Soluble Epoxide Inhibition Is Protective Against Cerebral Ischemia via Vascular and Neural Protection

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 06/2009; 174(6):2086-95. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.080544
Source: PubMed


Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH), the enzyme responsible for degradation of vasoactive epoxides, protects against cerebral ischemia in rats. However, the molecular and biological mechanisms that confer protection in normotension and hypertension remain unclear. Here we show that 6 weeks of SEH inhibition via 2 mg/day of 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) in spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone (SHRSP) rats protects against cerebral ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion, reducing percent hemispheric infarct and neurodeficit score without decreasing blood pressure. This level of cerebral protection was similar to that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, which significantly lowered blood pressure. SEH inhibition is also protective in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, reducing both hemispheric infarct and neurodeficit score. In SHRSP rats, SEH inhibition reduced wall-to-lumen ratio and collagen deposition and increased cerebral microvessel density, although AUDA did not alter middle cerebral artery structure or microvessel density in WKY rats. An apoptosis mRNA expression microarray of brain tissues from AUDA-treated rats revealed that AUDA modulates gene expression of mediators involved in the regulation of apoptosis in neural tissues of both WKY and SHRSP rats. Hence, we conclude that chronic SEH inhibition protects against cerebral ischemia via vascular protection in SHRSP rats and neural protection in both the SHRSP and WKY rats, indicating that SEH inhibition has broad pharmacological potential for treating ischemic stroke.

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Available from: John D Imig, Dec 21, 2013
    • "Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a key enzyme in the metabolic conversion of EETs into their less active form, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET). Therefore, inhibition of sEH is known to increase systemic levels of EETs and ameliorate the vascular and neural injury induced by cerebral ischemia (Simpkins et al., 2009;Zhang et al., 2007Zhang et al., , 2008). However, little is known about whether the EETs-sEH pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation is known to be involved in epileptogenesis with unclear mechanisms. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) seems to offer anti-inflammatory protection to ischemic brain injury in rodents. Thus, it is hypothesized that sEH inhibition might also affect the neuroinflammatory responses caused by epileptic seizures. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of sEH in neuroinflammation, seizure generation and subsequent epileptogenesis using two mouse models of temporal lobe epilepsy. Experimental epileptic seizures were induced by either pilocarpine or electrical amygdala kindling in both wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice and sEH knockout (sEH KO) mice. The sEH expression in the hippocampus was detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The effects of the sEH hydrolase inhibitors, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) and N-[1-(1-oxopropyl)-4-piperidinyl]-N'-[4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl)-urea (TPPU), and of the genetic deletion of sEH on seizure-induced neuroinflammatory responses and the development of epilepsy were evaluated. In the hippocampus of WT mice, sEH was mainly expressed in astrocytes (GFAP(+)), neurons (NeuN(+)) and scattered microglia (Iba-1(+)) in the regions of CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus. Expression of sEH was significantly increased on day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Administration with sEH inhibitors attenuated the SE-induced up-regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), the degradation of EETs, as well as IκB phosphorylation. Following treatment with AUDA, the frequency and duration of spontaneous motor seizures in the pilocarpine-SE mice were decreased and the seizure-induction threshold of the fully kindled mice was increased. Up-regulation of hippocampal IL-1β and IL-6 was found in both WT and sEH KO mice after successful induction of SE. Notably, sEH KO mice were more susceptible to seizures than WT mice. Seizure related neuroinflammation and ictogenesis were attenuated by pharmacological inhibition of sEH enzymatic activity but not by sEH genetic deletion. Therefore, sEH may play an important role in the generation of epilepsy. Furthermore, the effectiveness of AUDA in terms of anti-inflammatory and anti-ictogenesis properties suggests that it may have clinical therapeutic implication for epilepsy in the future, particularly when treating temporal lobe epilepsy.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Brain Behavior and Immunity
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    • "In the current study, sEH inhibitor was administered before stroke, which has limited value as a stroke therapy, but is ideal for determining the role of sEH in the exacerbation of stroke injury in brains of type 2 diabetic mice, which was the goal of the current study. Based on previous studies in non-diabetic mice, it is possible that sEH inhibitors could also attenuate neurological deficits following stroke [33], and we intend to address this possibility in future studies. Nevertheless, we show that sEH inhibition improves both glycemic status and cerebral perfusion in the ischemic territory in type 2 diabetic mice when administered as a pre-treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a potential target of therapy for ischemic injury. sEH metabolizes neuroprotective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We recently demonstrated that sEH inhibition reduces infarct size after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in type 1 diabetic mice. We hypothesized that inhibition of sEH would protect against ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic mice. Type 2 diabetes was produced by combined high-fat diet, nicotinamide and streptozotocin in male mice. Diabetic and control mice were treated with vehicle or the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB then subjected to 60-min MCAO. Compared to chow-fed mice, high fat diet-fed mice exhibited an upregulation of sEH mRNA and protein in brain, but no differences in brain EETs levels were observed between groups. Type 2 diabetic mice had increased blood glucose levels at baseline and throughout ischemia, decreased laser-Doppler perfusion of the MCA territory after reperfusion, and sustained larger cortical infarcts compared to control mice. t-AUCB decreased fasting glucose levels at baseline and throughout ischemia, improved cortical perfusion after MCAO and significantly reduced infarct size in diabetic mice. We conclude that sEH inhibition, as a preventative treatment, improves glycemic status, post-ischemic reperfusion in the ischemic territory, and stroke outcome in type 2 diabetic mice.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "EETs mediate this protection, as inhibition of CYP epoxygenase (the EET synthesis enzyme) prevents sEH benefits (Zhang et al., 2007, 2008). This protective mechanism increases astrocyte survival (Liu and Alkayed, 2005), elevates antiapoptotic factors (Simpkins et al., 2009) and increases neurovascular coupling (Zhang et al., 2007, 2008). Conversely, 20-HETE is elevated during ischemia (Tanaka et al., 2007), and inhibition of 20-HETE production is also neuroprotective in rodent models (Miyata et al., 2005; Poloyac et al., 2006; Tanaka et al., 2007; Dunn et al., 2008; Renic et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dynamic adjustments to neuronal energy supply in response to synaptic activity are critical for neuronal function. Glial cells known as astrocytes have processes that ensheath most central synapses and express G-protein-coupled neurotransmitter receptors and transporters that respond to neuronal activity. Astrocytes also release substrates for neuronal oxidative phosphorylation and have processes that terminate on the surface of brain arterioles and can influence vascular smooth muscle tone and local blood flow. Membrane receptor or transporter-mediated effects of glutamate represent a convergence point of astrocyte influence on neuronal bioenergetics. Astrocytic glutamate uptake drives glycolysis and subsequent shuttling of lactate from astrocytes to neurons for oxidative metabolism. Astrocytes also convert synaptically reclaimed glutamate to glutamine, which is returned to neurons for glutamate salvage or oxidation. Finally, astrocytes store brain energy currency in the form of glycogen, which can be mobilized to produce lactate for neuronal oxidative phosphorylation in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission. These mechanisms couple synaptically driven astrocytic responses to glutamate with release of energy substrates back to neurons to match demand with supply. In addition, astrocytes directly influence the tone of penetrating brain arterioles in response to glutamatergic neurotransmission, coordinating dynamic regulation of local blood flow. We will describe the role of astrocytes in neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling in detail and discuss, in turn, how astrocyte dysfunction may contribute to neuronal bioenergetic deficit and neurodegeneration. Understanding the role of astrocytes as a hub for neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling mechanisms is a critical underpinning for therapeutic development in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by chronic generalized brain ischemia and brain microvascular dysfunction.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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