 2000;Finkelman, 1994). The groundwater is the leading cause for the mobilization and dispersion of these elements which are deposited in the porous overburden rock (Saikia et al., 2016). ...
Article
Open-cast mining of coal generates waste material, including rock and soil with different minerals, and traditionally dumped as waste over the valuable lands worldwide. Overburden (OB) is devoid of actual soil characteristics, low micro and macronutrient content, and a sufficient amount of rare earth elements, silicate, sulphate, and clay minerals. This study aimed to determine the geochemistry and mineralogy of OB samples collected from Makum coalfield, Margherita of Northeast (NE) India. The geochemical and mineralogical analyses of overburden (OB) were carried out by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), High resolution-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (HR-ICP-MS), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) techniques. This study shows potentially hazardous elements (PHEs), including Pb, Co Cu, Cr, Ni, and Zn, and their association with minerals observed in OB samples. The major oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, CaO, K2O, and Na2O) are present in all the overburden samples analyzed by the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. Various minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gypsum, melanterite, rozenite, hematite, and pyrite were identified. The overburden samples contain considerable amounts of rare earth elements and yttrium (REY;as received basis) with an average of 26.3 (ppm). The presence of abundant minerals and REY opens up a new avenue for the gainful and sustainable utilization of such waste materials.
... The elements like Sr and Ba are observed to be highly enriched in both the coal samples indicating that the mineral association of dolomite or calcite and/or phosphate [50,53]. The presence of V, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Mo in coal samples may be linked with organic matter and clay minerals [54,55]. In coal samples, the concentration of Zn may also be associated with clay minerals, pyrite, or sphalerite. ...
Article
The utilization of coal and its by-products (coal-combustion fly ash) is known for its detrimental effects on the environment including human health issues and global climate change. In this paper, the basic chemistry and geochemistry along with the petrographic studies of thermal plant’s feed coal and their generated coal fly ashes is reported. The study also aims to predict the associated environmental concerns and quantification of REEs in the fly ash, which possibly might represent sources for recovery. The major minerals observed were quartz, kaolinite, haematite, illite, pyrite, and calcite in coal; and quartz, haematite, and pyrite in fly ash as confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The results also demonstrated that Ce and Pr were exceptionally high in the both the samples C-1 (1075 ppm) and CF-2 (1248 ppm). The abundance of Nd is found to be high (479 ppm) in the fly ash samples. Hazardous elements were associated with nanominerals, including pyrite, anatase, and kaolinite as identified by using electron beam techniques. A multivariate statistical analysis of the elements including REEs in both coal and coal fly ash is also carried out to understand their mutual correlations.
... + = (2) 式中: P 是采样点的综合污染指数, P imax 为 i 采样点地积累指数中的最大值,P 为地积累指数加权平均值。 公式如下[12]: i i i 1 1 P P n n i i = = = ω ω ∑ ∑ (3) 式中: i ω 为权重,P i 为单项测量值。根据 Dalway J. Swaine [13]对重金属的分类,Mn、Hg 和 Zn 的权重 都为 1。土壤综合污染程度分级标准见表 6。 ...
... La sua estrazione e combustione causano, infatti, un significativo effetto ambientale sull'aria, sul suolo e sulle risorse idriche nelle aree adiacenti alle Centrali a carbone. I rifiuti di carbone e la combustione del carbone producono Idrocarburi Policicli Aromatici (IPA) e altri composti organici e inorganici (León et al., 2007;Depoi et al., 2008) con potenziali effetti ecotossici, genotossici e cancerogeni sull'uomo e sul biota che determinano un esito rilevante sugli ecosistemi (Finkelman, 1995;Liu et al., 1999;Swaine, 2000;Zhang et al., 2008). In particolare, nel presente studio, chiocciole provenienti da un'azienda agricola biologica sono state esposte per 13 giorni in cinque località situate a diverse distanze dalla centrale a carbone "Torvaldaliga Nord" (Tabella 1) con il fine di comparare la frequenza dei micronuclei negli emociti nelle cinque località rispetto al controllo come anche per verificare se vi fosse una maggiore frequenza di micronuclei nelle chiocciole esposte nelle località più vicine alla centrale. ...
Technical Report
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L’indagine ecotossicologica è riconosciuta a livello internazionale come strumento valido nella prevenzione di effetti avversi negli ecosistemi che possono manifestarsi anche nell’uomo attraverso un’esposizione diretta/indiretta a sostanze chimiche pericolose, inclusi i contaminanti “emergenti” e le miscele. L’ecotossicologia e le sue sottodiscipline (l’eco-neurotossicologia e l’eco-genotossicologia) che si perfezionano nei vari ambiti di utilizzo, stanno ottenendo ottimi risultati applicativi e spesso si sono rilevate sentinelle decisive in contaminazioni ambientali non rilevate dai monitoraggi routinari. Sulla base di tali motivazioni il 27 marzo 2018 si è tenuto presso l’Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) il 1° Meeting “Ecotossicologia e Salute” al fine di creare un network di esperti nazionali per la condivisione e scambio di conoscenze ed esperienze in materia.In questo rapporto sono riportati alcuni contributi di relatori che hanno concorso a creare il network nazionale.
... These ashes constitute a broad range of elements [11][12][13][14]. Many of them are toxic which contaminates air, water and soil effectively and can create many health hazards of humans in various manners [15][16][17][18]. Fly ash and pond ash requires a large area of disposal, so a large portion of groundwater is affected by leached toxicity of heavy metals which are present in these ashes [19]. ...
Article
Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission and Particle Induced X-ray Emission spectroscopies were applied for the determination of low, medium and high Z elements in coal and coal residues of Indian thermal power plants. In situ current normalized PIGE was used to determine F, Na, Mg, Al and Si concentrations in coal and coal residues. Elements namely Mg, Al and Si were found in percent level, while Na and F were found in trace concentration levels. Charged normalized PIXE was used to determine a total of 22 elements, namely, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Gd and Pb in these samples. K, Ca, Ti and Fe were found in percent concentration and V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Gd and Pb were found in trace concentration levels.
... Coal deposits with high concentrations of valuable trace elements could provide an alternative source of rare metals [1,5,6,25,109,110]. According to Sun et al. [111], the minimum mineable grade for Li should be set at 120 μg/g in Chinese coal. ...
Article
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This paper provides new geochemical data focussing on valuable elements and their origins in the coals from the Laoyaogou mine, Ningwu coalfield, Shanxi Province, northern China. Kaolinite, pyrite, calcite, and boehmite are the main minerals, along with a small amount of illite and anatase, present in the coals studied. The studied coals are enriched with Li, Ga, Zr, Zn, Hf, Sr, Nb, Sn, Th, and REY, especially the case of high average concentration of Li (163.42 μg/g) which is more than ten-times higher than that in world hard coals. Zirconium and Hf, the average concentrations of which are more than five-times higher than those in world hard coals. Lithium, Ga, Zr, Hf, and Th have strong inorganic affinities, whereas Sr and REY have organic affinities. The main carrier of Li in the No. 5 Coal is kaolinite, illite, and boehmite. Gallium, Zr, Hf, and Th probably have the same origin and are largely associated with kaolinite and Ti/Ca-bearing minerals which originate from the source region. In Shanxi Province, the main coalfields are enriched in several valuable elements (e.g. Li, Ga, Zr, Hf, and Th), especially the high average content of Li in the Ningwu coalfield (116 μg/g) and the Qinshui Basin (110 μg/g). The Laoyaogou coals and the coals from the main coalfields in Shanxi Province have economic significance as hidden treasures of the coals themselves and in their by-products.
... They have important effects on processes that are vital for life (Akkoyun, 2018), and they have been determined to be associated with various diseases in many studies (Akkoyun, 2019). Trace elements play an important role in human health (Demir & Demir, 2016) and maintaining the health status of an organism (Skalnaya & Skalny, 2018), although they are present in very small amounts due to environmental concerns and their relationships with plant, animal and human health (Swaine, 2000). These elements are released into the environment in various ways such as smelting processes, fuel combustion and industrialization (Adeyeye et al., 1996;Förstner & Wittman, 1983). ...
Article
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This study investigated the concentrations of some accumulated trace metals (iron, manganese, zinc, and copper) and fatty acids in liver and muscle tissues of Mirror and Scaly Carp varieties (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) living in Keban Dam Reservoir (Elazig), which is the second‐largest artificial lake in Turkey that hosts commercially valuable and preferred fish varieties for human consumption. The ICP‐MS method was used to analyze trace element concentrations. Fatty acid levels were measured in a Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC‐MS) device, using FID. Considering the 2 fish varieties and tissues that were studied, the mean metal concentrations (μg/g) were found in the following ranges: Fe 12.32–49.97, Mn 0.12–0.62, Zn 10.45–86.59, and Cu 2.74–11.86. While the lowest levels were detected in the muscle tissue for all the metals examined, the levels in the liver tissue were significantly higher. According to the results of the analyses on fatty acid concentrations, the mean total saturated fatty acid levels in the muscle tissue of the scaly carp and mirror carp varieties were found to be 31.07 and 31.43 (%), respectively, while these values for the liver tissue were consecutively 22.36 and 22.08 (%). Successively, the mean total levels of unsaturated fatty acids were determined as 68.93 and 68.40 (%) in the muscle tissue and 77.64 and 77.92 in the liver tissue. As a result of our study, due to the finding that the trace (metallic) element accumulation rates were below the upper limits of the tolerable range, and the examined fish varieties were rich in fatty acids, we can state that mirror carp and scaly carp living in Keban Dam Reservoir are highly nutritious for human diets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Turiel et al., (1994) have demonstrated that these metals get enriched up to 10 times during combustion of coal. The bulk ash (88%) produced by coal combustion in Thermal Power Plants is in the form of bottom ash Swaine, 2000 and contain large number of elements including Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn invariable concentrations.The extraction of metals usually involves one of two possible aims. First, high extraction efficiencies of all metals are desired for the cleaning of, for example, fly ash or contaminated ground. ...
Article
Although fly ash disposal is of environmental concern the quality of residues can be improved with respect to high value applications. Fly ash is considered as a potential source of aluminium and other strategic metals. Leaching and metal extraction behaviour of fly ash collected from Thermal Power Station have been thoroughly studied using as extractant.Coal fly ash is generated during the combustion of coal for energy production. Its utilisation as an industrial lay-product has received a great deal of attention over the past two decades as more sustainable solutions to waste problems have been sought. The present paper reviews the potential applications for coal fly ash as a raw material: as a soil amelioration agent in agriculture, in the manufacture of glass and ceramics, in the production of zeolites, in the formation of mesoporous materials, in the synthesis of geopolymers, for use as catalysts and catalyst supports, as an adsorbent for gases and waste water processes, and for the extraction of metals. The review then analyses the impact that a multi-stage process could have by examining the technology capable of a series of separations to produce hollow microspheres, enriched carbon, magnetic spheres, fine ash product, and coarse ash product. The applications for these coal fly ash derived products were also reviewed. Since Our Common Future popularized the concept of sustainable development, researchers and industrialists have searched for ways of making industrial processes.
... Especially, the fly ash and bottom from the Duyen Hai thermal-electric power center in which the main plant is importing raw materials through the seaport are forecast to cause pollution in the marine environment. The coal combustion process in the thermoelectric generators releases mercury and other heavy metals, which have been linked to both neurological and developmental damages in humans and other animals (Swaine 2000). ...
Article
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The Duyen Hai Seaport covering more than 427 hectares of water surface is part of a Duyen Hai thermal power plant complex. In the last years, the port operations can lead to impact on air, water, land and the ecosystem. To evaluate the ecological risk caused by heavy metals at Duyen Hai seaport, 17 surficial sediment samples were collected along the ship flow from shoreline to the material submerged zone in April, 2019. The total concentration of some heavy metals including lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, zinc and mercury were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experimental results indicated that there were the significant and positive correlations between various heavy metal studied. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the potential ecological risk index (RI) and the degree of contamination (Cd) were calculated for evaluating the risks of heavy metal in sediment samples. The Igeo values showed that the Duyen Hai seaport is slightly contaminated by heavy metals, especially by Cd. Generally, the low potential risk of heavy metal was observed from the values of RI. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals was found in the order ER(Hg)>ER(Cd)>ER(As)>ER(Pb)>ER(Zn)>ER(Cu), which revealed that Cd was the most important factor leading to the risk. These findings might be useful for making appropriate management strategies to prevent or decrease pollution by heavy metal at the Duyen Hai seaport https://rdcu.be/cesRG
... Dai et al. (2005Dai et al. ( , 2006Dai et al. ( , 2008 confirmed that lead can occur in clausthalite, which is mainly found as fracture fillings, in Chinese coals. Galena and clausthalite are rare hosts for lead in coal (Liu et al. 2013b;Swaine 2000). ...
Article
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Lead is a potentially harmful element that has caused serious environmental pollution during its mining and use along with serious human health problems. This study assessed lead in Chinese coals based on published literature, with a particular focus on data reported since 2004. The analysis included 9447 individual samples from 103 coalfields or mines in 28 provinces in China. The arithmetic mean content of lead in the studied coals was 15.0 μg/g. Considering the coal reserves, the weighted-average lead concentration in Chinese coals was calculated to be 19.6 μg/g. Lead was significantly enriched in the coals from Henan Province and enriched in the coals from the Tibet Autonomous Region. The coals from Tibet–Western Yunnan and the southern areas of China had elevated lead concentrations. Sulfides are the primary hosts of lead in Chinese coals, although other hosts include silicates, organic matter, carbonates, and other minerals. Source rocks in the sediment-source region and marine environments may be the most significant factors contributing to lead enrichment in Chinese coals. Hydrothermal fluids and peat-forming plants also contribute to lead enrichment in some Chinese coals.
... Mineral or trace elements play important roles not only on plant, but human and animal life participating in various metabolic processes such as enzyme catalysis, in the synthesis of proteins and cell growth (Swaine, 2000). However, if the concentration of trace elements exceeds the required level, they may have negative effects on living systems (Zengin, 2005). ...
Article
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Vegetable soybean is famous for its better eating quality and taste, which is usually harvested at fresh pod stage. However, no report is available on nutritional values between vegetable soybean seed at fresh pod stage and mature stage. To better understand the seed nutritional quality differences between fresh pod stage and mature stage in vegetable soybean, five vegetable soybean genotypes were examined. The results found that seeds from fresh edible stage had higher total free amino acid, and higher K, Na, Mn and Zn concentrations. The concentrations of soluble sugar, crude oil as well as unsaturated fatty acid were also higher at fresh pod stage. While total isoflavone, Mg and Fe concentrations were generally higher at full maturity stage. No differences in protein concentration were found between the two stages. Significant genotypic differences were found among nutritional parameters. The genotype Line 61 had the highest total soy isoflavone of 4593 μg g-1, whereas the genotype “Heidou” had the lowest total soy isoflavone of 1700 μg g-1 at mature stage. Correlation analysis indicated that total free amino acid was significantly positively correlated with soluble sugar, crude oil and total isoflavone. Therefore, the nutritional values at fresh pod stage and mature stage differed from the perspective of nutritional compositions. The findings reported here add new knowledge to vegetable soybean function and is a useful starting point for future breeding program and cultivation towards improving the nutritional compositions of soybean species.
... The enrichment of U in coals has been attributed to episodic inundation of the coal depositional environment by marine waters (Van der Flier and Fyfe, 1985). U and Mo mainly occur in clay minerals, pyrite, and organic matter (Bou ska et al., 2000;Finkelman, 1994;Swaine, 2000). The results of SEM-EDX and statistical methods indicate that U and Mo in the coals occur in silicate minerals, carbonate minerals, illite, and mixed-layer I/S as well as sulfide minerals, as expressed by high positive correlation with CaO, K 2 O, Fe 2 O 3 , and pyrite (Table 5). ...
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Coal seams 4¹ and 4² of the Heshan Coalfield belong to superhigh-organic-sulfur coals. In order to study the geochemical characteristics of the coals, 15 coal samples and 6 rock samples were collected from both coal seams and the roof/floor rocks. The samples were investigated by using conventional microscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that minerals in the coals are dominated by kaolinite and a mixed layer illite/smectite and illite; small ratios of pyrite, quartz, chlorite, smectite, calcite, and dolomite are also present. Under the microscope, these pyrites occur as framboidal, euhedral, homogeneous, anhedral, nodular, and fine dissemination shapes. In Shicun Mine, the trace elements Li, Y, Zr, Sn, Sm, and Tb are enriched; Zn and Ba are depleted. However, in the Heliluoshan Mine, Mo is significantly enriched; Li, Zr, Cs, and U are enriched; and Co and Ba are depleted. The occurrence of Li and Ga is associated mainly with organic matter and sulfate minerals. U and Mo occur in silicate minerals, carbonate minerals, illite, I/S, and pyrite. A reducing environment is beneficial for the enrichment of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Mo, Cd, and U. The abundances of sulfur in Heshan were controlled mainly by the degree of seawater influence and hydrothermal activities.
... Fossil fuel combustion continues to be an important source for TEs enrichments in Miaoergou in the second half of the 20th century (Fig. 5). The enrichment of Pb, Sn, Cu, Sb, Bi, As, and Tl after 1950 (Fig. 2) is likely to be linked with the rapid growth of crude oil consumption and high level of coal consumption (Swaine, 2000). In particular, the use of leaded gasoline have elevated the level of global Pb concentration way above its background value (Pacyna and Pacyna, 2001). ...
Article
An annually resolved trace element (TE) record is established for V, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, Bi, Th, U, Cr, and Pb from the Miaoergou ice core, eastern Tien Shan, China, covering the period 1776–2004 A.D.. Using this record, we examined the continuous changes of atmospheric TE compositions and identified their natural and anthropogenic sources based on the analysis of their enrichment factors (EF) and excess (Ex) concentrations. First, the record shows high concentrations of crustal elements during the periods of 1787–1813 A.D., 1825–1887 A.D., 1941–1978 A.D., likely originated from the surrounding deserts, especially the Taklimakan Desert. Second, similar to other natural archive records from the Northern Hemisphere, the data show sporadic Ex concentrations of Pb, Sn, Cu, Tl before the 1950s, likely related to the coal combustion and non-ferrous production/smelting in the European countries since the Industrial Revolution. Finally, the record reveals significant anthropogenic contribution to concentrations of Pb, Sn, Cu, Sb, As, Bi, and Tl in the second half of the 20th century. The Ex concentration of these elements started to increase sharply in the 1950s, reached the maximum levels in the 1970s–1980s, subsequently declined in the early 1990s, and finally rose again in the late 1990s. The temporal TE trends could reflect the industrial and agricultural development in the possible source regions (e.g., the former Soviet Union). Therefore, our high-resolution record of atmospheric TEs provides a valuable historical perspective on air pollution emissions in these regions surrounding Miaoergou since the Industrial Revolution.
... It is widely acknowledged that heavy metals (HMs) such as mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) can pose great adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. 1−3 Because of their nonvolatility and bioaccumulation, 3,4 superfluous HMs can cause severe damages to the human nervous system and vital functions. 4−6 In addition, HMs persist in the atmosphere during long-distance transportation, 7−9 triggering a national or even global problem of environmental pollution. ...
Article
Recently China has committed to decommissioning the heavy metals (HMs) intensive coal-fired power plants (CFPPs), small units especially, yet a quantitative assessment for the impact on HM emissions remains poorly understood. This study for the first time compiles a plant-specific inventory for six HMs (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd and Cr) avoided by CFPPs decommissioned in China during the 12th Five Year Plan period. The reduced HMs amounts to 271.58 t (9.19 t Hg, 45.84 t As, 60.76 t Se, 85.30 t Pb, 1.74 t Cd and 68.75 t Cr), accounting for 12.71% of the total emissions from all China’s CFPPs in 2010. Small units which have low boiler efficiency and lack air pollutant control devices are more than tenfold HMs-intensive as the large units. The detailed HM emission factors for each CFPP decommissioned in each provincial region are also identified. HMs content in the coal consumed is a key parameter to determine their corresponding emission factors, while the capacity of decommissioned coal plants plays a decisive role in the reduced emissions. The high-resolution inventory not only verifies China’s progress in alleviating HMs pollution, but also provides basis for further investigation into HMs relevant environmental and human health impact.
... Some components of particles are more harmful than others for human health. Among the inorganic compounds, there are metallic elements (Yadav and Satsangi, 2013) the most important of which are trace elements that are emitted by many sources such as geogenic materials, resuspension of soil dust, construction activities, traffic, oil combustion, incineration of waste and other industrial activities (Swaine, 2000). ...
Article
This study presents for the first time, the results of a one-year measurement campaign on ambient PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm) at an urban site at Zouaghi, in the south of Constantine, Algeria. The main objective of this work was to provide PM10 mass concentrations, a chemical characterization of atmospheric particles and their seasonal variation and to identify the sources of chemical elements in the PM10. To accomplish the goal, enrichment factors (EFs), inter-element correlations, elemental ratios and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for the first time in Constantine. A total of 66 PM samples were collected during a sampling campaign which extended from January 2015 to February 2016. The PM10 samples were analyzed for a total of 48 elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS for major elements and trace elements respectively. Enrichment factor analysis indicated that Pb, Sb, Cd, Bi, As, and Zn were mainly originated from anthropogenic sources. The ratios of Cu/Sb, Ca/Al, Zn/Pb, La/Ce and V/ Ni were calculated and compared to those being reported in previous studies. A significantly higher Ca/Al ratio was dominant indicating the influence of construction dust, while a low Zn/Pb ratio was the consequence of high Pb concentrations resulting from the use of leaded gasoline. Principal component analysis allowed to identify four main groups of sources: crustal aerosol for Al, Fe, Ti, Li, Mg, Ba, Sr and rare earth elements (REEs) (47%), soil and road resuspension for Cr, As, S, P, V, Ca, Zn, Sn, Nb, K, Mg, Ba, Sr and Li (27%), traffic emission for Pb and Be (8%), and a metallurgical source for Cd and W (6%). The results of the source apportionment analysis indicate that natural dust originating from Saharan dust outbreaks (SDOs) and resuspended dust are the main sources of elements in PM10 in Constantine.
... Coal waste can contain many trace elements, e.g., Hg, As, Pb, Se, Mo, V, B, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cd, Co, Sn, and Be. Variations in trace-element occurrence reflect differences in the transformation and behavior of mineral phases during combustion (Frandsen et al., 1994;Swaine, 2000;Vassilev et al., 2001;Zhang et al., 2004;Reddy et al., 2005;Adaikpoh et al., 2005;Smołka-Danielowska, 2006;Yu et al., 2007;Zhao et al., 2008bZhao et al., , 2013Chen et al., 2013;Zhou et al., 2014aZhou et al., , 2014bCiesielczuk et al., 2014;Liang et al., 2016). Commonly heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Hg) occurred in surface soils polluted by coal-mining in China (Hongxia et al., 2004;Wenjun et al., 2013;Niu et al., 2015;Shangguan et al., 2016;Linhua and Songbao, 2019). ...
Article
This study provides potential insight between self-heating coal-waste dumps and related environmental pollution in southern Poland. Samples collected from dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin were used to quantify released contents of organic- and inorganic pollutants, i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and trace elements (Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni, Hg, As). Elevated Hg concentrations (~100-1078 mg/kg) and Pb (~600-2000 mg/kg) attest to the evaporation of these metals from deeper parts of the dumps. The acidic pH levels (3.0 – 4.5) may help to mobilize these elements. Pearson’s correlation coefficients for samples analyzed by AAS and ICP-MS indicate a similar origin for Cd, Zn, and As. Mostly 2- and 3-ring PAHs, especially anthracene in burnt soil, dominate in the samples. Chlorinated PAHs, thiophenol, pyridines, quinolines (and derivatives) in thermally-altered samples, and waste containing pyrolytic bitumen indicate coking conditions. The high levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd, and chlorinated PAHs and nitrogen heterocycles formed or enriched during self-heating in these dumps should be deemed a significant environmental hazard. Calculating the lifetime cancer risks due to PAHs and heavy metals accumulations in the dumps are substantial, and access to these dumps should be prohibited.
... Coal contains many potentially toxic trace elements. According to numerous reports including the U.S. National Resources Commission (1980), the U.S. Congress Clean Air Act Amendment (1990), Clarke and Sloss (1992), Finkelman (1995), Swaine (1990Swaine ( , 1995Swaine ( , 2000, Zhao et al. (1997) and Ren et al. (1999), trace elements in coal have been classified as hazardous according to the degree of toxicity. Although many formal definitions of ''hazardous'' have been issued, most of them refer to potentially toxic elements such as Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Hg and Pb (Feng et al. 2019). ...
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Based on analysis of a large data set and supplementary sampling and analysis for hazardous trace elements in coal samples from the Huainan Coalfield, a generalized contrast-weighted scale index method was used to establish a model to evaluate the grade of coal cleanliness and its regional distribution in the main coal seam (No. 13-1) The results showed that: (1) The contents of Cr, Mn and Ni in the coal seam are relatively high and the average values are greater than 20 μg/g. The contents of Se and Hg are at a high level while most other trace elements are at normal levels. (2) The cleanliness grade of the coal seam is mainly grade III–IV, which corresponds to a relatively good-medium coal cleanliness grade. However, some parts of the seam are at grade V (relatively poor coal cleanliness). (3) Coal of relatively good cleanliness grade (grade III) is distributed mainly in the regions corresponding to the Zhuji-Dingji-Gubei coal mines and in the eastern periphery of the Panji coal mine. Coal of medium cleanliness (grade IV) is distributed mainly in the regions of the Panji-Xiejiaji and Kouzidong coalmines. Relatively poor grade coal (grade V) is distributed in the southwest regions of the coalfield and the contents of Cr, As and Hg in coal collected from the relatively poor coal cleanliness regions often exceed the regulatory standards for the maximum concentration limits.
... For example, Nádudvari (2014) used Landsat to study five natural combustion zones in Polish coal estates, and the results showed that external environmental temperatures significantly affected the natural combustion of coal estates in these areas. Previously, Swaine et al. (Swaine 2000) has hypothesized that 26 trace elements in coal would lead to potential environmental impacts (As, Cr, Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, B, Mn, Ni, Cu, V, Zn, Co, Sn, and others). ...
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In this study, an experimental model about the coal gangue stockpiles in semi-open storage was developed. According to the model’s requirements, the corresponding coal gangues were piled up in the factory building, the heat source and collection points were arranged, and the four operating temperatures were selected from 70 to 350 °C for heating. A series of fire experiments concerning the temperature distributions of the coal gangue piles were conducted systematically. The spontaneous combustion tendency of coal gangue samples under kinds of the four heat sources was analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermal gravity analysis, and differential thermal gravity (TG-DTG). Under the action of thermal damage, the surface of micropores in coal gangue becomes rough. Heat accumulation is, in nature, most likely to occur near 0.1~0.4 m away from the heat source of coal pile. Simultaneously, on each of the measured flat layers, the greater the horizontal distance from the heat source is, the lower the heated temperature of gangues is, and the lower the temperature change rate is, indicating that the horizontal heat conduction is also gradually weakened. The experimental model provides an empirical basis for studying the distribution of temperature field in the depth of gangue pile and kinetics reaction mechanism of spontaneous combustion.
... The prevalence of Sr and Ba in the studied coals could be linked to dolomite, calcite, or phosphate [103,104]. Trace elements such as V, Cr, Ni, Mo, and U could be associated with organic matter and clay minerals in coal [105,106]. The Zn content in coal could be due to sphalerite or clay-based minerals [4]. ...
Article
The rare earth elements (REE) possess a beneficial combination of chemical and physical properties, making them valuable for most advanced branches of engineering and technology. Alternative sources of REE are desirable due to limited reserves of conventional REE containing minerals over the world combined with disproportionate supply over demand in the commodity markets. This study investigated the occurrence of REE and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Cretaceous Nigerian coals for prospective industrial applications. Results show that the coals' crystalline mineral matter comprises quartz, kaolinite, and illite with minor quantities of feldspar, hematite, magnetite, calcite, dolomite, which indicate detrital mineral origins. Elemental relationships (such as Al 2 O 3 /TiO 2 , Cr/Th vs. Sc/Th, and Co/Th vs. La/Sc) suggest sediment-source regions with mafic, intermediate or felsic compositions. REE are either strongly fractionated or characterized by light-enrichment along with outlook coefficient (Coutl) values that suggest the coals are prospective substitute sources for REE and yttrium (REY) recovery. Several minerals including jarosite, goethite, epsomite, ferrohexahydrite, natrojarosite, rozenite, and gypsum were detected in trace amounts. REE mineral phases were not identified but only amorphous phases containing Ce, La, Nd, Th, Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Hf. Maceral composition (high vitrinite), presence of iron-containing minerals (hematite and magnetite), high carbon contents, reduced volatile matter and low ash content favoured the formation of naturally occurring multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) structures in Maiganga (MGA) coal. Hence, the present study is the first scientific report on the naturally occurring REEs and MWC nanophases in Cretaceous coals from the Benue Trough.
... In this work, LIBS was used for the elemental analysis of the tsunami impacted soil samples taken from several regions in Aceh, a place in Indonesia severely destroyed by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Although, it is quite important to analyse elemental soil composition after tsunami in agricultural and environmental point of view (Ban˜uelos and Ajwa, 1999;Sahuquillo et al., 2003;Swaine, 2000), in this work, as a first attempt, we restricted our focus mainly on three elements, namely terrestrial markers (Ti, Fe) and carbonate marker (Mg), and we continue working on other elements and will be reported in future. In agricultural perspective, the co-existence of titanium and iron in soil in the right proportion is very beneficial as these two elements have synergistic role to play. ...
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In this work, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of the soil samples collected from Aceh, a place in Indonesia worst affected by 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. In the LIBS experimental system, a high energy pulsed laser beam was focused on the tsunami affected soil samples and the atomic emission lines, originating from the laser induced plasma were recorded using locally developed laser induced breakdown spectrometer. Our results show that the concentrations of many elements especially terrestrial markers, namely titanium, iron, and carbonate marker such as magnesium, are higher in the tsunami-affected samples than that in the unaffected samples collected from the same neighborhood. The quantification of Ti, Fe and Mg were carried out using Ti II 334.94, Fe I 438.35, and Mg I 277.98 nm atomic transition lines respectively by drawing the calibration curve by preparing the samples of known concentrations in unaffected soil matrix. In order to ensure accurate quantification, the local thermal equilibrium of the laser-induced plasma was verified using Mc Writher criterion, for which the plasma temperature was estimated using linearized Boltzmann plot for six iron atomic transition lines and the electron number density in the plasma was estimated using Stark broadened Fe I 540.4 nm atomic lines. The estimated temperature and electron number density of the laser induced plasma are 9642 K and 3.5× 10¹⁶ cm⁻³ respectively. The concentrations of Ti, Fe and Mg in tsunami unaffected soil are 0.09, 3.2 and 0.02 w/w% and in tsunami affected soil are 0.14, 7.9 and 0.048 w/w% respectively. These values are in good agreement with XRF data. The advantage of using LIBS for the elemental analysis is that the sample can be analyzed in its pristine form without any need cumbersome sample preparation method, which has the risk of bringing in external additives through chemicals used for the sample preparation. Other advantages of LIBS technique are that the analysis can be in situ and can be carried out remotely.
... Therefore, more complex and detailed environmental research i.e. radioactivity, emitted gases and enrichments of other trace elements in the dump surface: Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Ni, Co, Mn, Fe, As, U, Th, Sr, Cd, Sb, Bi, V, Ca, P, La, Cr, Mg, Ba, Ti, Al, Na, K, W, Sc, Tl, S, Ga, Se were carried out for these types of coal waste dumps in the USCB. It is important to note that coal waste can contain many trace elements (e.g., Hg, As, Pb, Se, Mo, V, B, Cu, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, Cd, Co) and their occurrences and concentrations reflect differences in the transformation and behavior of mineral phases during combustion (Frandsen et al., 1994;Swaine, 2000;Vassilev et al., 2001;Zhang et al., 2004;Reddy et al., 2005;Adaikpoh et al., 2005;Smołka--Danielowska, 2006). These elements, bound in coal (associated with silicates like clays, carbonates, sulfides, oxides, and phosphates), are mobilized during coal burning or self-heating dumps and may be released either associated with particles or as vapors, especially the chalcophile elements associated with sulfide minerals of As, Se, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg, and Mo (Raask, 1985;Swaine, 1994;Monterroso and Macias, 1998;Lachas et al., 1999;Aydin et al., 2013;Zhou et al., 2014a;Nádudvari et al., 2021). ...
Article
This study aims to provide numerous environmental research approaches to understand the formation of mineral and organic mercury compounds in self-heating coal waste dumps of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB). The results are combined with environmental and health risk assessments. The mineralogy comprised accessory minerals in the fine fraction of thermally affected waste, i.e., Hg sulfides, most likely cinnabar or metacinnabar. Moreover, other metals, e.g., Pb, Zn and Cu, were found as sulfide forms. Apart from Hg, the ICP-ES/MS data confirmed the high content of Mn, Zn, Pb, Hg, Cr and Ba in these wastes. The high concentration of available Hg resulted in elevated MeHg concentrations in the dumps. There were no correlations or trends between MeHg concentrations and elemental Hg, TS, TOC, and pH. Furthermore, we did not detect microbial genes responsible for Hg methylation. The organic compounds identified in waste and emitted gases, such as organic acids, or free methyl radicals, common in such burn environments, could be responsible for the formation of MeHg. The concentration levels of gases, e.g., benzene, formaldehyde, NH3, emitted by the vents, reached or surpassed acceptable levels numerous times. The potential ecological and human health risks of these dumps were moderate to very high due to the significant influence of the high Hg concentrations.
... Different metals come from different parts of automobiles like Zn comes from rubber tires; Cu comes from brake linings, Mn from moving metal parts, and gasoline products. Other auto-body refinishing activities like soldering, engine oils, brake fluids, metal corrosion, battery parts, and dumping of unsegregated waste are also contributors to heavy metals in the surrounding (Eludoyin and Ogbe, 2017) (Swaine, 2000). ...
Article
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The vehicular industry is looking for continuous challenges to develop the sustainability of its manufacturing, maintenance processes, and vehicle emissions due to marketability, environmental, economic, and policy concerns. The present study focuses on the impact of these processes on the environment. In Pakistan, most of the auto-body refinishing processes are carried out in an open atmosphere. The shades of Azadirachta indica (Neem Tree) are generally used for the outdoor practice of scrapping, grinding, and painting in auto-body refinishing shops of Pakistan. Azadirachta indica leaves were selected as bio-indicator. For the present work, 26 affected sites and 10 control sites were selected from Karachi city, which is the financial hub and biggest city of Pakistan. Concentrations of different metals (Fe, Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A geographic information system (GIS) is used to present the variation in concentrations within Karachi city. The only positive correlation was observed in Pb and Mn (0.750). Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to identify the anthropogenic effect between auto-body refinishing areas and control areas.Almost all analyzed metals show higher concentration at affected sites but Pb (87.14 mg/kg), Mn (46.47 mg/kg) and Fe (146.95 mg/kg) were leading the values, as compared to their concentration at control sites, Pb (48.83 mg/kg), Mn (15.23 mg/kg) and Fe (43.07 mg/kg). All analyzed metals are frequently present in different color pigments, whereas Pb, Mn, and Fe may also come from other sources, like the anti-knocking agent, vehicular exhaust, and scraping of car surface.
... Alguns metais já identificados nos subprodutos do carvão (KRONBERG et al., 1981;MARTINS et al., 1982;SWAINE, 2000;PIRES et al., 2001;DELGADO et al., 2013) são nutrientes essenciais para todos os organismos vivos, porém, em concentrações elevadas podem tornar-se tóxicos. O flúor, por exemplo, é volatilizado durante a queima do carvão e expelido para a atmosfera, podendo ser encontrado, frequentemente, em concentrações superiores a 100 ppm (KRONBERG et al., 1981). ...
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of atmospheric dust and emissions from the coal combustion in a thermal power plant (TPP) in beef cattle as biomonitor, using the dental changes as indicator of environmental pollution. To this end, five production units (EAs) in the southern region of the country (four located in area under influence of plant and outside the perimeter of influence thereof) were followed for four years. The mottling index (dental lesions compatible with chronic intoxication fluorine) was determined at 594 beef cattle incisors. It was observed that animals raised in the region under the influence of the plant showed 3.9 times more likely to mottling high rates towards animals taking place outside this area also interaction between AEs and time. The results point to environmental interference in the presentation and increased severity of dental lesions in cattle, and the proximity to the source of pollution is a risk factor. However, the multifactorial dynamics of dental injuries and the build system used in part of the units studied can bring bias to the results. Thus, considering the presence of other pollution sources in the region and the existence of other causal factors to dental injuries, more studies are needed to understand the assessments of the dental changes.
... Quantification of minor and trace elements in Coal are necessary to understand their environmental impact. Several trace elements can cause adverse effects on the health of the people working in thermal power plants or those living near Coal deposits or mines [39,40]. Thus, it is necessary for CQC of coal from safety point of view [41]. ...
Article
The k0-NAA method has been standardized by characterizing the G4 irradiation position of the upgraded Apsara (Apsara-U) reactor. The sub-cadmium to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and epithermal neutron flux shape factor (α) were determined taking dual (¹⁹⁷Au and ⁹⁴Zr), triple (¹⁹⁷Au, ⁹⁴Zr and ⁹⁶Zr) and multi (¹⁹⁷Au, ⁵⁹Co, ⁶⁴Zn, ⁶⁸Zn, ⁹⁶Zr and ⁹⁴Zr) flux monitors using Cadmium ratio method. The value of f was found to be 19.94 ± 1.02 with average value of α as -0.027 ± 0.004. The method was validated by analyzing SMELS-II (synthetic multielemental standards) and geological certified reference material (Andesite, AGV-1), wherein results are in good agreement with certified or recommended values. The k0-based NAA method was applied for chemical characterization of pure Iron metal and coal samples. The results obtained were further compared with ICP-OES analysis and the values are found to be in good agreement (t <tcritical) for all the elements determined. F-test was also performed in order to show the reliability of the results in terms of standard deviations.
... [16,[26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. Partitioning behavior of harmful trace elements during processing and utilization of coals [35], such as preparation [11,[36][37][38][39][40], combustion [41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52], and gasification [53][54][55][56][57], has been reported. ...
Article
Partitioning behavior of 17 deleterious trace elements in Ge-rich coals during coal combustion was studied in a bench-scale combustion apparatus in a laboratory and in full-scale combustion in a coal-fired power plant. Methods used in this study include spectrophotometry, tube furnace combustion, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and statistical evaluation. A comparison of the results obtained at these two scales and of the factors affecting their volatilization behavior during combustion are discussed. These seventeen trace elements tend to be volatilized more completely during combustion in coal-fired power plant than in a laboratory-scale combustion environment due to the differences in operating conditions. The average proportions of elements going into fly ash from feed coals during combustion are positively correlated with the trace element volatilities. Volatilization behavior of trace elements in laboratory-scale combustion involves three stages: initial release (<500 ℃), relative stability (500–1,000 ℃), and secondary release or stability (>1,000 ℃). The seventeen trace elements can be classified into four groups according to their behavior during the above-mentioned stages. Factors affecting behavior of elements in combustion, such as combustion conditions, modes of occurrence, concentrations, and geochemical affinities, are discussed. A new insight into the behavior of potentially deleterious trace elements during combustion is given, which provides further guidance to controlling their emissions.
... Nowadays numbers of agencies (national and international) are operational on diverse power generating schemes around the Thar coal eld in district Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan (J Ali et al. 2015;Imran et al. 2014). Coal restrains more than 80 elements, amongst which > 20 trace elements are harmful (Swaine, 2000). The harmful metals and metalloids can be liberated into the environment through the procedures of mining, transferring, and usage (Finkelman et al., 2002), and thus polluting the surroundings. ...
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In present study, the variation in the concentrations of inorganic As species (penta and trivalent) in ground water of coal mining area (2nd aquifer) and its drain outlet/discharge in a reservoir/gorano dam. The water samples were collected from reservoir at four different sites (RW1, RW2, RW3 and RW4. At site four of reservoir (RW4) the fish farming is also carried out, from where a fish species Tilapia ( Oreochromis mossambicus ) was also collected. The solid phase extraction using titanium dioxide as an adsorbent was applied for the determination of inorganic As. The arsenite (AsIII) was found by an advance extraction method (cloud point extraction) by means of a hydrophobic chelating reagent and the obtained hydrophobic complex was deceived in a surfactant (Triton X-114). Physico-chemical, parameters of all water samples collected from ground water of aquifer 2 of coal mining area (AQ2), drain/discharge outlet (DW) and four sites of reservoir/Gorano dam were carried out. The resulted data indicated that physicochemical parameters (conductivity, total dissolved salt, pH) of all collected samples were surpassed the WHO recommended values for drinking water excluding pH. The different organs (gills, scale, liver and muscles) of O. mossambicus were analyzed for total As. The resulted data designated that accretion of As in various tissues of selected fish species was found in decreasing order as liver > gill > muscles > scale. The bioaccumulation factor was calculated > 28. To evaluate the exposure of As via consuming the fish muscles by people was calculated by daily intake of As (EDI), and found to be significantly higher than the allowable limit (2.1 µg/Kg/day) by food organizations.
... Several studies carried out close to Locations C and E showed the contribution of coalfired power plants to the As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Se contents of water and fly ash samples collected around the region (Baba et al. 2008;Deniz et al. 2014a). The authors pointed out the elevated levels of these elements in Turkish coals, compared to world coals (Swaine 2000;Palmer et al. 2004). Once the Cd level in Location B in the fourth enrichment class, indicating very high enrichment, was excluded, Cd, Pb, Hg, Mn, and Cu levels were found to be in the second Oral intake or skin contact c Groundwater infiltration (dilution factor of 1) in case that transport of pollutants to groundwater and drinking groundwater and third enrichment classes, indicating moderate-tosignificant enrichment of those heavy metals in the soil samples. ...
Article
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The fact that there are no real borders between the biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere means that environmental pollution monitoring studies should not only include one of the environmental spheres. Thus, integrated environmental pollution assessment studies conducted in the biosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere promote the “whole system” approach. In this study, the aim was to determine the pollution in the atmosphere, soil, and plants by taking advantage of the high pollution accumulation characteristics of the mosses. Prevailing wind has the potential to distribute pollutants emitted into the air throughout its path. With this regard, soil, mosses, and atmospheric deposition samples were collected in Çanakkale, Turkey, in two seasons. Concentrations of selected elements were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. The enrichment factor of the selected elements in the soil, moss, and deposition samples was calculated. The highest enrichments were found for Lead in atmospheric deposition, Arsenic in soil, and Mercury in moss samples. Cobalt and chromium accumulated more in mosses than in soil. Elevated arsenic levels found in the samples can pose a great risk for public health and agriculture. The study result showed that the elemental composition of the samples was influenced by the enhanced air plume dispersion of anthropogenic pollution sources along the Northeast-Southwest directions due to wind characteristics in the province. As expected, strong correlations were found among the moss, soil, and atmospheric deposition samples indicating the vital interactions between the environmental components.
Article
The rare earth elements (REE) possess a beneficial combination of chemical and physical properties, making them valuable for most advanced branches of engineering and technology. Alternative sources of REE are desirable due to limited reserves of conventional REE containing minerals over the world combined with disproportionate supply over demand in the commodity markets. This study investigated the occurrence of REE and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in Cretaceous Nigerian coals for prospective industrial applications. Results show that the coals’ crystalline mineral matter comprises quartz, kaolinite, and illite with minor quantities of feldspar, hematite, magnetite, calcite, dolomite, which indicate detrital mineral origins. Elemental relationships (such as Al2O3/TiO2, Cr/Th vs. Sc/Th, and Co/Th vs. La/Sc) suggest sediment-source regions with mafic, intermediate or felsic compositions. REE are either strongly fractionated or characterized by light-enrichment along with outlook coefficient (Coutl) values that suggest the coals are prospective substitute sources for REE and yttrium (REY) recovery. Several minerals including jarosite, goethite, epsomite, ferrohexahydrite, natrojarosite, rozenite, and gypsum were detected in trace amounts. REE mineral phases were not identified but only amorphous phases containing Ce, La, Nd, Th, Pr, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Hf. Maceral composition (high vitrinite), presence of iron-containing minerals (hematite and magnetite), high carbon contents, reduced volatile matter and low ash content favoured the formation of naturally occurring multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) structures in Maiganga (MGA) coal. Hence, the present study is the first scientific report on the naturally occurring REEs and MWC nanophases in Cretaceous coals from the Benue Trough.
Article
This study aimed to determine the influence of ashes produced in the combustion of hard coal and eco-pea coal in individual household furnaces on the air quality in the region under analysis. To achieve this objective, we analysed the chemical and mineral composition of ashes, suspended and respirable dusts with particular attention being paid to phases containing potentially toxic elements (PTE) (As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ni, Ba, Tl, S, Th and U), and sulphur. The research methods used included powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Measurements were taken for PM concentrations, total suspended particulate matter (TSP), gaseous TVOC pollutants (volatile organic compounds) and soot at various altitudes and a mobile laboratory with measuring apparatus placed in the basket of a manned hot-air balloon was used for the analysis. The use of Poland’s unique laboratory allowed us to obtain real-time measurements up to an altitude of 1200 m above sea level. Measurements using unmanned units such as drones do not enable such analyses. The research confirmed that PTE concentrations in ash and its mineral composition are varied. The PM10 and PM2.5 ashes are dominated by sodium chloride, particles containing C, and a substance composed of S + C + O + N + Na. Trace amounts of Pb and Zn sulphides are also present.
Article
Fly ash (FA) stabilized with carbide lime (CL) and sodium chloride (NaCl) can possess excellent mechan-ical properties within a short curing period. However, potential leachability of undesirable chemical con-stituents from FA, CL and their combinations under different proportions, densities, curing temperatures,sodium chloride and curing periods has not been investigated. In this study, acid digestion and waterleaching batch tests were conducted to determine the total and water leachable chemical constituentsin FA and CL. Batch tests results showed that FA could have water leachable concentrations of arsenic(As), chromium (Cr) and selenium (Se) above the drinking water limits, but CL did not contain any leach-able metal concentrations. Furthermore, several series of column leaching tests were conducted withblends of FA, CL and NaCl under different conditions, using deionized water as permeant to assess theleachability of chemical constituents. The results from the column tests showed that the hydraulic con-ductivity (k) varies depending on the blend composition, density and curing conditions. The addition ofNaCl in the mixtures affects the retention capacity of some metals (e.g., Se, Cr, and Al) in the cementitiousmatrix, resulting in higher concentrations of these metals in the leachate. The variation in time and tem-perature of curing, amount of carbide lime, and density influenced the concentration of chromium in thecolumn leach extract. The stabilization/solidification technique allowed the reduction of the release ofheavy metals. https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZYpU3O1E1GLMX
Article
“High-aluminous coal” is an important coal kind and widely distributed in North China in age of Permo-Carboniferous period. To explore their occurrence state, a total of 15 harmful elements (Li, Ga, In, Cd, Cr, Pb, Be, Mn, Zn, Ag, Co, Ni, Cu, Ba and U) in the No.9 coal and No.11 coal collected from Pingshuo mining district were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and scanning electron microscope with energy spectrum (SEM-EDX). The results showed that the content of Li, Ga, In, Pb, Ag and U were all exceed the world hard coal. In view of the result of clustering analysis within trace elements, it was found that Co, Ni, Zn, Cu, Ag and Cr were mainly associated with sulfide minerals due to their common sulfophilic property. Manganese was mainly occurred in carbonate minerals, while Ba, Cd and U were mainly associated with total minerals. In addition, Pb was related to sulfides and Be is mainly distributed in clay minerals. The enrichment of such harmful elements in Pingshuo coal was caused by the combined effect of transgression and input of terrestrial materials in the peat accumulation stage. Li, Ga, In and Ag have reached the harmful grade.
Article
The electronic revolution in recent years points out the importance of rare earth elements (REEs) and trace elements (TEs) in these strategic industries. This study aimed to assess REEs and TEs in black shales from Duwi Formation of two mines, Um Al-Huwaitat and Hamadat, located in the Safaga-Qussier region. The chemical results indicate oxic marine along with warm and humid climate conditions of this sediment deposition. Um Al-Huwaitat Mine was highly enriched with total REEs (average 255.3–325.3 ppm) than Hamadat (average 157–207.4 ppm). Thus, it revealed that the total REEs decreased from Safaga to Qussier direction. The average content of REEs has nearly the same decreasing order of elements; they are arranged in decreasing order: Ce> Y> La> Nd> Sc> Sm and Ce> Y> La> Nd> Sc> Sm for Hamadat and Um El-Huwaitat Mines, respectively. The REEs and TEs concentrations are normalized to the UCC to investigate their distribution patterns. REEs and TEs concentration in the studied samples were higher than UCC, especially Y, Sc, Cs, Co, Zn, Zr, Mo, Cd, Hf, Ta, W, Bi, Se, Br, I, Th and U. The enrichment factor showed that Um Al-Huwaitat black shale is extremely enriched with Y, Cs, Sr, Mo, Cd, W, Bi, Se, I and U; and very high enriched with Ce, Nd, Sc, Co, and Br. La, Sm, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, and Th revealed significant enrichment. Clay minerals, especially montmorillonite, have been the major contributor to the enrichment of shale with REEs and TEs. Such findings point towards shale mineralisation with these elements. The current results shed light on the benefit optimization of ceased phosphorite mines in the study area through using the associated black shale deposits as a source of REEs and TEs.
Article
CaO and Fe2O3 are effective mineral sorbents to inhibit the damage of arsenic and selenium release into the atmospheric environment. Density functional theory (DFT) was applied to explore the adsorption mechanism of different arsenic and selenium species (atom, hydride, oxide and chloride) on CaO and Fe2O3 surfaces. The effect of As4O6 cluster on adsorption behavior of CaO and Fe2O3 surface was also examined. The results show that the O top sites serve as the active sites for arsenic and selenium atom adsorption on the CaO (001) surface. For Fe2O3 (001) surface, the adsorption energy of As atom at the Fe top and O bridge site can reach -381.38 and -439.55 kJ/mol, respectively. The results show that the Fe top site and O bridge site are both effective chemical adsorption sites. CaO and Fe2O3 have also a good performance to adsorb atomic arsenic and selenium under the condition of multi-coverage. In addition, the interactions between two adsorbents and complex arsenic/selenium species are weakened in different degrees, but still belong to the chemical adsorption. The adsorption of As4O6 cluster on the CaO surface is mainly attributed to the interaction between As atoms and O atoms on the CaO surface. While the As4O6 adsorption on the Fe2O3 surface depends on the interaction between O atoms of As4O6 and Fe atoms on the Fe2O3 surface. However, the interactions can both lead to the formation of more stable arsenate, which contributes to the reduction of detrimental arsenic release.
Article
Now the development speed of cities is getting faster and faster, and many cities have reached the stage of urban landscape design. At this stage, the requirements for the urban landscape are mainly in the transmission of information, which can be summarized as the identification of information, the requirements for ideology and readability, which clearly tells urban planners that they need to receive information from the perspective of vision To design the urban landscape. After investigation, it is found that under the current technological development trend, the application of geographic information based on smart mobile terminals has become a development trend and has become one of the research hotspots in the field of geographic information science. With more and more methods of acquiring geographic information, such as smart phones, drones, and remote sensing satellites, a large amount of spatial data is continuously presented at an extremely fast speed. In recent years, the rapid development of the computer hardware manufacturing industry has made great contributions to the performance of embedded devices in improving computing speed and expanding memory. In this high-speed development environment, the fittest will survive, and the inadequate will be eliminated. Under the background of the information age, any new field will face the problem of short life cycle. Although UI also has it, the development of UI still has a long way to go. Therefore, the UI design industry still has great development prospects.
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According to research of the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC by Spanish initials), the Only Plan of Mercury and the Strategic Sector Plan for the elimination the mercury use, a project that studies the occurrence of mercury in the coal in an area of Boyacá is developed as an integral part in the generation of geoscientist knowledge of the subsoil of the national territory. In this context, and in order to establish a baseline of the mercury content in the coals of the area Sogamoso—Tunja and its effect on combustion processes, Characterization and Processing of Minerals and Coals Group carried out 84 samples in front of mines of 16 municipalities of the area, characterizing samples in 24 parameters, physic-chemical and petrographic, obtaining an important input in aspects of: classification, research in combustion, mercury in the combustion cycle, evaluation environmental, social and economic. It includes an analysis of mercury and its relations with the other measured parameters, given its importance in the production of coal energy and the associated environmental impact. The average content of mercury in dried base in analyzed samples is 127 µg/kg. 89% of the coals have values less than 300 µg/kg. According to the results, an acceptable significant direct correlation was identified between the mercury content with Ash, sulfur, pyritic sulfur, and no correlation with chlorine content, which reacts in the combustion.
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the natural radioactivity levels of surface water samples obtained from Van Lake in spring and autumn seasons. For this purpose, the gross alpha and beta radioactivity levels of the samples were measured by using ultra-low level alpha/beta (α/β) counter device. In addition, ICP-OES device was used to determine whether there was heavy metal pollution in the lake or not. Multiple element analyses were performed for Zn, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, and Co in the samples. The results obtained were evaluated by considering the limit values given and the results reached in similar studies. In this study, it was seen that the average gross alpha and beta radioactivity values did not exceed the allowed limit values. It was also seen that the concentrations of heavy metals in water samples obtained did not exceed acceptable concentrations in water according to national and international standards except for Zn.
Article
ABSTRCT It was investigated that toxic metals (cadmium and lead) enhanced in coal gangue soil used for the reclamation of soil, creates adverse impacts on atmosphere. Presently the chemical fractionation of toxic metals in coal, inner and outer coal gangue soil samples of Lakhra coalfield were studied along with the impact on the orchard grass grown on coal gangue soil in a subside land of the coal mining area. The BCR sequential extraction scheme (BCR-SES) was carried out to determine the different chemical profiles of heavy metals in coal and coal gangue soil samples. For comparative purpose time saving conventional single step extraction (CSE) and vortex assisted single step extraction (VSE) schemes based on same working setting used BCR extraction scheme. The all three procedures were validated by a certified soil sample (BCR 483) and standard addition method in real samples. The total Cd and Pb in coal, soil and grass samples were determined prior to oxidize by acid mixture. The separation of each fraction of Cd, and Pb in all types of environmental samples by VSE could be completed in 30–120 s. The extracted Cd and Pb concentrations in reducible fractions by CSE and VSE extraction procedure were 2.5–5% higher than those values gained through BCR-SES. About 71 and 50% of Cd and Pb in coal samples were observed in acid soluble, reducible and oxidizable fraction, respectively, whilst rest of Cd and Pb (29 and 50%) were found in residual phase. The orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) grown on land reclaimed with OSG was analysed, the bioaccumulate Cd and Pb may create adverse impacts on grazing cattle.
Article
Trace elements contamination and accumulation in bottom sediment represents a risk to environment and aquatic biota. Their anthropogenic or natural discharge, extension and cumulation can cause large scale of ecological destructions. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification is capable of leading to toxic level of these chemical substances in fish and other fresh water organisms (benthos, zooplankton), even when the exposure is low. The fish contamination through trophic structure can cause serious consequences to human health. The aim of the manuscript was to assemble and summarize the latest literature on the environmental and the aquatic biota effects of trace element contamination of bottom sediments. The article is also a review of new methods for trace elements elimination and their assessment to impact on aquatic organisms. Based on collected scientific publications in last 20 years the most common and important trace elements in aquatic ecosystem are Chromium, Arsenic, Mercury, Cadmium and Copper. These compounds are dangerous for living organisms and can disrupt their homeostasis as well as a cardiovascular, nervous and digestive system. Nowadays exist many instrumental methods, which are available to determine the trace element concentration such as PMF, INNA, BCR, XRF and bioassay. In searched studies the most preferred and used analyse of trace element concentration in aquatic bottom sediments is bioassay. This biological method is good complement to physical and chemical analyses in procedures of sediment quality assessment. Bioassay method can indicate sensitive response of planktonic organisms to various trace elements and provide information about the real risk to aquatic life.
Article
In the purview of groundwater pollution, a rational exploitation, utilization, protection, and risk assessment of groundwater has become an important means of groundwater management and pollution prevention. Xiashan Economic Zone of Weifang City which is located in the central region of the Shandong Peninsula, China, has been chosen to investigate the risk assessment of pollution by heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cd, and Hg) permeating into groundwater periodically through the soil layers or the vadose zone. This study deals with the risk assessment and forewarning model of groundwater pollution by the use of comprehensive risk index method along with GIS overlay analysis and groundwater pollution forewarning system. Soil samples (n = 988) and water samples (n = 327) from groundwater resources of Xiashan Economic Zone and eight major factors, i.e., runoff factor, overburden strata factor, atmospheric precipitation factor, pollutant source type, pollutant generation quantity, pollutant release possibility, water yield from aquifers, and groundwater conservation district, have been thoroughly studied. Based on data analysis and study, groundwater pollution risk assessment zonation map and groundwater forewarning distribution map were established. The results show that the distribution area accounting for 3.07% of the total area is of medium warning with high risk of pollution. Mainly spread on both banks of the river, the serious warning zone is covering 26.80% of the total area for groundwater, and the groundwater is distressed with a risk of moderate pollution. While the tremendous warning area for groundwater pollution is distributed in over 70.13% of the total area, thus, putting in a state of high-risk pollution. The warning degree of groundwater pollution in typical water source areas was identified, and the possible alarming warning instance can be forecast. Based on the warning degree, the governance protection area and key protection area were divided. The corresponding prevention and control measures were put forward after formulating the prevention and control plan of groundwater pollution based on this kind of study.
Article
The research on the dispersion and speed of environmental pollutants in the air plays an important role, which can help to enhance the impact of environmental pollutants in the surrounding areas on the research city, and carry out accurate evaluation and analysis. This paper studies the judgment of PM2.5 pollution source and VR environmental design index based on various data. In the modern environmental design, the original cultural factors are widely used. In the corresponding environmental design, the traditional culture hidden in the environmental design can be clearly seen through the design. Therefore, in the modern environmental design, we can add some traditional culture through imitation and modification, so as to make the traditional cultural value of environmental art higher. This is not only the work of art that directly characterizes the environment, but also the work of art. This review is an important step in the model building process: parameter estimation and optimization of experimental technology design. The function theorem aims at parameter estimation for finding models and unknown parameters that give the optimal set of experimental data. Optimum design goal is to design experiments to provide a dynamic linear model for subsequent identification, estimation, and/or identifying the maximum information content.
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Coal not only provides affordable and reliable energy worldwide but also produces one of the largest waste streams, coal combustion residuals (CCRs). Combustion of coal produces hazardous gases such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2), as well as particulate matter such as fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization by-products. CCRs can also affect human health and ecosystems through the impacts of contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and radionuclides. The impact of CCRs can be direct through exposure to contaminants in the air, surface water, and groundwater. Indirect impacts are through contamination of soil by coal ash due to inappropriate storage conditions of coal ash impoundments and/or extreme spill events and subsequent inclusion into the food chain. The multitude of ways that coal-fired power plants can impact the environment and human health make CCRs and their storage a global issue.
Article
Coal gangue spontaneous combustion produces toxic and harmful gases. This research aims to study a new type of polymer nanocomposite inhibitor to prevent and control coal gangue spontaneous combustion. Nanomodification of montmorillonite (MMT) was carried out on high polymer emulsion inhibitor polyacrylamide (PAM) to improve its thermal stability and overcome the short inhibition duration problem. First, through scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy‐dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and proximate analysis experiments, it was found that the coal gangue in the Yangquan mining area was prone to spontaneous combustion. Then, PAM/MMT was produced by an intercalation method. The results of X‐ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed that the interval spacing of MMT increased, which was sufficient for the insertion of acrylamide monomer. The vitrification temperatures of PAM and PAM/MMT prove that PAM/MMT exhibited higher thermal stability. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) experiments indicated that the PAM/MMT composite inhibitor agent effectively inhibited the oxidative activity of reactive groups on the coal gangue surface. As a result, PAM/MMT could suppress coal gangue oxidative spontaneous combustion, so as to reduce environmental problems caused by coal gangue spontaneous combustion. Furthermore, a spraying process is designed for the application of the inhibitor.
Article
To elucidate the environmental geochemistry characteristics of groundwater in Huainan Coalfield, the largest coalfield in southern China, 59 groundwater samples from 12 locations were collected and measured for 18 heavy metals (Li, V, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Co, Cr, Fe, Ba, Al, Be, Ti, Sr, Mo, and As), pH, and 7 ions (K⁺, Na⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Cl–, SO42–, and HCO3–). The Fe and Mn contents of most water samples were within class III of the People’s Republic of China Quality Standard for Groundwater. The Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, and Ba contents were assessed by the fuzzy mathematical method, and their levels in the groundwater were within class II. pH was negatively correlated with 11 heavy metals (Li, V, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Mn, Cr, Ba, and Sr) and positively correlated with Al, Ti, and Co. The ranking of uptake rates affected by pH was Al > Ba > Ti > Si > Li > Mn. The Li content was correlated with six ions (Na⁺, Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Cl–, SO42–, and HCO3–), Sr was correlated with the first five ions, and Ba was correlated with the first four ions. Principal component analysis of V, As, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Li, and Zn in the groundwater indicated that they derived from lixiviation of soil and rocks, precipitation, surface runoff, and surface pollution by heavy metals.
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Coal utilisation, especially coal combustion, causes the release of many inorganic elements into the environment. Various pollution control procedures and devices are used by the coal industry to minimise the release of these elements. Selective mining and coal cleaning procedures reduce the amount of the inorganic constituents in coal prior to combustion. Electrostatic precipitators, chemical additives, baghouses, and flue-gas scrubbers reduce particulate and element emissions after combustion.
Article
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Context.— Human neurodevelopmental consequences of exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) from eating fish remain a question of public health concern.Objective.— To study the association between MeHg exposure and the developmental outcomes of children in the Republic of Seychelles at 66 months of age.Design.— A prospective longitudinal cohort study.Participants.— A total of 711 of 779 cohort mother-child pairs initially enrolled in the Seychelles Child Development Study in 1989.Setting.— The Republic of Seychelles, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean where 85% of the population consumes ocean fish daily.Main Outcome Measures.— Prenatal and postnatal MeHg exposure and 6 age-appropriate neurodevelopmental tests: the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, the Preschool Language Scale, the Woodcock-Johnson Applied Problems and Letter and Word Recognition Tests of Achievement, the Bender Gestalt test, and the Child Behavior Checklist.Results.— The mean maternal hair total mercury level was 6.8 ppm and the mean child hair total mercury level at age 66 months was 6.5 ppm. No adverse outcomes at 66 months were associated with either prenatal or postnatal MeHg exposure.Conclusion.— In the population studied, consumption of a diet high in ocean fish appears to pose no threat to developmental outcomes through 66 months of age.
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We examine the general topic of the biogeochemical cycling of trace elements and trace-element environmental concerns in surface coal-mine land reclamation1. Emphasis is placed on research trends and results from the arid and semi-arid regions of North America. We discuss the importance of conducting pre- and post-mining trace element inventories that both anticipate potential reclamation problems and help define possible long-term ‘ecosystem’ stability. Particular emphasis is placed on understanding the source, release and transport mechanisms, and fate of trace elements under various reclamation environments and how this relates to sustainable plant establishment and animal risk factors.
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Trace elements in the atmosphere are mostly associated with particulates, although there may be some in the gaseous phase. There are diverse sources, natural and anthropogenic. Amongst natural sources are the weathering of rocks and soils, volcanism, erosion of metal-rich surface deposits, thermal spring activity, reactions at water surfaces, forest fires, biological methylation and plant growth (Swaine, 1984). Anthropogenic sources include mining operations, smelting and other industrial activities, combustion of wood, oil and coal, waste incineration, agricultural operations, tyre- and engine-wear and cremation (Swaine et al., 1989). Enhanced inputs may occur near sources, but these are diluted by wind action which disperses trace elements long distances, thereby adding to background concentrations.
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Most power stations currently operate wet ash disposal systems. However, this method of ash disposal is being subjected to increasing scrutiny as there is a potential for contamination of surface and groundwaters by trace elements leached from the ash (Carlson and Adriano, 1993). Very high liquid to solid ratios of 10:1 to 20:1 are typically used in ash sluicing systems (Chu et al., 1978). Consequently, large volumes of water containing elements dissolved from the ash are produced. The composition of the water in an ash pond will be determined by the ash itself, by the quality of water used for sluicing, and by the relationship of the ash pond to other components of the power station water circuit (Figure 12.1).
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Concern over potential environmental and health effects of trace elements has grown in recent years. In the United States, the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), of which 12 are elements and their compounds found in coal, usually in trace amounts. These elements are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cl, Cr, Co, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se. In addition to these specific elements, radionuclides are also listed as HAPs; these too are known to occur naturally in coal. Finally, F, in the form of hydrofluoric acid, is listed.
Article
The rapid weathering of an excavated siltstone at Liddell, New South Wales, was investigated. It seems that the pyrite was oxidised by air, water and probably iron-oxidising bacteria to form sulfuric acid which reacted with the carbonate minerals to form gypsum and epsomite. -from Author
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A number of actions have been undertaken within the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) to implement a regional mercury deposition network. This paper describes a field test designed to evaluate a collector design and protocol for implementation within a new Hg network. The collector chosen for evaluation is a “dual-orifice” collector, designed to sample precipitation for mercury and other metals simultaneously. The method chosen for Hg analysis was cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS). The weekly precipitation Hg concentrations range between 4.29 and 17.88 ng ℓ−1, with a volume-weighted mean of 10 ng ℓ−1 comparable to those reported in other ongoing studies in North America and Europe. Calculated deposition flux ranges from 43 to 358 ng m−2 week−1, with a mean of 186 ng m−2 week−1.
Article
Lignite-bearing sediments, including the lignite, lignite overburden, and underclay, were sampled from two beds, the Kinneman Creek and the Beulah-Zap, which are part of the Sentinel Butte Formation of North Dakota. These samples were examined to determine the spatial patterns of elemental distribution within the lignite seam, modes of elemental occurrence, and organic/inorganic affinities of the inorganic constituents. The inorganic constituents within lignites from the Fort Union Region have been classified as being very heterogeneous, which leads some investigators to believe that the study of geochemical relationships is futile. The modes of occurrences of the elements are generally similar from one mine to another within the Fort Union Region lignites. The inorganic matter in the lignites is distributed as adsorbed ions on the organic acid groups, coordinated species, detrital minerals, and authigenic minerals. The distribution of elements is determined by natural processes, and, therefore, is expected to be systematic even though complex. The methods for qualitatively identifying the interrelationships of major, minor, and trace elements include examining the spatial patterns of distribution of elements within a stratigraphic sequence, consideration of results of chemical fractionation procedures, and evaluation of organic/inorganic affinities. The spatial pattern of elemental distribution was correlated with the chemical fractionation behavior, organic/inorganic affinities, and ionic potentials of elements to infer the association or combination of associations an element may have within these coals. 12 references, 4 tables.
Article
The chemical composition of atmospheric particulate matter and rock samples collected on the island of Heimaey after the January 1973 eruption indicates that volcanic activity is a possible source of global significance for particulate material containing elements such as Br, Se, Sb, and Zn. Atmospheric aerosols from such remote areas as the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Pole are found to be highly enriched in these elements.
Article
Relevant published information is reviewed and assessed for the effects of mining and beneficiation on trace elements in coal. In general, the concentrations of those elements associated with mineral matter are decreased to varying degrees depending on coal properties and beneficiation processes. The removal of much of the pyrite in coal means that consideration must be given to pyrite-enriched wastes. The removal of most trace elements by beneficiation is an environmental bonus. Proper control of wastes during mining and beneficiation should overcome potential problems from the mobilisation of trace elements.
Article
Mercury uses in human endeavors will lead to a general, though variable, volatilization of Hg. Current estimates for anthropogenic interferences range from about 50 to 75% of the total annual Hg emissions to the atmosphere. Recent modeling suggests that the present atmospheric Hg burden has increased by a factor of 3 during the last 100 years with a current rate of increase of about 0.6% yr–1 (ca. 0.01ng m–3yr–1). This impact, which is significant, can be examined and assessed empirically. To date, however, atmospheric Hg programs have not employed an experimental design sufficient to account for short time scale atmospheric Hg variations of natural and anthropogenic origin, and to resolve the long term temporal pattern. I am proposing an international research program, AMNET, or Atmospheric Hg Network, to address the important question, Is Hg increasing in the atmosphere? AMNET would examine temporal and spatial variations in atmospheric Hg and assess the influence of natural and anthropogenic sources on the global atmospheric Hg cycle. This program requires international support and cooperation. The experimental design of AMNET would follow the successful Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment Program (ALE), which examined the contemporary temporal changes in the atmospheric concentrations of the freons, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and nitrous oxide. Following the ALE design, AMNET sampling stations would be maintained in both hemispheres and at sites free from strong local pollution sources of Hg (e.g., remote islands). Measurements would be made for a period of three to five years. The precision and accuracy of the Hg0 determinations must be 1%. The accurate resolution of the variability and secular trends in the atmospheric Hg burden can provide: (1) a direct quantitative assessment of the scale to which anthropogenic processes are affecting the natural biogeochemical cycling of Hg; (2) an essential refinement and constraint currently lacking in mass balance models; (3) an enhanced knowledge of the behavior of Hg in the atmosphere, and (4) an accurate data base required for global circulation atmospheric chemical Hg models.
Article
Experimental aspects of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy are described for determining the mode of occurrence of selected trace elements in coal. For elements between calcium and molybdenum in the periodic table, information relating to the mode of occurrence can be deduced from the XAFS spectrum provided the element's concentration exceeds about 5 ppm. This spectroscopic method of determining elemental modes of occurrence complements electron microscope or microprobe methods because it provides information on element forms dispersed in the organic fraction of coal as well as on the mineralogical forms of the element. XAFS spectra for the lithophile elements, Ti, V, Cr and possibly Mn, indicate that these elements can be associated with both the minerals (principally illite) and the macerals in coals of rank up to high volatile bituminous. XAFS data also confirm that Mn, Zn, As and Br, can be largely organically associated in certain coals. XAFS spectra for As, and to a lesser extent, Se show that these elements will oxidize over time, once the coal has been exposed to air.
Article
High precision and low blank contamination were achieved with a Teflon™ dynamic chamber for measuring, soil mercury flux. Using this chamber, background soil mercury flux averaged between 2 and 7 ng m−2 h−1 over forest soil, and between 12 and 45 ng m−2 h−1 over open field soil. Spatial heterogeneity of soil mercury flux at duplicate plots co-located within 2 m was small but significant, differing by 20–50%. Elevated mercury emission over field soil occurred in the presence of direct sunlight at the open field sites. Solar radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture were all significant factors effecting mercury emission from soil. Solar radiation affected the reduction of naturally occurring, inorganic soil mercury compounds to volatile elemental mercury (Hg°). We estimate that background soil accounts for the gross emission of ∼ 109 g yr −1 of Hg° to the atmosphere, with approximately two-thirds of this total from sunlight-exposed soil and the remainder from forest and other shaded-soil ecosystems.
Article
This is partly a review and partly the results of some experimental work. Results for concentrations of trace elements in samples of coal from 9 mines in about 100 km of one seam show the variability in terms of variance ratios, namely, maximum divided by minimum values. The dispersal of trace elements during combustion is dealt with in detail, the stress being on the fate of trace elements in stack emissions and in residues (flyash and bottom ash). Results of a 4 yr investigation of the deposition of trace elements in the environs of an Australian power plant showed decreasing amounts with distance from the stack and variations at different locations with time. In general, the amounts of trace elements collected were mostly less than the amounts contributed by rock weathering, litter decay and fertilisers. Results are given for the use of germanium to indicate the variations in proportions of flyash in deposition. It is proposed that more information should be obtained for trace elements in deposition and for the leachability of residues at particular power plants. A positive approach to environmental aspects of trace elements in coal is espoused and it is considered unlikely that harmful effects should arise from trace elements in coal if proper care is taken.
Article
The airborne emission of some of the inorganic trace elements found in coal is subject to potential regulation as air toxic substances under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). Therefore, reliable information about the concentrations of these elements in coals is important for assessing the necessity and impact of possible regulations. However, much of the published data on trace elements in coals was obtained on geological samples. These data are not pertinent to all commercial coals, particularly the majority of midwestern and eastern bituminous coals, which are cleaned to remove mineral matter and increase heating value prior to use. The purpose of this paper is to present trace element data for eastern and midwestern bituminous coals, provide an estimate of their temporal and geographic variability, and quantify the impact of coal cleaning on the reduction in trace element concentrations. Trace element data are provided for commercial (i.e., as shipped) coals from the Pittsburgh and Illinois #6 seams, and the Central Appalachia region. An analysis of a historical data base (1981-present) shows that the typical trace element concentration variability (percent relative standard deviation (PRSD)) for commercial coal from a single mine was 10–20% over that period. Across a broader geographical region in a single seam, the PRSD increased to 20–50%. A comparison of paired samples of raw and clean coals from eight preparation plants demonstrates that conventional coal cleaning is an effective means to reduce the concentrations of most trace elements. The total concentration of the 11 trace elements listed in the CAAA was reduced in approximately the same proportion as the ash by conventional coal cleaning (about 80% reduction on a mg/MM Btu basis). Trace element reductions are uniform for coals produced from different mines in the same seam.
Article
Rain was sampled near an oil-fired power plant in Oswego, N.Y. under conditions in which the smoke plume was embedded in a low stratus cloud. This plant burns high-sulfur oil (up to 2.8 % sulfur) with MgO added to protect the stack, so it was of interest to investigate the net change in pH under the plume. Closely-spaced rainwater samples were taken from 3 ground level rows perpendicular to the plume at roughly 2, 3 and 4 km from the stack. Analysis showed that the rain was less acidic (by about one half pH unit) under the plume in the first row and comparable to background by the third row. A strong increase in magnesium (3–16 times) and some increase in sulfate was measured under the plume, but no increase in nitrate was seen. Vanadium was found to be a good indicator of plume presence.
Article
The rate-determining step in the oxidation of iron pyrite and the formation of acidity in streams associated with coal and copper mines is the oxidation of ferrous iron. Effective pollution abatement necessitates control ling this reaction.
Modern methods in bituminous coal analysis: trace elements
  • Swaine
Coal analyses, trace elements, and mineral matter
  • H J Gluskoter
  • N F Shimp
  • R R Ruch
Seen in translation by
  • A Georgius
  • De Re
  • Metallica