Presence of a Multidrug-Resistance Mutation in an HIV-2 Variant Infecting a Treatment-Naive Individual in Caio, Guinea Bissau

Medical Research Council Laboratories, Fajara, PO Box 273, Banjul, The Gambia.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 06/2009; 48(12):1790-3. DOI: 10.1086/599107
Source: PubMed


We report the possible transmission of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 2. A 66-year-old woman from rural
Guinea Bissau who had no obvious antiretroviral exposure was found to harbor a variant with the multidrug-resistance mutation
Q151M. Finding this mutation among a drug-naive population presents an important public health issue that needs to be addressed
for treatment to be effective.

Download full-text


Available from: Thushan de Silva
  • Source
    • "HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections were screened for HIV antibodies using combined enzyme-linked immuoabsorbent assay (ELISA) (Abbott Murex HIV 1.2.0 test kit, Murex Diagnostics Ltd, Dartford, UK) and confirmed by a 2 type-specific ELISA and synthetic peptide-based strip method, Pepti-Lav 1-2 (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Marne la Coquette, France) and dilutional assays [46]. CD4 cell count measurement was performed by flow cytometry (Becton-Dickinson, Belgium) and plasma HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral load measurement was done using an in-house viral load assay [47] ALT was measured using Roche Cobas Mira Chemistry Analyzer. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, while both HIV and HBV are endemic in this area. The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV virus in HIV-infected subjects in the Gambia. Plasma samples from HIV infected patients (190 individuals with clinically defined AIDS and 382 individuals without AIDS) were tested retrospectively for the presence of HBV sero-markers and for serum HBV DNA, screened for HCV infection by testing for anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA. HBsAg prevalence in HIV-positive individuals is 12.2%. HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with CD4 count of <200 cells µL⁻¹ have a higher HBV DNA viral load than patients with higher CD4 count (log 4.0 vs. log 2.0 DNA copies/ml, p < 0.05). Males (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) were more likely to be HBsAg positive than female. HCV seroprevalence was 0.9% in HIV-positive individuals. The prevalence of HBsAg carriage in HIV- infected Gambians is similar to that obtained in the general population. However co-infected individuals with reduced CD4 levels, indicative of AIDS had higher prevalence of HBeAg retention and elevated HBV DNA levels compared to non-AIDS patients with higher CD4 count.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2010 · Virology Journal

  • No preview · Article · Sep 1952 · Angiology
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To compare the lymphocyte T CD4+ (CD4) response to combinations of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1, HIV-2 and dually positive patients in West Africa. Collaboration of 12 prospective cohorts of HIV-infected adults followed in Senegal (2), Gambia (1), Mali (2), Benin (1) and Côte d'Ivoire (6). Subjects: Nine thousand, four hundred and eighty-two patients infected by HIV-1 only, 270 by HIV-2 only and 321 dually positive, who initiated an ART. CD4 change over a 12-month period. Observed CD4 cell counts at treatment initiation were similar in the three groups [overall median 155, interquartile range (IQR) 68; 249 cells/microl). In HIV-1 patients, the most common ART regimen was two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI; N = 7714) as well as for dually positive patients (N = 135). HIV-2 patients were most often treated with a protease inhibitor-based regimen (N = 193) but 45 of them were treated with an NNRTI-containing ART. In those treated with a NNRTI-containing regimen, the estimated mean CD4 change between 3 and 12 months was significantly lower in HIV-2 (-41 cells/microl per year) and dually positive patients (+12 cells/microl per year) compared to HIV-1 patients (+69 cells/microl per year, overall P value 0.01). The response in HIV-2 and dually positive patients treated by another regimen (triple NRTIs or protease inhibitor-containing ART) was not significantly different than the response obtained in HIV-1-only patients (all P values >0.30). An optimal CD4 response to ART in West Africa requires determining HIV type prior to initiation of antiretroviral drugs. NNRTIs are the mainstay of first-line ART in West Africa but are not adapted to the treatment of HIV-2 and dually positive patients.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · AIDS (London, England)
Show more