Article

In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus

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Abstract

Field evidences have suggested that a natural extract, containing tannins, could be effective against poultry enteric viral infections. Moreover previous studies have shown that vegetable tannins can have antiviral activity against human viruses. Based on this knowledge three different Chestnut (Castanea spp.) wood extracts and one Quebracho (Schinopsis spp.) wood extract, all containing tannins and currently used in the animal feed industry, were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against avian reovirus (ARV) and avian metapneumovirus (AMPV). The MTT assay was used to evaluate the 50% cytotoxic compounds concentration (CC(50)) on Vero cells. The antiviral properties were tested before and after the adsorption of the viruses to Vero cells. Antiviral activities were expressed as IC(50) (concentration required to inhibit 50% of viral cytopathic effect). CC(50)s of tested compounds were > 200 microg/ml. All compounds had an extracellular antiviral effect against both ARV and AMPV with IC(50) values ranging from 25 to 66 microg/ml. Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity (IC(50) 24 microg/ml). These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings.

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... Although they are few, works with avian viruses suggest that natural extracts containing specific tannins could contribute to control viral infections. Lupini et al. (2009) showed that both, chestnut and quebracho wood extracts, have inhibitory effect on avian reovirus (retrovirus) and avian metapneumovirus (paramyxovirus) before virus absorption to cells. In this work the author reports that chestnut and quebracho extracts reduce the extracellular viral activity, proposing that extracellular effect may be due to an interaction between tannins and viral proteins resulting in the inhibition of viral attachment and penetration of the cell membrane, as mention before for other virus. ...
... Although tannins or plant derived extracts demonstrated activity against viral (Lupini et al., 2009), bacterial (Tosi et al., 2013), and protozoal diseases (Cejas et al., 2011), little is known about the mechanisms of these compounds on antimicrobial effects and growth promotion. Some of the explained modes of action for antimicrobials may help to define tannins main mechanism. ...
... If the products are effective and can be acquired in enough quantities to supply the poultry industry requirements, the decisive factor for the successful application will be the cost and it should be at least similar to those of the AGPs. Although numerous products available in market have been proved to be efficient in the field (Graziani et al., 2006;Lupini et al., 2009;Elizondo et al., 2010;Redondo et al., 2013b), many have less clear potential. Chestnut (hydrolizable) and Quebracho (condennsed) tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are being used and cover those needs as well as there is an important number of data supporting their usage. ...
Article
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Antibiotics have been included in the formulation of feed for livestock production for more than 40 years as a strategy to improve feed conversion rates and to reduce costs. The use of antimicrobials as growth-promoting factors (AGP) in sub-therapeutic doses for long periods is particularly favorable for the selection of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. In the last years, global concern about development of antimicrobial resistance and transference of resistance genes from animal to human strains has been rising. Removal of AGP from animal diets involves tremendous pressure on the livestock and poultry farmers, one of the main consequences being a substantial increase in the incidence of infectious diseases with the associated increase in the use of antibiotics for therapy, and concomitantly, economic cost. Therefore, alternatives to AGP are urgently needed. The challenge is to implement new alternatives without affecting the production performances of livestock and avoiding the increase of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Plant extracts and purified derived substances are showing promising results for animal nutrition, either from their efficacy as well as from an economical point of view. Tannins are plant derived compounds that are being successfully used as additives in poultry feed to control diseases and to improve animal performance. Successful use of any of these extracts as feed additives must ensure a product of consistent quality in enough quantity to fulfill the actual requirements of the poultry industry. Chestnut (hydrolysable) and Quebracho (condensed) tannins are probably the most readily available commercial products that are covering those needs. The present report intends to analyze the available data supporting their use.
... Terpenoides and lignoids Anti-SARS [52] 8 ...
... Castanea and Schinopsis species Tannins Anti-ARV and AMPV [52] 9 ...
Article
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The global disease burden caused by viral infection has persuaded scientists to develop novel and more effective antiviral drugs. Synthetic antiviral drugs contain substances other than viruses, which have the ability to offer defensive or therapeutic effects in favor of virus-infected host. Medicinal plants, on the other hand, have proven to be potent sources of antiviral agents with some major advantages over conventional drug therapy due to their broad therapeutic potency and limited side effects. Medicinal plants synthesize and preserve a variety of biochemical products possessing potential therapeutic index, aiding elimination/inhibition of viruses. This mini-review provides an insight into medicinal plants and their metabolites explaining their potential role as major alternatives in the treatment of viral infections.
... Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have verified the activity of tannins against several types of intestinal pathogens including helminthes [97][98][99][100], coccidia [33,36,101], viruses [45,77], and bacteria [102][103][104] with particular interest in Salmonella Typhimurium [44,105,106], Campylobacter jejuni [43], and CP [32,35], which are major diseasecausing or food-borne bacteria in poultry [107]. ...
... 0.01 to 0.15 [45] CP: C. perfringens; BWG: body weight gain; HT: hydrolyzable tannins; CT: condensed tannins; FI: feed intake; FCR: food conversion rate; NE: necrotic enteritis. ...
Article
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Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important concern in poultry industry since it causes economic losses, increased mortality, reduction of bird welfare, and contamination of chicken products for human consumption. For decades, the use of in-feed antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) has been the main strategy to control intestinal pathogens including Clostridium perfringens (CP), the causative agent of NE. However, the use of AGPs in animal diet has been linked to the emergence and transmission of antimicrobial resistance through food-borne microorganisms, which has led to the ban of AGPs in many countries. This scenario has challenged the poultry industry to search for safer alternative products in order to prevent NE. In this context, the utilization of natural plant extracts with antimicrobial properties appears as a promising and feasible tool to control NE in chicken. In this paper, we review the scientific studies analyzing the potential of plant extracts as alternative feed additives to reduce NE in poultry, with focus on two types of plant products that arise as promising candidates: tannins and essential oils. Some of these products showed antimicrobial activity against CP and coccidia in vitro and in vivo and are able to increase productive performance, emulating the bioactive properties of AGPs.
... For this class of compounds recent studies have documented several biological properties which make them suitable not only for use in textiles/dyeing, but also for other applications in cosmetics, medicine, agronomy and phytotherapy (Bhatnagar & Minocha, 2010;Bialonska, Kasimsetty, Schrader, & Ferreira, 2009;Buzzini et al., 2008;Lee, Chen, Liang, & Wang, 2010;Lupini, Cecchinato, Scagliarini, Graziani, & Catelli, 2009;Okuda, 2005). ...
... Radical scavenging, antimicrobial and antiviral activities for HTs contained in chestnut extracts have been investigated (Lupini et al., 2009;Živković et al., 2009). ...
Article
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In the present work, several tannin extracts from myrtle and pomegranate were analyzed and characterized using HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS methods. Both aqueous and hydroalcoholic myrtle leaf extracts were found to be rich in galloyl-glucosides, galloyl-quinic acids, ellagitannins and flavonoids. In these extracts we observed a predominance of galloyl-glucosides and galloyl-quinic derivatives with respect to ellagic derivatives; 87.14% and 12.86%, respectively, average gallic and ellagic derivatives with respect to total tannins content. In pomegranate extracts, substantial differences were found in polyphenol contents between peel and seed extracts with regard to the relative abundance of gallic and ellagic acid derivatives: 28.81% and 71.19%, respectively, as average total gallic and ellagic derivatives in peel extracts; 61.30% and 38.70%, in seed extracts. The antiradical properties were evaluated and compared to those of two commercial extracts of chestnut bark and grape seeds. The collected data could suggest the use of myrtle and pomegranate extracts as nutraceuticals and functional foods for their important antioxidant properties.
... The flowers, fruits, leaves and skins of the sweet chestnut tree from the Fagaceae family, which grows in the Mediterranean region of Europe, have been widely used in folk medicine for treating various respiratory diseases [6,7]. Recent investigations have shown that the extract of the chestnut Castanea sativa possesses antiviral effects and the ability to lower oxidative stress and DNA damage [8,9]. Recent findings suggest that edible mushrooms are efficient antioxidants, possessing a radical scavenging activity whose antioxidant properties are effective in diabetes management [10]. ...
... We described the antioxidant properties of chestnut C. sativa (Cs) and mushroom L. deterrimus (Ld) extracts. Our findings revealed the in vitro effects of the extract on the prevention of lipid peroxidation, and on improved cell viability due to increased DNA protection from oxidative damage in STZ-induced rat pancreatic β-cell death [8]. We also showed that Cs and Ld extracts have the capacity to attenuate the complications observed in the pancreas, liver and kidney in STZ-induced diabetic rats [14,15]. ...
Article
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Diabetes is the most important non-infectious disease affecting 5% of the general population. Different plant and mushroom extracts with hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines. The aim of this study was to study the in vivo effect of extracts obtained from the edible mushroom, Lactarius deterrimus (Ld), and chestnut, Castanea sativa (Cs), on the alleviation of liver damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The extracts were applied, either alone or in combination, for four weeks, starting from the last day of STZ administration. Diabetic rats treated with the extracts exhibited reduced hyperglycemia and lower hepatic oxidative stress. Extract treatment decreased the level of O-linkage of N-acetylglucosamine modified superoxide dismutase, catalase and NF-κB. Masson trichrome staining showed a decrease in collagen fiber deposition in the liver. Immunoblot analysis revealed the activation of the prosurvival Akt kinase after extract application. The obtained results revealed that the hyperglycemiareducing and antioxidant effects of the Ld and Cs extracts suppressed cytotoxic signaling pathways, attenuating the negative effects of diabetes on the liver. The examined extracts are beneficial in the prevention of liver damage and could be considered for prediabetes and diabetes management after a definitive phytochemical description of extract constituents and subsequent evaluation in preclinical and clinical studies. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 451-03-68/2020-14/200007]
... Over the last years, the dietary role of tannins is receiving increas-ing interest as they may reduce the number of gastrointestinal parasites in birds (Marzoni et al., 2005). Multiple reports suggest the efficacy of tannins or plant extracts in the control of zoonotic bacteria (Tosi et al., 2013;Redondo et al., 2014) and animal viruses (Lupini et al., 2009) in gastrointestinal tract. Tannins can have beneficial effects on the digestion when incorporated into animal diets although their primary mode of action is often not sufficiently known to explain the final in vivo effects (Redondo et al., 2014). ...
... After ingestion of the embryonated eggs, these are transported until they reach the duodenum and/or jejunoileum, where they hatch; larvae are released and penetrate the epithelium (Luna-Olivares et al., 2015). From these reasons, the evaluation of immunocom- IgA forms the first line of defence to limit epithelial contact with and penetration by intestinal microbiota and other potentially dangerous antigens (Zhang et al., 2015). ...
Article
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The study examined subpopulations of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, spleen, and jejunum including morphology of that segment in broiler chicken farm after treatment with flubendazole (Flimabend) and natural extract from chestnut wood (Farmatan). A total of 24 forty-day-old Kalimero-Super Master hybrid chickens were divided into 4 groups (n=6): the Fli group received Flimabend per os , 100 mg/g suspension in 1.43 mg of active substance/kg body weight during 7 day of experiment, Far group received Farmatan per os at 0.2 % concentration for 6 hours per day during 5 day (experimental days – from 3 to 7); the Far+Fli group received a combination of doses administered in the same way as for the first two groups; and control –C group with no active substance administration. The results demonstrated mild increase of leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, leucocyte common antigen CD45, IgM+ and IgA+ cells in peripheral blood after administration of Flimabend. Similarly, subpopulations of followed lymphocytes (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, IgM+) were increased in the jejunum after application of that drug. On the other hand, administration of Farmatan revealed opposite effect on determined immunocompetent cells what proves anti-inflammatory effect. Morphology of villi was also negatively influenced by administration of Flimabend. Administration of Farmatan suggests also its preventive administration in chickens. This tanin-containing drug as plant natural product may be used due to its antibacterial activity and as promising alternative to conventional drug with possible antihelminthic effect.
... Alternatively, TCID 50 can be performed using the colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. This assay utilizes 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to yield % values based on colorimetric (Lupini et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and other diseases can be caused by enteric viruses transmitted by fecal-oral route. Human adenoviruses (HAdV), rotavirus A and C (RVA), hepatitis A and E virus (HAV and HEV, respectively), human astroviruses (HAstV), human noroviruses (HuNV) and enteroviruses (EV) are, among the enteric viruses, the most frequently detected in environment samples. These viruses are usually introduced into aquatic environments by human, industrial, or agricultural activities and are widely distributed all over the world. They have the common characteristics to be structurally stable and can also absorb to solid particles and biofilms, thereby protecting themselves from inactivating factors. This revision aimed to present and discuss: i) most relevant enteric viruses for human and animal health; ii) enteric viruses as contaminants and bioindicators in environmental samples; iii) molecular and cell culture methods for enteric virus detection; iv) use of enteric viruses for microbial risk assessment. Impacts of enteric viruses on environment and the potential use as bioindicators of the sanitary security, such as presence and infectivity studies were discussed as development of new tools for disinfection, monitoring, risk modeling and management, among other studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17525/vrrjournal.v20i2.255
... Its leaves were described as a source of natural antioxidants (19). Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses (20). In another study; it was recorded that sweet chestnut wood extract reduced oxidative stress and prevented DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (21). ...
Conference Paper
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In this study, the possibility of using of chestnut (Castanea sativa) sawdust in Pleurotus ostretatus and Pleurotus citrinopileatus cultivation and mixture of Populus nigra and Picea orientalis with Castanea sativa in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation, also bioactivity of these mushrooms were investigated. Castanea sativa, Populus nigra and Picea orientalis sawdust moistened with water until %70-80 and sterilized in an autoclave 121˚C for 1.5 h. P. citrinopileatus was cultivated on C. sativa sawdust. 3 different mixtures (100% C. sativa, 50% P. nigra + 50% C. sativa, 50% P. orientalis + 50% C. sativa) were used for P. ostreatus cultivation. After a successful harvest, total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin contents and antioxidant properties of mushrooms' methanolic extracts were determined. Same analysis was determined for mushrooms substrates. the highest total phenolic content (2.529 ± 0.010 mg GAE/g) was found in P. citrinopileatus cultivated on C. sativa sawdust. Total flavonoid could not determine any mushroom. The highest total tannin (3.691 ± 0.011 CE mg/g) was found in P. ostreatus cultivated on C. sativa sawdust; the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (11.761 ± 0.020 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g) in P. ostreatus cultivated on 50% P. orientalis + 5%0 C. sativa and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (22.922 ± 0.002 mg/mL) in P. ostreatus cultivated on 50% P. nigra + 50% C. sativa, respectively.
... Calliste et al. (2005) described that its leaves as a source of natural antioxidants [3]. Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses [5]. Pasteurization is a partial thermal sterilization process used to destroy specific pathogenic microorganisms. ...
Conference Paper
In mushroom cultivation, one of the most important steps is the pasteurization or sterilization. All raw materials such as various kinds of wood sawdust or agricultural wastes used as substrate medium are required to be pasteurized. During the process, pasteurization liquor is generally dumped without re-cycled. In this study it was investigated that the fungicidal effect of pasteurization liquor of chestnut (Castanea sativa) sawdust, which is particularly rich in tannins, against brown rot fungi “Coniophora puteana”. The wood samples were impregnated with the pasteurization solution in a medium scale impregnation container. The impregnation procedure was applied according to the ASTM D 1413 standard test method. The protective effect of this liquor on Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was considered by means of fungi decay test (EN 113). It was concluded that the pasteurization liquor enhances the durability of Scots pine sapwood.
... Its leaves were described as a source of natural antioxidants (19). Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses (20). In another study; it was recorded that sweet chestnut wood extract reduced oxidative stress and prevented DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (21). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the usage possibilities of some agro-industrial wastes such as; peanut wastes, potatoes farm wastes, walnut and orange tree sawdust in Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation were investigated and total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin content and antioxidant properties of these methanolic mushroom extracts were examined. For the determination of the total phenolic contents, the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure was used. The content of total flavonoid present in the methanolic extracts was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Condensed tannins were determined according to the method by Julkunen-Tıtto. The antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The highest total phenolic content (2.672 ± 0.003 mg GAE/g) was found in mushroom cultivated on walnut sawdust. The highest condensed tannin (1.011 ± 0.088 CE mg/g) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (12.332 ± 0.017 μmol FeSO4.7H2O/g) were observed in the same mushroom extract. The highest total flavonoid and free radical scavenging activity of DPPH were found in extract of mushroom cultivated on potatoes handle. Bioactive properties of P. ostreatus cultivated on walnut tree sawdust were generally exhibited remarkable results.
... But they also have specific biological properties that suggest more targeted uses as antioxidant, radical scavenging and antimicrobial agents [2]. Finally, according to more recent studies, they also have anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, antiviral, and nematostatic properties [3][4][5][6]. Many recent studies on condensed tannins (CTs) and their biological properties have demonstrated that they are able to interact with biological systems by performing antioxidant, antiallergy , anti-hypertensive, antiproliferative, and antimicrobial activities [7,8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sweet Chestnut (Castanea saliva Mill.) wood extracts, rich in Hydrolyzable Tannins (HTs), are traditionally used in the tanning and textile industries, but recent studies suggest additional uses. The aim of this work is the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS characterization of Sweet Chestnut aqueous extracts and fractions obtained through a membrane separation technology system without using other solvents, and the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiradical activities. Total tannins range between 2.7 and 138.4 mM; gallic acid ranges between 6% and 100%; castalagin and vescalagin range between 0% and 40%. Gallic Acid Equivalents, measured with the Folin-Ciocalteu test, range between 0.067 and 56.99g/100g extract weight; ORAC test results for the marketed fractions are 450.4 and 3050 mu mol/g Trolox Equivalents/extract weight. EC50 values, measured with the DPPH test, range between 0.444 and 2.399 mu M. These results suggest a new ecofriendly and economically sustainable method for obtaining chestnut fractions with differentiated, stable and reproducible chemical compositions. Such fractions can be marketed for innovative uses in several sectors.
... Alternatively, TCID 50 can be performed using the colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. This assay utilizes 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to yield % values based on colorimetric (Lupini et al. 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and other diseases can be caused by enteric viruses transmitted by fecal-oral route. Human adenoviruses (HAdV), rotavirus A and C (RVA and RVC, respectively), hepatitis A and E virus (HAV and HEV, respectively), human astroviruses (HAstV), human noroviruses (HuNV) and enteroviruses (EV) are, among the enteric viruses, the most frequently detected in environment samples. These viruses are usually introduced into aquatic environments by human, industrial, or agricultural activities and are widely distributed all over the world. They have the common characteristics to be structurally stable and can also absorb to solid particles and biofilms, thereby protecting themselves from inactivating factors. This revision aimed to present and discuss: i) most relevant enteric viruses for human and animal health; ii) enteric viruses as contaminants and bioindicators in environmental samples; iii) molecular and cell culture methods for enteric virus detection; iv) use of enteric viruses for microbial risk assessment. Impacts of enteric viruses on environment and the potential use as bioindicators of the sanitary security, such as presence and infectivity studies were discussed as development of new tools for disinfection, monitoring, risk modeling and management, among other studies.
... Medicinal plants with strong antiviral activity to treat viral infections in humans and animals have been identified and those containing novel plant-derived antiviral agents with complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action have been studied (Venkateswaran et al., 1987;Hudson, 1990;Thyagarajan et al., 1990;Chattopadhyay and Naik, 2007). Medicinal plants are progressively being explored as appropriate alternative sources for discovery of antiviral agents (Williams, 2001;Jassim and Naji, 2003;Camargo Filho et al., 2008;Lupini et al., 2009;Choi et al., 2009) and more research is ongoing. Natural products, either as standardised plant extracts or pure compounds, comprise substances with diverse chemical structures, providing an unlimited pool of new drug leads , possibly with less toxic effects. ...
Article
Viral infections remain a major threat to humans and animals and there is a crucial need for new antiviral agents especially with the development of resistant viruses. The hexane, dichloromethane, acetone and methanol extracts of six plant species selected for their traditional use against infections were tested for in vitro antiviral activity against canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parainfluenza virus-2 (CPIV-2), feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). All extracts were tested for their cytotoxicity using a colorimetric tetrazolium-based (MTT) assay and were tested for antiviral efficacy at concentrations below CC(50) values on the various cell types used in this study. The antiviral activity of extracts was tested using virucidal and attachment assays. In the virucidal assay, extracts were incubated with virus prior to infection. The most potent inhibition was observed with the acetone and methanol extracts of Podocarpus henkelii against CDV and LSDV, which inhibited replication of the viruses by >75% at 3μg/ml with selectivity index (SI) values ranging between 12 and 45. Excellent activity was also found with the hexane extracts of Plumbago zeylanica and Carissa edulis against CDV, with the extracts reducing viral-induced CPE by 50% and 75% respectively. The hexane extract of C. edulis had moderate activity against FHV-1 with EC(50)<70μg/ml and SI value <2. Only the acetone extract of P. henkelii moderately inhibited replication of LSD virus in the attachment assay, with low activity in other extracts. Of the four extracts with significant antiviral activity, two were prepared from P. henkelii. Therefore, future work will focus on isolating and characterizing the substance(s) responsible for bioactivity in extracts of this species.
... Tannins can be separated into two groups; hydrolyzable and condensed tannins [16] depending on their chemical structure. Previous studies have verified the antimicrobial activity of several tannins against different poultry pathogens [2,12]. In-vitro [7] and in-vivo [29] results suggest that two of the most abundant and common sources of tannins, chestnut (Castanea sativa; hydrolyzable tannins) and quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii, condensed tannins) extracts, are effective to reduce and control infection, particularly in poultry. ...
... Mycophenolic acid has additionally been identified as an anti-reoviral agent, acting as a reversible inhibitor of eukaryotic IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) (40). Another study demonstrated that chestnut and quebracho wood extracts containing tannin show antiviral activity against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus (41). The dipeptide, benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Ala-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-FA-FMK), is a novel potent inhibitor of reovirus pathogenesis and oncolysis in vivo (42). ...
Article
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In this study, we evaluated the anti-reovirus activity of kuraridin isolated from the roots of Sophora flavescens. In particular, we focused on whether this property is attributable to direct inhibition of reovirus attachment and/or inhibition of viral replication with the aid of time-of-addition (pre-treatment, simultaneous treatment, and post-treatment) experiments. No significant antiviral activity of kuraridin was detected in the pre-treatment assay. In the simultaneous assay, the 50% effective inhibitory concentrations (EC50) of kuraridin were 15.3-176.9 μM against human type 1-3 reoviruses (HRV1-3) and Korean porcine reovirus (PRV). Kuraridin completely blocked binding of viral sigma 1 protein to sialic acids at concentrations lower than 82.5 μM in the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Moreover, kuraridin inhibited HRV1-3 and PRV viral replication with EC50 values of 14.0-62.0 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis disclosed strong suppression of reovirus RNA synthesis at the late stage (18 h) of virus replication by kuraridin. The viral yields of kuraridin-treated cells were significantly reduced at 24 h post-infection, compared with DMSO-treated cells. Our results collectively suggest that kuraridin inhibits virus adsorption and replication by inhibiting hemagglutination, viral RNA and protein synthesis and virus shedding, supporting its utility as a viable candidate antiviral drug against reoviruses. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... In vitro studies have shown that natural plant extracts can have antiviral activity against aMPV (Lupini et al., 2009;Kohn et al., 2012). Further studies should be done to isolate the active extracts ingredients, determining their mechanism of action, and to validate the efficacy and evaluate the applicability of the treatment in birds. ...
Chapter
This book "Mononegaviruses of Veterinary Importance", Volume 2 complements the first volume "Mononegaviruses of Veterinary Importance: Pathobiology and Molecular Diagnosis". This book discusses the epidemiology and control of Mononegaviruses that pose a significant threat to animals in terms of severity and epidemiological risk. It also addresses viruses with zoonotic potential, and many that can be used as models in the study of infectious disease. The book is divided into two parts, the first part consists of 11 chapters covering topics on Mononegaviruses of livestock, horses, dogs and cats. Part 2 contains three chapters that focused on Mononegaviruses of rodents, primates, fish and sea mammals.
... (3) GCRV interfering particles: adding virus interfering particles can reduce the infectivity of progeny virus, which further suppress virus proliferation [218]. (4) Medicines such as mycophenolic acid, chestnut, and quebracho woods are proposed to specifically inhibit GCRV [222,223]. ...
Article
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Global fish production from aquaculture has rapidly grown over the past decades, and grass carp shares the largest portion. However, hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) results in tremendous loss of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry. During the past years, development of molecular biology and cellular biology technologies has promoted significant advances in the understanding of the pathogen and the immune system. Immunoprophylaxis based on stimulation of the immune system of fish has also got some achievements. In this review, authors summarize the recent progresses in basic researches on GCRV; viral nucleic acid sensors, high-mobility group box proteins (HMGBs); pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene I-(RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs); antiviral immune responses induced by PRRs-mediated signaling cascades of type I interferon (IFN-I) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) activation. The present review also notices the potential applications of molecule genetic markers. Additionally, authors discuss the current preventive and therapeutic strategies (vaccines, RNAi, and prevention medicine) and highlight the importance of innate immunity in long term control for grass carp hemorrhagic disease.
... Quebracho extract had also evident intracellular anti-ARV activity. These results suggest that these plant extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections (Lupini et al, 2009). Some plants used in traditional medicine against infectious and inflammatory disorders inhibit the production of important inflammatory mediators (Fawole et al. 2009, Siriwatanametanon et al. 2010. ...
Article
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The major part of plants foraged by endangered pampas and marsh deer at the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland belongs to botanical genera containing medicinal species used mainly for healing infectious and inflammatory diseases. In this study, extracts and fractions of 19 plant species from deer diet were in vitro screened against bovine and suid herpesviruses, avian reovirus and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). At non-cytotoxicity concentrations, the extract and/or fractions from 14 plant species presented antiviral activity against at least one of these viruses except IBDV. Cecropia pachystachya, Melochia villosa and Polygonum acuminatum presented the most relevant results against bovine and suid herpesviruses while Andira cuyabensis was the most active plant against avian reovirus. C. pachystachya extract and fractions showed virucide effect, and kept their inhibitory activity towards both herpesviruses independent of the addition time in cell culture. Considering the benefit of the antioxidant activity of food and medicinal plants for the health balance, and its important role in viral infections, the extracts were also screened in a DPPH assay. Our findings show that several plants foraged by pampas and marsh deer possess antiviral activity against some pathogenic viruses for mammals. This study proposed an innovative strategy by adopting plants consumed in the diet of wild non-primate mammals for the search of potentially therapeutic substances.
... The antimicrobial properties (Graziani and Tosi, 2006) of tannins and the resultant beneficial effects on body weight gain and reduction in mortality are documented (Hooge et al., 2012). Furthermore, tannins are suggested to be good candidates in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in ruminants (Min et al., 2005) and broiler chicks (McCann et al., 2006) as well as certain avian virus infections such as avian reovirus and avian metapneumovirus (Lupini et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Beginning in the fall of 2010, an increasing and alarming number of cases of calves suffering from liver dystrophy were reported in the south of Germany. An epidemiological investigation was carried out by the authors between November 2010 and July 2011, leading to the implication of a commercial dietary supplement as the potential cause for this outbreak. The components of this product were first tested in a cell culture model and two of them (dietary chestnut extract and glycerol monolaurate) showed a cytotoxic effect. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding of both components alone or in combination on liver function in newborn calves on a commercial dairy farm. Ten calves were enrolled in each of the three treatment groups and the control group (group O) following a blocked design. Treatment consisted of supplementation with chestnut extract at 0.02% of birth body mass (BM) (group C), supplementation with glycerol monolaurate at 0.006% of BM (group G) or a combined treatment (group CG) for five consecutive days. The effect of treatments on liver function was evaluated clinically and by measurement of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities as well as the determination of the concentrations of glucose, L-lactate and total bilirubin in serum. There was a significant increase in GLDH and AST activities and a significant decrease in glucose concentration in treatment groups C and CG compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.035), whereas no difference was shown for group G. Survival was significantly decreased in groups C (p = 0.029) and CG (p = 0.001) compared with both group G and the control group. These results suggest that dietary chestnut extract in an amount of 0.02% of BM alone or in combination has a toxic effect on liver function in newborn calves.
... Recently, a natural extract from the bark of CSM has been shown to exert antispasmodic action induced by modulation of cholinergic receptors and calcium channels [15]. In addition, the extract has also antiviral effect against different viruses [16]. Furthermore, sweet chestnut wood extract administration reduced oxidative stress induced by high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) intake in young pigs and the formation of toxic products of PUFA oxidation; in addition, it prevented DNA damage in blood lymphocytes [17]. ...
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This work was aimed at evaluating the cardioprotective effects of Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) bark extract characterized in its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The study was performed using primary cultures of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of CSM bark extract and isolated guinea pig left and right atria, left papillary muscle, and aorta to evaluate its direct effect on cholinergic and adrenergic response. In cultured cardiomyocytes the CSM bark extract reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the extract decreased the contraction induced by noradrenaline (1 μ M) in guinea pig aortic strips and induced transient negative chronotropic and positive inotropic effects without involvement of cholinergic or adrenergic receptors in the guinea pig atria. Our results indicate that CSM bark extract exhibits antioxidant activity and might induce cardioprotective effect.
... Alternatively, TCID 50 can be performed using the colorimetric thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay. This assay utilizes 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to yield % values based on colorimetric (Lupini et al. 2009). ...
Article
The presence of rotavirus strains in water samples was investigated by using a generic molecular detection method based on amplification of a VP6 gene fragment. The samples were collected from different treatment steps of traditional water treatment plant (WTP) (Meet Khamees) and two compact units (Shoha and Mahalet Damana) from El-Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt (October 2006 to September 2007) Overall, the percentage of rotavirus positive samples was 50%, 33.3%, and 25% in raw water of Meet Khamees, Shoha, and Mahalet Damana, respectively. Only one time succession of viral removal was observed in both Meet Khamees and Mahalet Damana WTPs while complete failure in viral removal was observed in Shoha WTP. Positive samples were characterized further, and VP7 and VP4 genotypes were determined. Although 15.2% of the positive samples were G untypeable, the distribution of G types in the positive samples was 75% G1, 25% G3. When the P types were examined, 9.3% of the positive samples were untypeable, and the distribution of types in the positive samples was 56.7% P[4], 33.3% P[8], and 10% P[6]. The distribution for strains of rotaviruses was 39.3% P[4]G1, 28.6% P[8]G1, 17.6% P[4]G3, 7.1% P[8]G3, 7.1% P[6]G1.
... Unlike what found for Clostridium spp., the ability of HT to penetrate the cell membrane of Eimeria spp. at different stages of development causing the loss of intracellular components accompanied to a damage of cytoplasm was not demonstrated (Mc Sweeney et al., 2001). Lupini et al. (2009) demonstrated antiviral activities of CE against avian reovirus and avian metapneumovirus replication because in samples containing CE a reduction of the viral cytopathic effect (CPE) was induced about 80%. The evaluation of lesion score, found in this trial, put in evidence that birds classified with score 0 and 1 were absent in the groups treated with less than 5 g/kg of tannin, but were 10 out of 15 in the last group at 25 days ( Table 2). ...
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A hydrolysable tannin extracted from chestnut (SaviotaN®) was tested for efficacy in controlling the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens in the gut of broiler chickens challenged via oral gavage first with coccidia (Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima) at the age of 10 days, and then with Clostridium perfringens at the age of 15 days. We randomly allocated 150 broiler chickens within 5 poultry isolators (30 birds each). Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (C) composed of corn [575 g/kg on dry matter (DM)] and soybean meal (100 g/kg DM), barley bran (220 g/kg DM), corn gluten feed (30 g/kg DM), soybean oil (25 g/kg DM), vitamin mineral premix (49.5 g/kg DM), and four other diets obtained by adding chestnut tannin extract (1.5, 3, 5, and 12 g/kg during week 1, 10.0 g/kg during week 2, and 8.0 g/kg during the last two weeks, respectively) to C. At the age of 20 days, 15 birds/group were euthanised and individually examined for the level of gut infection by counting Clostridium perfringens and macroscopic gut lesions. Results demonstrated that chestnut tannin gave significant results even at low concentration levels in the feed (1.5 to 3.0 g/kg), but was actually efficient in controlling necrotic enteritis at levels ≥5.0 g/kg. The treatment (12.0 g/kg during the first week and 8.0 g/kg during the last two weeks of age) resulted very efficient in controlling the proliferation of Clostridium perfringens and in reducing the severity of gut damage compared to the untreated infected group.
... Its leaves were described as a source of natural antioxidants (19). Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses (20). In another study; it was recorded that sweet chestnut wood extract reduced oxidative stress and prevented DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (21). ...
... In the last decade, some studies investigated sweet chestnut extracts composition and described CSM as a source of phenolic compounds such as tannins, lignan constituents and antioxidant compounds [18,19]. Using Vero cells as a model system, Lupini et al. [20] evaluated the antiviral activity of Chestnut wood extracts used in animal feed preparation and containing hydrolysable tannins, against avian reovirus and avian metapneumovirus. Frankic et al. [21] demonstrated that a commercially available CSM wood extract containing 73% tannins, added to animal feed, reduced oxidative stress biomarkers such as urine isoprostanes and prevented lymphocytes DNA damage in young pig exposed to n-3 PUFA-induced oxidative stress. ...
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Background Chemoprevention represents the possibility to prevent, stop or reverse the cancerogenetic process. In this context the interest towards natural extracts and botanical drugs has constantly grown due to their phytochemical content. Castanea sativa Mill. (CSM) extracts showed to exert positive effect in the prevention/counteraction of chronic/degenerative diseases, therefore, we evaluated the potential chemopreventive effect of CSM bark extract. Methods Flow cytometry (FCM) analyses of Jurkat cells treated with CSM bark extract (0–500 μg·mL⁻¹) for 24–72 h allowed evaluating its cytotoxicity and ability to induce apoptosis through the intrinsic or extrinsic pathways. Moreover, to evaluate CSM bark extract selectivity towards cancer cells, its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effect was also evaluated in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Results CSM bark extract induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner activating the extrinsic pathways as evidenced by the increase of activated caspase-8 positive cells. Moreover, IC50 calculated after 24 h treatment resulted 304 and 128 μg·mL⁻¹ in PBL and Jurkat cells respectively. Conclusions Our data suggest that CSM bark extract might be considered an interesting potential anti-cancer agent, since it induces apoptosis in cancer cells without appreciable cytotoxic effects on non-transformed cells. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1756-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Many studies have been established to explore the inhibitory activities of compounds derived from natural sources and synthetic drugs. Among them, plant derived neuraminidase inhibitors show less activity compared to synthetic drugs (Bantia et al., 2001;Ju et al., 2018;Lupini et al., 2009). Therefore, there is always a dire need for such novel synthetic antiviral agents, that are less compromised by rapid drug resistant viral strains, that are efficient and have minimal side effects as described by Stratton et al., (2015). ...
Article
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The present study focused on the synthesis, In Ovo antiviral evaluation and In silico study of most active antiviral compounds of the azo series. The synthesis of title compounds was done by the coupling reaction of diazonium salt solutions with active methylene (1,3-dioxolane and benzimidazole), to yield [(E)-1-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-phenyldiazene] (A1), [(E)-1-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-(4-methyl-phenyl)diazene] (A2), 2-[(E)-phenyldiazenyl]-1H-benzimidazole] (A3) , [(E)-1-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenyl)diazene] (A4) and [(E)-1-(1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-2-(2-methylphenyl)diazene] (A5). The structures of newly synthesized molecules were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (EI-MS and FT-IR). In Ovo screening of compounds against avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2 strain and Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) Lasota strain was done. The evaluation data suggested that azo compound (A5) exhibited the highest anti-AIV and anti-NDV activity (100% inhibition at 0.1 mg/100 µL) compared to the other azo compounds which showed less activity at given concentrations. Docking study further suggested that azo compound (A5) binds with the active site residues of viral proteins with good binding affinity (-6.9 and-8.0 kcal/mol) compared to the standard oseltamivir due to the substitution of-CH3 group at ortho position on the phenyl ring. Hence, based on this examination, it was concluded that azo compound (A5) may act as a platform for designing more active antiviral agents.
... cyclopium. Antiviral properties were tested by [15] that proved antiviral activity of chestnut extract against avian reovirus and avian metapneumovirus. ...
Chapter
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The use of medicinal plants has grown all over the world. Nowadays the ethnopharmacological applications of medicinal plants are an important matter when it comes to search for new molecules with biological activity. Castanea sativa Mill is a species with great economic value since chestnut trees are an important crop in the northern region of Portugal and new applications of this plant are being developed by the pharmaceutical and food industries. Beyond its economic importance it also has beneficial effects in human health as consequence of their biological activities namely antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, among others. In this work we present a review of the main bioactive compounds that constitute the chestnut extracts, their toxicity and their main biological activities.
... Antiviral properties were tested by [15] that proved antiviral activity of chestnut extract against avian reovirus and avian metapneumovirus. ...
... Calliste et al. (2005) described that its leaves as a source of natural antioxidants [3]. Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses [5]. Pasteurization is a partial thermal sterilization process used to destroy specific pathogenic microorganisms. ...
... These results are in accordance with those obtained by others who observed that chestnut and quebracho extracts were efficient in controlling the proliferation of C. perfringens in vivo and reducing its excretion and the severity of lesions in treated animals with respect to the infected control. 48 Antiviral effects of chestnut and quebracho wood extracts 49 and isolated tannins of chestnut, 50 such as castalagin and vescalagin, were described. Quebracho tannins also exhibited inhibitory effects against parasites, such as helminths 51−53 and coccidia. ...
Article
Wood extracts are one of the most important natural sources of industrially obtained tannins. Their use in the food industry could be one of the biggest (most important) recent innovations in food science due to their multiple (many) possible applications. The use of tannins wood extracts (TWE) as additives directly added in foods or in their packaging meets an ever-increasing consumer demand for innovative approaches to sustainability. The latest research is focusing on new ways to include them directly in food, to take advantage of their specific actions to prevent individual pathological conditions. The present review begins with the biology of TWE and then explores their chemistry, specific sensorial properties and current application in food production. Moreover, this review is intended to cover recent studies dealing with the potential use of TWE as a starting point for novel food ingredients.
... Neuraminidase inhibitors have great potential as sensitive anti-influenza drugs over the adamantanes due to their activity, improved safety profile and highly conserved active pocket in mostly influenza viral strains 13,14 . Many studies have been established to explore the inhibitory activities of compounds derived from natural sources and synthetic drugs [14][15][16] . Among them, plant derived neuraminidase inhibitors show lesser activity compared to the synthetic drugs. ...
... This fact is justified by variations between both techniques, the interference of chemical substances, the culture conditions as well as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltertrazolium bromide intrinsic toxicity (Riss, 2015). Regarding antiviral activity, although an optimum antiviral index is still controversial in the literature (Felipe et al., 2006;Lupini et al., 2009;Kaziyama et al., 2012), L. macrophylla was the most promising species, with VII of 0.75 and IP of 83% ( Table 3 ). Different from antiviral test, by virucidal approach, all plants were active against SuHV-1, being L. macrophylla (IP= 99.7%) and L. undulata (IP= 79%) the most promising ones. ...
Article
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The Lantana L. genus, Verbenaceae, is a pan tropical flowering plant. Three species naturally growing in Mata Atlantica biome were chosen for this study: L.camara, L. macrophylla aand L.undulata. In folk medicine, these species are indicated to treat bronchitis and mucous secretions. Although L. camara is a well-known plant, little is known about L. macrophylla and L. undulata. The objective of this study was to perform chemical analysis, cytotoxic on Vero cells and antiherpesviral activity of three Lantana species. Phytochemical prospection demonstrated the presence of condensed tanins in all of three species; saponins were found only in L. camara and flavonones, flavonols and xantones, flavones and cathechins were seen only in L. undulata. The presence of oleanolic and ursolic acids in L. macrophylla, lantanolic acid in L. camara was suggested by thin layer chromatography technique. The content of condensed tannins was statiscally higher in L. macrophylla and L. undulata compared to L. camara. The cytotoxic effect to 50% of the cell culture (CE 50) and maximal cytotoxic concentration (CMNC) were stablished using tetrazolium technique and morphological evaluation. L. camara (CC 50 =208.4 μg.mL-1 , CMNC=250 μg.mL-1) and L. macrophylla (CC 50 =2851 μg.mL-1 ; CMNC=125 μg.mL-1) were less toxic than L. undulata (CC 50 =5.7 μg.mL-1 ; CMNC=2.5 μg.mL-1), and L. macrophylla showed the best results for antiviral (83%) and virucidal activity (99.7%). Taking together, results demonstrate the biological potential of Lantana species occurring in Mata Atlantica biome with emphasis to antiherpesvirus action. Copyright © 2018, Laís D. Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... Sweet chestnut tree from the Fagaceae family, which grows in the Mediterranean region of Europe, is a known source of phenolic bioactive compounds, in particular of tannins (Sanz et al., 2010). It has been widely used in folk medicine for treating various respiratory diseases and recent studies have shown that the Castanea sativa extract possesses antiviral (Lupini et al., 2009) and antioxidant effect (Frankič and Salobir, 2011;Mujić et al., 2011) as well as the ability to prevent DNA damage (Grdović et al., 2012). Edible and medicinal mushrooms have various biological activities and for centuries have been used in prevention and treatment of various diseases (Lindequist et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The present study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of the treatment with extracts from the edible mushroom Lactarius deterrimus (Ld) and the chestnut Castanea sativa (Cs), separately and in combination (MIX Ld/Cs), on oxidative stress and advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-mediated hepatorenal injury in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes by examining pathways responsible for maintenance of redox homeostasis. An experimental model of diabetes was induced in rats by the administration of 40 mg/kg STZ intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 consecutive days. The examined extracts were applied separately at a dose of 60 mg/kg i.p. and in combination (60 mg/kg each extract; i.p.) for 4 weeks, starting from the last day of STZ administration. The improvement of hepatorenal function in diabetic rats treated with the extracts was associated with an improved glycemic and lipid status and suppression of oxidative stress and thereby oxidative damage of lipids and DNA. Besides the fact that both extracts inhibited protein glycation and AGE formation in vitro, they also reduced non-enzymatic glycosylation in diabetic rats in vivo. The observed antiglycation activity of the examined extracts (separately and in combination) was accompanied with the inhibition of CML-mediated RAGE/NF-κB activation and reduction of enzymatic O-GlcNAcylation in liver and kidney tissues of diabetic rats. Taken together, these results reveal that the administration of chestnut and mushroom extracts, either individually or together, activates a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced hepatorenal injury not only through recovery of the antioxidant defense system of the cell, but also through a marked antiglycation activity.
... Since ancient times, tannins have been used as mordents in textiles, for tanning of leather and to clarify wines. Recent studies reported several biological properties that make them suitable also for more specific applications in agronomy, veterinary, cosmetics, food, medicine and phytotherapy [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. Hydrolyzable tannins, in particular tannic acid, are known for their ability to induce beneficial effects on human health including anti-mutagenic, anticancer and antioxidant activities. ...
Article
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In the present study, the antifungal activities of two commercial tannins-rich dry fractions towards different filamentous fungi of agronomical and food interest were evaluated. In particular, a standardized fraction from sweet chestnut ( Castanea sativa Mill.) wood by-products and a commercial green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) leaf extract were tested at different concentrations (0.1–5.0% and 0.2% w/v respectively). The Sweet Chestnut Wood fraction was produced in an industrial plant through an environmentally and economically sustainable process, involving hot-water extraction and a sequence of membrane filtration steps with different molecular cut-offs for fractionation and concentration of the active principles. The Sweet Chestnut Wood and Green Tea Leaf extracts were characterised via HPLC/DAD/MS quali-quantitative analysis. The first extract showed a polyphenolic content of 20.5% w/w, 100% hydrolysable tannins; the second one showed a polyphenolic content of 87.5% w/w, of which 96.2% epigallocatechin gallate and 3.8% epicatechin gallate. The antifungal activity of the Sweet Chestnut fraction in aqueous solutions was evaluated towards different filamentous fungi, in particular telluric phytopathogens ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici ; Fusarium solani ; Rhizoctonia solani ; Sclerotium rolfsii ) and post harvest pathogens ( Botrytis cinerea , that can also attack field plants; Penicillium digitatum ; Penicillium italicum ), and compared to the activity of Green Tea Leaf extract solutions. The experimental results evidenced, for almost all tested fungi, inhibition of the mycelial growth rate in presence of tannins. The lowest inhibitions were observed for B . cinerea (7.5%, to 28.9%) and P . italicum (53.8% in 5.0% w/v Sweet Chestnut extract substrate). A proportional inhibitory effect to tannin concentration was observed for F . oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and F . solani (from 33.7% to 56.6%), R . solani (from 29.7% to 68.8%) and P . digitatum (64.7% to 87.0%). The highest effect resulted for S . rolfsii , (5.0% to 100%).
... Its leaves were described as a source of natural antioxidants (19). Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses (20). In another study; it was recorded that sweet chestnut wood extract reduced oxidative stress and prevented DNA damage in blood lymphocytes (21). ...
Article
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In this study, the possibility of using of chestnut (Castanea sativa) sawdust in Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostretatus and Pleurotus citrinopileatus) cultivation was investigated. Additionally; Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation on the substrates which was mixed of chestnut with black poplar (Populus nigra) and oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) was performed. Bioactive properties of these mushroom and their growth mediums were also examined. After a successful harvest, total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin contents and antioxidant properties of mushrooms' methanolic extracts were determined. Same analyses were also performed for mushrooms substrates. The highest yield and biological efficiency was observed in P. ostreatus cultivated on 100% Castanea sativa substrate. The highest total phenolic content (2.529±0.010 mg GAE/g) was found in P. citrinopileatus cultivated on C. sativa sawdust and its substrate medium. Total flavonoid could not determine any mushroom. The highest total condensed tannin (3.691±0.011 CE mg/g) content was observed in P. ostreatus cultivated on C. sativa sawdust and its substrate medium; the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (11.761±0.020 µmol FeSO 4 .7H 2 O/g) was seen in P. ostreatus mushroom cultivated on 50% P. orientalis + 50% C. sativa and 100% C. sativa substrate medium. The highest free radical scavenging activity of DPPH was in P. citrinopileatus and 100% C. sativa sawdust and 100% C. sativa substrate medium. ÇEŞİTLİ TALAŞLARDA ÜRETİLEN PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS VE PLEUROTUS CITRINOPILEATUS MANTARLARININ TOPLAM FENOLİK, FLAVONOİD VE TANEN İÇERİKLERİ VE ANTİOKSİDAN ÖZELLİKLERİ Öz Bu çal›flmada Pleurotus ostreatus ve Pleurotus citrinopileatus'un (‹stiridye mantar›/Kay›n mantar›) kestane (Castane asativa) odunu talafl›ndaki üretim olanaklar› üzerinde durulmufltur. Ayr›ca; kestane talafl›n›n; karakavak (Populus nigra) ve do¤u ladini (Picea orientalis) talafllar› ile kar›flt›r›ld›¤› ortamlarda Pleurotus ostreatus üretimi denenmifltir. Üretimlerin ard›ndan elde edilen mantarlar›n ve yetiflme ortamlar›n›n biyoaktif özellikleri araflt›r›lm›flt›r. Baflar›l› bir hasat periyodundan sonra mantarlar›n metanolik eksraktlar› üzerinden toplam fenolik, flavonoid ve kondanse tanen içerikleri ve antioksidan özellikleri belirlenmifltir. Ayn› deneyler mantar subsratlar› için de tekrar edilmifltir. En yüksek verim ve biyolojik etkinlik de¤eri %100 Castanea sativa ortam›nda geliflen P. ostreatus mantar›nda gözlenmifltir. En yüksek fenolik içerik (2.529±0.010 mg GAE/g) C. sativa talafl›nda üretilen P. citrinopileatus mantar›nda ve kendi yetiflme ortam›nda bulunmufltur. Hiç bir mantarda flavonoid içeri¤i tespit edilememifltir. En yüksek kondanse tanen içeri¤i (3.691±0.011 CE mg/g) %100 C. sativa talafl›nda üretilen P. ostreatus'da ve kendi yetiflme substrat›nda; en yüksek demir indirgeyici antioksidan aktivite (11.761±0.020 µmol FeSO 4 .7H 2 O/g) %50 P. orientalis + %50 C. sativa kar›fl›m›nda üretilen P. ostreatus'ta ve %100 C. sativa besin ortam›nda gözlenmifltir. En yüksek DPPH radikali temizleme aktivitesi %100 C. sativa ortam›nda üretilen P. citrinopileatus mantar›nda ve %100 C. sativa besin ortamlar›nda görülmüfltür.
... Calliste et al. (2005) described that its leaves as a source of natural antioxidants [3]. Additionally; an extract obtained from Castanea sativa bark has been shown antiviral effect against various viruses [5]. Pasteurization is a partial thermal sterilization process used to destroy specific pathogenic microorganisms. ...
Article
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In mushroom cultivation, one of the most important steps is the pasteurization or sterilization. Primarily; all raw materials such as various kinds of wood sawdust or agricultural wastes used as substrate medium are required to be pasteurized. During the process, pasteurization liquor is generally dumped without recycled. In this study it was investigated that the fungicidal effect of pasteurization liquor of chestnut (Castanea sativa) s awdust, which is particularly rich in tannins, against brown rot fungi " Coniophora puteana ". The wood samples were impregnated with the pasteu rization solution according to the ASTM D 1413 standard test method. The protective effect of this liquor on Scotch pin e (Pinus sylvestris L.) wood was considered by means of fungi decay test (EN 113). It was concluded that the pasteurization liquor enhanced the decay resistance of Scotch pine sapwood samples compared to the control group. KESTANE (Castanea sativa) TALAŞI PASTORİZASYON SIVISININ ODUN KORUYUCU OLARAK DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ Öz Mantar kültivasyonunda en önemli aşamalardan biri pastörizasyon ya da sterilizasyondur. Öncelikle; her türlü odun talaşı ya da zirai atık gibi substrat ortamı olarak kullanılan bütün hammadde kaynaklarının pastörize edilmesi gerekmektedir. Proses sırasında, pastörizasyon sıvıs ı genelde geri dönüşüme kazandırılmadan atıl bırakılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada özellikle tanen bakımından zengin olan kestane (Castanea sativa) talaşı pastörizasyon sıvısının, Coniophora puteana, esmer çürüklük mantarına karşı fungusidal etkisi araştırılmıştır. Odun örnekleri, pastörizasyon sıvısı ile ASTM D 1413 standart test metoduna göre emprenye edilmiştir. Söz konusu sıvının sarıçam (Pinus sylvestris L.) odunu örnekleri üzerindeki koruyucu etkis i EN113 mantar çürüklük testine göre değerlendirilmiştir. Sonuç olarak; pastörizasyon sıvısı sarıçam diri odunu örneklerinin çürüklük dayanımını kontrole oranla artırmıştır.
... The most direct approaches are the exploitation of vaccines and medicines, of which the viral vaccines have experienced three stages: inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine, recombinant subunit vaccine and DNA vaccine [37][38][39] . And mycophenolic acid, chestnut, and quebracho woods have been confirmed to specifically inhibit GCRV 40,41 . Beyond that, some original antiviral strategies have been proposed to block the virus proliferation, such as RNAi, GCRV interfering particles and protease inhibitor strategies 2,42,43 , or in the other way to improve the antiviral immunity of organism in response to viral invasion, such as the immune adjuvant CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) method 44 . ...
Article
Hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV) has severely threatened the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) cultivation industry. It is noteworthy that the resistance against GCRV infection was reported to be inheritable, and identified at both individual and cellular levels. Therefore, this work was inspired and dedicated to unravel the molecular mechanisms of fate decision post GCRV infection in related immune cells. Foremost, the resistant and susceptible CIK (C. idella kidney) monoclonal cells were established by single cell sorting, subculturing and infection screening successively. RNA-Seq, MeDIP-Seq and small RNA-Seq were carried out with C1 (CIK cells), R2 (resistant cells) and S3 (susceptible cells) groups. It was demonstrated that genome-wide DNA methylation, mRNA and microRNA expression levels in S3 were the highest among three groups. Transcriptome analysis elucidated that pathways associated with antioxidant activity, cell proliferation regulation, apoptosis activity and energy consuming might contribute to the decision of cell fates post infection. And a series of immune-related genes were identified differentially expressed across resistant and susceptible groups, which were negatively modulated by DNA methylation or microRNAs. To conclude, this study systematically uncovered the regulatory mechanism on the resistance from epigenetic perspective and provided potential biomarkers for future studies on resistance breeding.
... Infection with avian orthoreovirus, also known as ARV, causes mainly arthritis and tenosynovitis in poultry. Aqueous extracts of 8 plant species [31,73,74] exhibited antiviral activity against ARV in vitro. BRV are the most common cause of neonatal diarrhea in calves. ...
Article
Viruses have a high mutation rate, and, thus, there is a continual emergence of new antiviral-resistant strains. Therefore, it becomes imperative to explore and develop new antiviral compounds continually. The search for pharmacological substances of plant origin that are effective against animal viruses, which have a high mortality rate or cause large economic losses, has garnered interest in the last few decades. This systematic review compiles 130 plant species that exhibit antiviral activity on 37 different virus species causing serious diseases in animals. The kind of extract, fraction, or compound exhibiting the antiviral activity and the design of the trial were particularly considered for review. The literature revealed details regarding plant species exhibiting antiviral activities against pathogenic animal virus species of the following families–Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, Poxviridae, Nimaviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, and Rhabdoviridae–that cause infections, among others, in poultry, cattle, pigs, horses, shrimps, and fish. Overall, 30 plant species exhibited activity against various influenza viruses, most of them causing avian influenza. Furthermore, 30 plant species were noted to be active against Newcastle disease virus. In addition, regarding the pathogens most frequently investigated, this review provides a compilation of 20 plant species active against bovine herpesvirus, 16 against fowlpox virus, 12 against white spot syndrome virus in marine shrimps, and 10 against suide herpesvirus. Nevertheless, some plant extracts, particularly their compounds, are promising candidates for the development of new antiviral remedies, which are urgently required.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibition of the aqueous extract of seeds (AEs) from Guettarda angelica on cell infection by two avian RNA viruses: avian reovirus (ARV) and metapneumovirus (AMPV). The cytotoxic and antiviral activities were evaluated by MTT assay to determine the 50% cytotoxic (CC50) and inhibitory concentrations (IC50). The selectivity index (SI=CC50/IC50) also carried out. AEs exhibited antiviral activity only against ARV presenting IC50 of 23.59µg/mL. This inhibition was not due to any cytotoxic effect of AEs since the CC50 on Vero cells was of 400.60µg/mL and its SI was of 17.00; this extract also showed a virucidal effect on ARV. Previous studies also demonstrated antiviral activity of AEs extract against three animal herpesviruses. Thus, the seeds from G. angelica showing antiviral activity against DNA and RNA viruses, enveloped and non-enveloped, could be promising source of new antiviral agents encouraging its fractionation to isolate the active compound.
Chapter
Currently, different strategies are proposed in different Countries in order to tackle the food waste valorization: particularly, a scheme addressing, particularly, towards high value products, involve biorefinery as integrated approach of the characterization of collected biowaste. This chapter describes some case‐studies towards sustainable production of value‐added compounds in agro‐industrial wastes, applied on chestnut, soy, olive oil wastewater and Olea europaea L. leaves. The experimental pilot plants are here reported and discussed.
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Consumer demands and increased regulations on the use of antimicrobials in farm animals accentuated the need to develop strategies to replace antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) in food-producing animals. The present study evaluates the productive and gut health outcomes during the implementation of AGPs free programs based on the inclusion of a tannin blend compared with AGPs based program under commercial conditions. In the first trial, 6 farms were randomly assigned to AGP or tannin-based programs. In a second trial, both programs were applied simultaneously in one farm and the results were studied over 1 year. Although productive results from both trials were similar among treatments, evaluations of gut health indicators show improvements in the tannins treated flocks. Frequency and severity of intestinal gross lesions were reduced in jejunum (42% vs 23%; p<0.05 – 1.37 vs. 0.73; p<0.01, respectively) and ileum (25% vs. 10%; p<0.0.5 – 1.05 vs. 0.58; p<0.01) in tannins treated birds. Results from 16S studies, show that cecal microbiota diversity was not differentially affected by AGPs or tannins, but changes in the relative abundance of certain taxa were described, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium groups. Additional evaluations using an in vivo model for C. perfringens necrotic enteritis showed that tannins treated birds had reduced incidence of gross lesions in jejunum (43.75 vs. 74.19%; p<0.01) and ileum (18.75% vs. 45.16%; p<0.05) compared with control. These results suggest that AGPs can be replaced by tannins feed additives, and contribute in the implementation of antimicrobial-free programs in broilers without affecting health or performance.
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There is currently an increasing need for new substances or secondary metabolites from natural products with antiviral activity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral activity of Rhizophora mangle L. against DNA and RNA virus. With this aim, R. mangle aqueous bark extract (RMABE) and its butanolic fraction (BF-RMABE) were evaluated for the cytotoxicity and cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The selectivity index was also calculated. An in vitro antiviral activity was demonstrated for RMABE and BF-RMABE against the RNA prototype of Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) (CI50 83.30 and 86.10 μg/mL, respectively) and the DNA prototype of Bovine Herpes Virus type 1 (BHV-1) (CI50 87.50 and 90.63 μg/mL, respectively). The results showed the promising antiviral effect of the evaluated R. mangle extracts, suggesting the need for further tests to confirm itsin vivo activity.
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Shells of three different chestnut cultivars named as 'Marigoule', 'Maraval' and '52112' ('Vakit Kestanesi') were tested for their antifungal activities against Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus parasiticus. Ethanol extracts were obtained by soxhlet extraction and antifungal activities were determined with three point inoculation method and an automated quantitative assay by absorbance measurement at 595 nm on a microplate reader. Results of the two methods demonstrated that ethanol extracts of 'Marigoule' and 'Maraval' retarded the growth of Aspergillus niger but did not inhibit it completely. None of the three extracts inhibited Penicillium roqueforti according to microplate assay; but on the contrary stimulatory effects of '52112' on the mentioned mould were determined. Contradictory results were obtained from two methods concerning the antifungal effect of three extracts, so further studies are needed for the factors causing variations between two methods and the composition of the chestnut shell extracts to determine the antifungal activity more accurately.
Chapter
Reovirus infections are prevalent worldwide in chickens, turkeys, and other avian species. Viral arthritis is observed primarily in meat-type chickens but can be found in lighter breeds and turkeys. Reoviruses have been isolated from a wide range of disease conditions in commercial chickens other than tenosynovitis. They include respiratory disease, enteric disease, inclusion body hepatitis, hydropericardium, hepatitis in young chicks, generalized disease, blue wing disease, and the runting/malabsorption syndrome. At the same time, they can be isolated easily from the intestines of apparently healthy chickens. Molecular approaches to identification of avian reoviruses in infected tissues have been described by several authors. These included dot-blot hybridization, but now reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has become universally used. Several novel approaches to reovirus vaccination have been reported and have shown varying degrees of promise. These include expressing σC proteins in yeast, alfalfa, and thale grass (Arabidopsis thaliana).
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Introduction Viruses are known to significantly affect global health and are the leading cause of death worldwide as evident from numerous virus epidemics/ pandemics in the present and past. Though there are several antiviral therapies for human health care, only a few of them have significant therapeutic efficacy. The high costs of synthetic antiviral drugs, the rapid emergence of resistance, and the related side effects, are important challenges faced in anti-viral therapies. Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) has a major advantage over modern medicine with their wider therapeutic window and rare side effects. The phytochemicals from the plants have shown strong inhibition of many viral infections. Method In the present study, the TIM plants in the classical codified texts of Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy, Sowa Rigpa (AYUSH) and plant repository of the National Innovation Foundation –India (NIF) database was reviewed to explore plants that have sufficient scientific experimental data demonstrating efficacy against different viruses. Fifteen years of literature presenting different treatment options available for control of viral infections was reviewed. Result It was found that reducing inflammation, enhancing immunity, and disrupting viral infection cycle were useful strategies for combating acute viral infections. In this paper, the authors suggest an integrative strategy of incorporating TIM plants in preventive healthcare that may act as the first line of defence against acute viral infections. Conclusion Development of an effective polyherbal formulation from a combination of potent TLR antagonists (anti-inflammatory), immuno-modulators, antivirals, and herbs that are rich source of micronutrients (especially Vitamin C and Zn) can act as a preventive strategy for a wide range of viral infections.
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AIM: To investigate the mechanism by which tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells. METHODS: The inhibitory activity of tannin on HIV-1 replication and entry was detected by p24 production and HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, respectively. The inhibitory activity on the gp41 six-helix bundle formation was determined by an improved sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Tannins from different sources showed potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 replication, HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, and the gp41 six-helix bundle formation. CONCLUSION: Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells by interfering with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, thus blocking HIV-1 fusion with the target cell
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In longitudinal studies, 13 flocks were swabbed twice each week for the life of the flock (up to 46 days). The swabs were analyzed by type-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. Massachusetts type vaccinal infectious bronchitis virus (IBVs), applied at the hatchery, were usually maximal during the first week, as expected and, notably, remained detectable for 3 to 4 weeks, occasionally longer. IBV of the 793/B type (also known as 4/91 and CR88) was detected in 11/13 flocks (85%). The time of first detection of 793/B varied over several weeks and was sometimes within the first week in low amounts, which increased gradually. In some flocks, detection of 793/B remained intermittent. IBV types D274 and D1466 were each detected once, in the same flock, for short periods, in low amounts, and in the presence of higher amounts of 793/B. In swabs from a further 30 broiler flocks, plus those already mentioned, there was an incidence for 793/B, D274 and D1466 of 79, 10 and 2%, respectively. Avian pneumovirus (APV) (avian or turkey rhinotracheitis virus) vaccines, applied at the hatchery or later, were either not detected or were detected only after a delay of 1 to 3 weeks. In five flocks that received no APV-A vaccine and two flocks that received only APV type A vaccine, field infection by APV type B was detected but only during the last week or so of life. In six flocks that had received an APV-B vaccine, no field APV-B, differentiated from vaccinal APV-B by restriction enzyme analysis, was detected. In swabs from 30 other flocks, the great majority of which had not been vaccinated against APV, the incidence of APV types B and A was 50 and 3%, respectively. The results show (a) that vaccinal IBV can be detected for several weeks, (b) the dominance of the IBV 793/B type and (c) that broiler flocks may be infected simultaneously with several types of IBV.
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Proanthocyanidins from P. contorta leaves and from a commercial quebracho extract were isolated and characterized. Flavonoids, catechins and gallic acid were also identified in the extracts of P. contorta. Compounds were evaluated for their antioxidant properties and for their antiviral activity against an acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 strain. The low molecular weight phenolic derivatives and the proanthocyanidins from P. contorta showed the highest antioxidant activity. Purified proanthocyanidins from both P. contorta and quebracho showed the same maximum non toxic concentrations (25 µg/mL), with 82.2% and 100% of virus inhibition, respectively.
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One-day-old specific-pathogen-free, light hybrid chickens were infected orally with an avian arthrotropic reovirus and examined at intervals from 2 h until 12 days after infection. Entry, primary replication and spread of virus were studied by infectivity assay, immunohistochemical study and electron microscopy in a wide range of tissues. These showed viral entry and primary replication in the epithelium of intestine and bursa of Fabricius within 12 h after oral infection. These were followed by a rapid and pantropic distribution of virus which reached most tissues within 24 to 48 h after infection.
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To investigate the mechanism by which tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells. The inhibitory activity of tannin on HIV-1 replication and entry was detected by p24 production and HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, respectively. The inhibitory activity on the gp41 six-helix bundle formation was determined by an improved sandwich ELISA. Tannins from different sources showed potent inhibitory activity on HIV-1 replication, HIV-1-mediated cell fusion, and the gp41 six-helix bundle formation. Tannin inhibits HIV-1 entry into target cells by interfering with the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, thus blocking HIV-1 fusion with the target cell.
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Orf virus, a member of the Parapoxvirus genus, causes a contagious pustular dermatitis in sheep, goats, and humans. Previous studies have demonstrated the activity of (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine (HPMPC; cidofovir; Vistide) against orf virus in cell culture and humans. We have evaluated a broad range of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) against several orf virus strains in primary lamb keratinocytes (PLKs) and human embryonic lung (HEL) monolayers. HPMPC, (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6- diaminopurine (HPMPDAP), and (R)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propoxy]-2,4-diaminopyrimidine (HPMPO-DAPy) were three of the most active compounds that were subsequently tested in a virus yield assay with PLK and HEL cells by virus titration and DNA quantification. HPMPC, HPMPDAP, and HPMPO-DAPy were evaluated for their activities against orf virus replication in organotypic epithelial raft cultures from differentiated PLK cells. At the highest concentrations (50 and 20 μg/ml), full protection was provided by the three drugs, while at 5 μg/ml, only HPMPDAP and HPMPC offered partial protection. The activities of the three compounds in the raft culture system were confirmed by quantification of infectious virus and viral DNA. These findings provide a rationale for the use of HPMPC and other ANPs in the treatment of orf (contagious ecthyma) in humans and animals.
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During the years 2003–2005, a comparative ethnobotanical field survey was conducted on remedies used in traditional animal healthcare in eight Mediterranean areas. The study sites were selected within the EU-funded RUBIA project, and were as follows: the upper Kelmend Province of Albania; the Capannori area in Eastern Tuscany and the Bagnocavallo area of Romagna, Italy; Cercle de Ouezanne, Morocco; Sierra de Aracena y Picos de Aroche Natural Park in the province of Huelva, Spain; the St. Catherine area of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; Eastern and Western Crete, Greece; the Paphos and Larnaca areas of Cyprus; and the Mitidja area of Algeria. One hundred and thirty-six veterinary preparations and 110 plant taxa were recorded in the survey, with Asteraceae and Lamiaceae being the most quoted botanical families. For certain plant species the survey uncovered veterinary phytotherapeutical indications that were very uncommon, and to our knowledge never recorded before. These include Anabasis articulata (Chenopodiaceae), Cardopatium corymbosum (Asteraceae), Lilium martagon (Liliaceae), Dorycnium rectum (Fabaceae), Oenanthe pimpinelloides (Apiaceae), Origanum floribundum (Lamiaceae), Tuberaria lignosa (Cistaceae), and Dittrichia graveolens (Asteraceae). These phytotherapeutical indications are briefly discussed in this report, taking into account modern phytopharmacology and phytochemistry. The percentage of overall botanical veterinary taxa recorded in all the study areas was extremely low (8%), however when all taxa belonging to the same botanical genus are considered, this portion increases to 17%. Nevertheless, very few plant uses were found to be part of a presumed "Mediterranean" cultural heritage in veterinary practices, which raises critical questions about the concept of Mediterraneanism in ethnobotany and suggests that further discussion is required. Nearly the half of the recorded veterinary plant uses for mammals uncovered in this survey have also been recorded in the same areas in human folk medicine, suggesting a strong link between human and veterinary medical practices, and perhaps also suggesting the adaptive origins of a few medical practices. Since most of the recorded data concern remedies for treating cattle, sheep, goats, and camels, it would be interesting to test a few of the recorded phytotherapeuticals in the future, to see if they are indeed able to improve animal healthcare in breeding environments, or to raise the quality of dairy and meat products in the absence of classical, industrial, veterinary pharmaceuticals.
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Natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. To secure this, a number of pivotal quality standards need to be set at the level of extract processing and primary evaluation in pharmacological screening models. This review provides a number of recommendations that will help to define a more sound 'proof-of-concept' for antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic potential in natural products. An integrated panel of pathogens is proposed for antimicrobial profiling, using accessible standard in vitro experimental procedures, endpoint parameters and efficacy criteria. Primary requirements include: (1) use of reference strains or fully characterized clinical isolates, (2) in vitro models on the whole organism and if possible cell-based, (3) evaluation of selectivity by parallel cytotoxicity testing and/or integrated profiling against unrelated micro-organisms, (4) adequately broad dose range, enabling dose-response curves, (5) stringent endpoint criteria with IC(50)-values generally below 100microug/ml for extracts and below 25microM for pure compounds, (6) proper preparation, storage and in-test processing of extracts, (7) inclusion of appropriate controls in each in vitro test replicate (blanks, infected and reference controls) and (8) follow-up of in vitro activity ('hit'-status) in matching animal models ('lead'-status).
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Ethnomedicinal plants have been used as source of candidate drugs for almost all diseases, but the number of compounds having antiviral activity is scarce. Irrespective of type of viruses and the cells they infect, there are a very few specific viral targets for the natural molecules to interact. Most of the available antiviral drugs often lead to the development of viral resistance coupled with the problem of side effects, recurrence and viral latency. A wide array of ethnomedicinal plants showed high level of antiviral activities and many of them have complementary and overlapping mechanism of action, either inhibiting viral replication, or viral genome synthesis. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop new antivirals of natural origin. This review will cover some of the promising antiviral compounds isolated from ethnomedicinal plants with proven in vitro and some documented in vivo activities, along with their structure activity relationship.
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Currently, feed ingredients containing tannin are attracting more interest as substitutes for antibiotic growth promoters in animal and poultry feeding. This study investigated the influence of a natural extract of chestnut wood (Silvafeed ENC) on broiler digestibility (experiment 1) and on the growth performance, carcass quality, and nitrogen balance of broilers (experiment 2). Results showed that the inclusion of ENC did not influence the apparent digestibility of organic matter, CP, and ether extract. Chick growth performance showed a quadratic or cubic response with increasing levels of ENC. When chicks were fed ENC from 14 to 56 d of age, the ENC had a positive effect on average daily gain in the first 2 wk of addition, whereas this effect was not evident in the last 2 wk compared with the control group. Similar trends were also shown for daily feed intake. Overall, the chicks fed 0.20% ENC had significantly better growth performance than the control group. Carcass analysis showed no gross lesions in organs and no significant differences in thigh and breast composition among groups. Noteworthy is the fact that the ENC-treated groups had less total litter nitrogen; in particular, chicks fed 0.15 and 0.20% ENC showed a significant difference in total litter nitrogen compared with the control group. No significant difference in nitrogen balance was observed. Addition of 0.20% ENC seemed to have a positive influence on chick feeding.
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Among 87 chemically defined tannins and related compounds, several hydrolyzable tannins, but not condensed tannins or other lower molecular weight polyphenols, significantly inhibited both the cytopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the expression of HIV antigen in human lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1)-positive MT-4 cells. The 50% effective concentrations (2.0-4.8 micrograms/ml) of the active compounds were 13- to 15-fold lower than their 50% cytotoxic concentrations. Their anti-HIV activity was demonstrated to be mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of HIV adsorption to the cells.
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Several chemically defined plant extracts were investigated for their antiviral action on herpes simplex virus (HSV-1, HSV-2)-infected African green monkey kidney cells and human adenocarcinoma cells, using a plaque formation assay. Among them, the monomeric hydrolyzable tannins, oligomeric ellagitannins and condensed tannins, having galloyl groups or hexahydroxydiphenoyl groups, had the most potent anti-HSV activity. Their 50% effective doses (0.03-0.1 microgram/ml) were by two-three orders of magnitude lower than their 50% cytotoxic doses (greater than 10 micrograms/ml). On the other hand, gallic acid, neutral polysaccharides, chemically modified (N,N-dimethylaminoethyl-, carboxymethyl-, and sulfated-) glucans, sialic acid-rich glycoproteins, and uronic acid-rich pine cone polysaccharide showed little or no activity. Using radiolabeled virus particles, we demonstrated that the anti-HSV effect of the tannins is due to inhibition of virus adsorption to the cells.
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Specimens from the legs of chickens from 84 outbreaks of suspected tenosynovitis were examined for the presence of viruses by culture in chick embryo lung or liver cell monolayers. All samples were from broilers or broiler breeders, ranging in age from dead-in-shell embryos to 36 weeks old. Twenty-five outbreaks (29.8 per cent) yielded viruses of which 12 were reoviruses alone, 12 adenoviruses alone, and one, a mixture of both types of virus. Rupture of the gastrocnemius tendon was seen in 12 outbreaks and viruses were isolated from six of these: three were reoviruses and three were adenoviruses. Approximately half the affected flocks from which specimens were received were in the six to 14 week age range. With one exception, all the reovirus isolations were made from chickens of 11 weeks or under, while adenovirus isolations showed more scatter with regard to age.
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Using in vitro established tumour cell lines attempts were made to assess the suitability of tetrazolium salt reduction (MTT) assay to replace the conventional radioactive base techniques for measuring cell proliferation and cell killing. The optimum conditions for MTT loading time, concentration of MTT and the time for colour development were found to be 4 h, 5 mg/ml and 30 min respectively, conditions which were used for subsequent experiments. Analysis of the correlation between increasing cell numbers and optical densities (OD) showed a direct relationship with correlation of coefficient values of r > 0.98 and 10,000 cells/well was found to provide an accurate ODs for a wide variety of cell types. The accuracy of replicate readings of the assay was investigated by setting a wide range of cell numbers and the variation among seven replicates was calculated and found to be less that 6% of the mean values. The reproducibility of the assay for two cell lines was tested using the lines on four different occasions. The ODs for Jar and Fen cell lines were 0.80 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.02, 0.90 ± 0.02, 0.79 ± 0.05 and 0.56 ± 0.01, 0.58 ± 0.03, 0.60 ± 0.02 and 0.61 ± 0.02 respectively giving maximum variation of less than 11% of mean on repeated testings. Comparison between the results of MTT with 3H-Tdr or 51Cr release assays showed a high degree of correlation over a wide range of cell numbers and cell types. The r values between the results of MTT with 3H-Tdr (for cell number ranging from 1.8 to 60 × 103/well) or 51Cr release assays (for E/T ratios of between 5:1 and 40:1) were 0.89 (p = 0.001) and 0.96 (p < 0.03) respectively. These results demonstrate that it is possible to use the MTT assay interchangeably with radioactive base techniques to measure cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. The ease of its execution, safety and its suitability for analysing as few as 3000 cells makes this method a serious contender for replacing the conventional radioactive techniques.
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Tannins (commonly referred to as tannic acid) are water-soluble polyphenols that are present in many plant foods. They have been reported to be responsible for decreases in feed intake, growth rate, feed efficiency, net metabolizable energy, and protein digestibility in experimental animals. Therefore, foods rich in tannins are considered to be of low nutritional value. However, recent findings indicate that the major effect of tannins was not due to their inhibition on food consumption or digestion but rather the decreased efficiency in converting the absorbed nutrients to new body substances. Incidences of certain cancers, such as esophageal cancer, have been reported to be related to consumption of tannins-rich foods such as betel nuts and herbal teas, suggesting that tannins might be carcinogenic. However, other reports indicated that the carcinogenic activity of tannins might be related to components associated with tannins rather than tannins themselves. Interestingly, many reports indicated negative association between tea consumption and incidences of cancers. Tea polyphenols and many tannin components were suggested to be anticarcinogenic. Many tannin molecules have also been shown to reduce the mutagenic activity of a number of mutagens. Many carcinogens and/or mutagens produce oxygen-free radicals for interaction with cellular macromolecules. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potentials of tannins may be related to their antioxidative property, which is important in protecting cellular oxidative damage, including lipid peroxidation. The generation of superoxide radicals was reported to be inhibited by tannins and related compounds. The antimicrobial activities of tannins are well documented. The growth of many fungi, yeasts, bacteria, and viruses was inhibited by tannins. We have also found that tannic acid and propyl gallate, but not gallic acid, were inhibitory to foodborne bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and off-flavor-producing microorganisms. Their antimicrobial properties seemed to be associated with the hydrolysis of ester linkage between gallic acid and polyols hydrolyzed after ripening of many edible fruits. Tannins in these fruits thus serve as a natural defense mechanism against microbial infections. The antimicrobial property of tannic acid can also be used in food processing to increase the shelf-life of certain foods, such as catfish fillets. Tannins have also been reported to exert other physiological effects, such as to accelerate blood clotting, reduce blood pressure, decrease the serum lipid level, produce liver necrosis, and modulate immunoresponses. The dosage and kind of tannins are critical to these effects. The aim of this review is to summarize and analyze the vast and sometimes conflicting literature on tannins and to provide as accurately as possible the needed information for assessment of the overall effects of tannins on human health.
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The lambda-carrageenan 1T1, the kappa/iota-carrageenan 1C1 and the mu/nu-type 1C3, isolated from the red seaweed Gigartina skottsbergii, proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. The antiviral IC50 values determined by virus yield inhibition assay in different cell lines ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 microg/ml, and no cytotoxic effects, measured by trypan blue exclusion on stationary or proliferating cells, tetrazolium salt method or cell protein synthesis, were observed. Time of addition and attachment studies suggested that the main target for antiviral action of the three carrageenans was virus adsorption, whereas no effect on virus internalization, or early or late protein synthesis was detected. However, the lambda-carrageenan 1T1 was still significantly inhibitory when added any time after adsorption. The pretreatment of virions with the carrageenans showed that 1C1 and 1C3 lacked direct inactivating effect at concentrations near the antiviral IC50 but 1T1 exerted virucidal action. The cyclization of 1T1 to afford the derivative 1T1T1 maintained the antiviral activity but eliminated the virucidal properties. Thus, the structure of 1T1 seems to be responsible for its differential behavior from 1C1 and 1C3, probably allowing a more stable binding to HSV, leading to virion inactivation. In contrast, 1C1 and 1C3 fail to bind with high affinity to virus alone, but are able to interfere with the interaction between HSV particles and the cell.
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Avian reoviruses are ubiquitous among poultry flocks. Although infection is usually present without disease, reoviruses may occasionally be involved in several disease syndromes of which viral arthritis/tenosynovitis in chickens is the most important, particularly in broiler breeds. While reoviruses have been isolated from turkeys and several other species of birds with various conditions, the presence of the virus has been conclusively linked with disease in relatively few instances. In chickens in particular, avian reoviruses with a wide spectrum of pathogenic capability have been isolated and several antigenic types exist. Diagnosis is dependent on the detection of the virus in clinical samples, although the presence of the virus does not necessarily confirm that this is the cause of the disease, except where reoviruses are detected in affected joints. Serological tests are usually difficult to interpret in view of widespread and frequently harmless reovirus infection. The principal approach to control of viral arthritis/tenosynovitis is by vaccination using attenuated vaccines in young birds, followed by inactivated preparations for breeders intended to protect chicks by maternal antibodies. Many vaccines are based on the S1133 strain isolated in the United States of America, but these may not be effective against antigenic variants.
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Twenty-nine flavonoids and six hydrolyzable tannins were studied for their inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 protease using fluorescence and HPLC assays. Among the flavonoids, flavones, flavanones, flavonols, catechols and chalcones, the flavonols were the most active category while flavanones and catechols displayed low activity. Quercetin was the most potent inhibitor of the target enzyme with an IC50 value of 58.8 microM, while butein and luteolin showed moderate activity. Of the hydrolyzable tannins tested, three ellagitannins which contain a hexahydroxvdiphenoyl (HHDP) unit linked to the O-3 and 0-6 positions of the sugar, were found to strongly inhibit HIV-1 protease. The IC50 values of corilagin and repandusinic acid on HIV-1 protease were 20.7 and 12.5 microM, respectively.
Article
Casuarinin, a hydrolyzable tannin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna Linn. (Combretaceae), was investigated for its antiviral activity on herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in vitro. Results showed that the IC(50) of casuarinin in XTT and plaque reduction assays were 3.6+/-0.9 and 1.5+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The 50% cytotoxic concentration for cell growth (CC(50)) was 89+/-1 microM. Thus, the selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of casuarinin was 25 and 59 for XTT and plaque reduction assays, respectively. Casuarinin continued to exhibit antiviral activity even added 12 h after infection. During the attachment assay, casuarinin was shown to prevent the attachment of HSV-2 to cells. Furthermore, casuarinin also exhibited an activity in inhibiting the viral penetration. Interestingly, casuarinin was virucidal at a concentration of 25 microM, reducing viral titers up to 100,000-fold. This study concludes that casuarinin possesses anti-herpesvirus activity in inhibiting viral attachment and penetration, and also disturbing the late event(s) of infection.
Article
Several hundred plant and herb species that have potential as novel antiviral agents have been studied, with surprisingly little overlap. A wide variety of active phytochemicals, including the flavonoids, terpenoids, lignans, sulphides, polyphenolics, coumarins, saponins, furyl compounds, alkaloids, polyines, thiophenes, proteins and peptides have been identified. Some volatile essential oils of commonly used culinary herbs, spices and herbal teas have also exhibited a high level of antiviral activity. However, given the few classes of compounds investigated, most of the pharmacopoeia of compounds in medicinal plants with antiviral activity is still not known. Several of these phytochemicals have complementary and overlapping mechanisms of action, including antiviral effects by either inhibiting the formation of viral DNA or RNA or inhibiting the activity of viral reproduction. Assay methods to determine antiviral activity include multiple-arm trials, randomized crossover studies, and more compromised designs such as nonrandomized crossovers and pre- and post-treatment analyses. Methods are needed to link antiviral efficacy/potency- and laboratory-based research. Nevertheless, the relative success achieved recently using medicinal plant/herb extracts of various species that are capable of acting therapeutically in various viral infections has raised optimism about the future of phyto-antiviral agents. As this review illustrates, there are innumerable potentially useful medicinal plants and herbs waiting to be evaluated and exploited for therapeutic applications against genetically and functionally diverse viruses families such as Retroviridae, Hepadnaviridae and Herpesviridae
Article
The research began with an investigation of tannins from traditional medicinal plants and resulted in isolation and structure determination of hundreds of ellagitannins and dehydroellagitannins, as well as their oligomers and oxidized derivatives with various structures specific to each plant species. These polyphenols have been classified according to the stage of oxidative structural transformation and oligomerization, into types I-IV and I+ to IV+, etc. Parallels were found between their oxidative transformations and plant evolution. They were also classified by the linkage units between the monomers, into DOG, GOD, GOG and DOGOD types (D=Diphenoyl, G=Galloyl, O=Oxygen), etc. Besides their fundamental activities, e.g., reduction and anti-peroxidation properties, remarkable biological and pharmacological activities of various potencies have also been found, including, amongst others, inhibition of lipid-peroxidation, mutagenicity of carcinogens and tumor promotion, host-mediated antitumor effects specific to particular tannin structures, antiviral activity and potentiation of antibacterial activity.
Article
Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) is one of the major causes of serious respiratory infections of poultry and leads to considerable economic losses to food animal production worldwide. Here, we show that double stranded short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules corresponding to aMPV phosphoprotein (P) gene silence P RNA and protein expression. These siRNAs broadly reduced the expression of other viral proteins in addition to P, but did not have a discernable effect on cellular protein expression. The exposure of cells to P-specific siRNAs also led to inhibition of virus replication as evidenced by marked reduction in the progeny virion titers. Taken together, the findings suggest that exogenous P silencing siRNAs can inhibit aMPV replication with potential implications in the design of novel siRNA based prophylactics.
Article
A live A type avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccine which had been shown to be highly protective and short lived in experimental conditions was found to persist for longer periods in the field and to be associated with disease. Previously other factors such as possible secondary pathogens and management considerations had made it impossible to conclude whether the observed disease was a result of an increase in the vaccine virulence. In this study, an AMPV was isolated from poults on a farm which had been vaccinated with the same live A type vaccine. Full sequencing of the isolate, the vaccine and the vaccine progenitor confirmed its vaccine origin and further showed that generation of the vaccine had only involved nine substitutions of which three coded for amino acid changes. The isolated virus was inoculated into 1-day-old turkey poults in disease secure isolators and shown to cause disease with a severity similar to that caused by virulent field virus. Only two coding mutations were associated with this reversion to virulence.
Article
Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is the primary causative agent of severe rhinotracheitis in turkeys. It is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens and is the source of significant economic losses to animal food production. In this study, we designed specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the AMPV nucleoprotein (N) and fusion (F) genes. Three days post-virus infection, virus titration, real time RT-PCR, and RT-PCR assays were performed to verify the effect of siRNA in AMPV replication. A marked decrease in virus titers from transfected CER cells treated with siRNA/N was observed. Also, the production of N, F, and G mRNAs in AMPV was decreased. Results indicate that N-specific siRNA can inhibit virus replication. In future studies, a combination of siRNAs targeting the RNA polymerase complex may be used as a tool to study AMPV replication and/or antiviral therapy.
In vitro antiviral activity of SilvefeedENC Ò against avian influenza viruses of the H7N1 and H5N2 strain subtype Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: possible modes of action
  • R Graziani
  • C Terregino
Graziani, R., Terregino, C., 2007. In vitro antiviral activity of SilvefeedENC Ò against avian influenza viruses of the H7N1 and H5N2 strain subtype. In: 15th WVPC Beijing 10–15 September 2007 Abstract book, p. 368. Haslam, E., 1996. Natural polyphenols (vegetable tannins) as drugs: possible modes of action. Journal of Natural Product 59, 205–215.
A case report of the efficacy of ENC Ò tannin in a layer hen flock infected by Salmonella virchow and Salmonella infantis. XXII European Poultry Conference
  • R Graziani
  • P Massi
  • L Montella
Graziani, R., Massi, P., Montella, L., 2006. A case report of the efficacy of ENC Ò tannin in a layer hen flock infected by Salmonella virchow and Salmonella infantis. XXII European Poultry Conference. World Poultry Science Journal 62 (abstr.), 129.
Rapid colorimetric assay for cell growth and survival
  • Denizot
Isolamento ed identificazione di Reovirus in corso di sindrome da malassorbimento
  • Tosi
A case report of the efficacy of ENC® tannin in a layer hen flock infected by Salmonella virchow and Salmonella infantis
  • Graziani
In vitro antiviral activity of SilvefeedENC® against avian influenza viruses of the H7N1 and H5N2 strain subtype
  • R Graziani
  • C Terregino