The influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patients
To investigate the influences of camel milk on the immune response of the chronic hepatitis B patients and its possible mechanism.
After drinking camel milk for one year, 44 chronic hepatitis B patients were observed and the HBV-DNA, hepatitis B virus markers, ALT, IL-4 and INF-gamma levels in serum were detected. 60 chronic hepatitis B patients without any interventions for 1 year were taken as control.
The level of Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma in camel milk drinking group was significantly higher than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (P<0.05), however, the level of Th2-type cytokines IL-4 in camel milk drinking group was significantly lower than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (P<0.01). Both IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels in camel milk drinking group were near to those in the normal control group. The HBV-DNA negative rate of the camel milk drinking group (90.91%) was significantly higher than that of the non-drinking group (3.23%) (P<0.01). The HBsAg negative rates of the camel milk drinking group (54.55%) was also higher than that of the non-drinking group (1.61%)(P<0.01).The ALT level of 44 cases in the camel milk drinking group (100%)and 7 cases in the non-drinking group(11.29%) turned back to the normal level, there was a significant difference between the two group (P<0.01).
Camel milk regulates the expression of Th1/Th2-type cytokines, and corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine network, which could strengthen the cellular immune response, inhibit the replication of virus DNA, and promote the recovery of the chronic hepatitis B patients.
Available from: Abdulrahman Khazim Al-Asmari
- "The unique characteristics of CM are seen in it is often used to counter diseases such as diabetes and hepatic and microbial infections   , in addition to the reported improvement effects in blood and renal and hepatic functions . Low in cholesterol, sugar, and protein but having higher levels of minerals as electrolytes, vitamins, and insulin, CM is presented as unique compared to the milk of other ruminant mammals . "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The potential effect of camel milk (CM) against gentamicin (GM) induced biochemical changes in the rat serum was evaluated. Four groups of six albino rats were used for control, CM fed, injected with GM(i.p.), and then fed and injected with GM. The results showed that the administration of GM significantly altered the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in rat serum. CM restored these parameters to almost their normal range in group IV. Additionally, the present study showed that injection of rats with gentamicin caused an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity while the antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activity decreased significantly (
). Administration of CM significantly (
) inhibited the formation of MDA and activity of MPO and upregulated the antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GST) activity. The overall findings of this study demonstrated that pretreatment with CM gave protection against GM induced hepatic damage possibly by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation, and hence camel milk can be identified as a new therapeutic agent.
Available from: Laila Y Al-Ayadhi
- "These studies demonstrated the alteration of antioxidant enzymes like GSH-Px, MPO, and SOD, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant proteins as ceruloplasmin and transferrin, and detoxifying metabolites like GSH, as well as antioxidant nutrient vitamins and minerals [10, 11, 13, 23–26]. Camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in many diseases such as food allergy, diabetes mellitus  , hepatitis B , autism , and other autoimmune diseases . It has a unique composition that differs from other ruminants' milk. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Extensive studies have demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a vital role in the pathology of several neurological diseases, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD); those studies proposed that GSH and antioxidant enzymes have a pathophysiological role in autism. Furthermore, camel milk has emerged to have potential therapeutic effects in autism. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of camel milk consumption on oxidative stress biomarkers in autistic children, by measuring the plasma levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and myeloperoxidase before and 2 weeks after camel milk consumption, using the ELISA technique. All measured parameters exhibited significant increase after camel milk consumption (P < 0.5). These findings suggest that camel milk could play an important role in decreasing oxidative stress by alteration of antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic antioxidant molecules levels, as well as the improvement of autistic behaviour as demonstrated by the improved Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS).
Available from: David S Gibson
- "The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) survives and reproduces under conditions of drought and heat that are unsustainable to most other species of domestic mammals. For many centuries, desert dwellers have used camels for transportation and as a source of food, but in addition, camel milk and urine have also been used as medicines to treat various ailments including cancer,     chronic hepatitis,   hepatitis C    and peptic ulcers.  Reports also claim that camel milk can cure severe food allergies in children unresponsive to more conventional treatments   and aid in the management of diabetes and its complications. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The milk of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) reportedly offers medicinal benefits, perhaps because of its unique bioactive components. Milk proteins were determined by (1) two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass mapping and (2) liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) following one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Over 200 proteins were identified: some known camel proteins including heavy-chain immunoglobulins and others exhibiting regions of exact homology with proteins from other species. Indigenous peptides were also identified following isolation and concentration by two strategies: (1) gel-eluted liquid fraction entrapment electrophoresis and (2) small-scale electrophoretic separation. Extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and peptides identified by matching strategies, by de novo sequencing and by applying a sequence tag tool requiring similarity to the proposed sequence, but not an exact match. A plethora of protein cleavage products including some novel peptides were characterized. These studies demonstrate that camel milk is a rich source of peptides, some of which may serve as nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.