Eye Movements When Looking at Print Advertisements: The Goal of the Viewer Matters.

Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
Applied Cognitive Psychology (Impact Factor: 1.67). 07/2008; 22(5):697-707. DOI: 10.1002/acp.1389
Source: PubMed


Viewers looked at print advertisements as their eye movements were recorded. Half of them were asked to rate how much they liked each ad (for convenience, we will generally use the term 'ad' from this point on), while the other half were asked to rate the effectiveness of each ad. Previous research indicated that viewers who were asked to consider purchasing products in the ads looked at the text earlier and more often than the picture part of the ad. In contrast, viewers in the present experiment looked at the picture part of the ad earlier and longer than the text. The results indicate quite clearly that the goal of the viewer very much influences where (and for how long) viewers look at different parts of ads, but also indicate that the nature of the ad per se matters.

Download full-text


Available from: Caren M Rotello
  • Source
    • "Although evidence accumulation models and the gaze cascade effect suggest an important role for the location of the first fixation, (i.e., the models predict that the alternative that is looked at first would be more likely to be chosen), empirical results on the association between first fixation and choice are mixed: some studies have shown that people are more likely to choose the item that they fixated on first (e.g., Glaholt & Reingold, 2011; Krajbich et al., 2010; Schotter et al., 2010) while other studies (e.g., Armel et al., 2008) have found no association between first fixation location and choice. Some authors have proposed that the location of the first fixation is influenced by top down effects of pre-existing preferences (e.g., for palatable high energy foods, Werthmann, Mogg, Bradley, & Jansen, 2011), while others posit that the location of the first fixation is mainly driven by factors that are uncorrelated with value, such as visual attributes (e.g., Bialkova & van Trijp, 2011; Lohse, 1997; Milosavljevic et al., 2012; Navalpakkam et al., 2012; Wolfe & Horowitz, 2004), the place on the shelf (Chandon, Hutchinson, Bradlow, & Young, 2009), cultural norms (e.g., reading from left to right, Krajbich et al., 2010), or a person's decision goal (e.g., to identify the most effective versus the most liked advertisements , Rayner et al., 2008). Thus, it is unknown whether the first fixation indeed has a causal (down-stream) effect on choice, as the decision-making models described above would suggest. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the influence of the first fixation on consumer choice, and (2) to disentangle two factors driving total fixation duration, namely preference formation (the process of establishing a preference for one of the items of the choice set) and the decision goal (task instruction). Participants chose between two products while their eye movements were measured. To investigate the influence of first fixation location on choice, first fixation location was manipulated in half of the trials. To disentangle effects of preference formation and the decision goal, participants selected either the product they wanted, or the product they did not want. Our findings showed that manipulating the first fixation towards an alternative did not influence its likelihood of being chosen. Although total fixation duration was mainly determined by the decision goal, it was also influenced by preference formation. The results provide important implications for the interpretation of eye tracking results and in-store marketing.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Food Quality and Preference
    • "The system included eye-tracking hardware and data analysis software. As in previous studies (Rayner et al, 2001; Pieters and Wedel, 2004; Rayner et al 2008), we employed gaze duration as an indicator of visual attention to the different information disclosed in the mutual fund prospectuses, defined as the sum of all fixation durations of participants viewing an object in a prospectus 1 (Henderson, 1993; Zelinsky and Murphy, 2000). An object that holds a participant's attention longer is reflected in a longer gaze duration (Russo and Leclerc, 1994;). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the cognitive processes underlying investors’ extrapolations of past fund performance and whether investors’ attention patterns may explain their return-chasing behaviors. We measured the attention that investors paid to mutual fund disclosures in a simplified fund prospectus using unobtrusive infrared eye tracking. Results suggest that prior fund performance, which is normatively irrelevant information and not useful in predicting future performance, received considerable attention from investors. More interestingly, the impact of prior fund performance on investors’ purchasing intentions was fully mediated through expected returns and attention paid to past performance information. The results indicate that investors apparently believe in performance persistence or in a ‘hot hand’ effect, and that mutual fund purchases are driven by salient information such as superior performance. Moreover, we tested the disclaimer mandated by regulatory bodies, which warns that past performance does not guarantee future results. We found that the disclaimer was ineffective in reducing investors’ extrapolation biases, despite the fact that the disclaimer was attended to and properly encoded by investors.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Financial Services Marketing
    • "In order to measure visual attention for the endorser, we used eye-tracking technology. Modern eye trackers present stimuli, such as commercials, advertisements or computer games, on a computer screen and track participant's eye movements with infrared light and specialized cameras (Pieters and Wedel, 2007; Rayner et al, 2008). The technique allows researchers to determine what exact point of the ad or commercial was seen at any given moment in time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research on celebrity endorsement demonstrates that attractive celebrity endorsers can lead to better attitudes toward the ad and brand evaluations. However, this study suggests that an analysis of celebrity endorsement remains incomplete without considering an important initial stage of information processing, visual attention directed toward the endorser. Measurements from eye-tracking technology combined with a survey show that consumers/' visual attention (viewing time) of the endorser is positively related to the endorser/'s attractiveness and attitude toward the ad. Further, mediation analysis and partial least square-based structural equation modeling shows that attitude toward the ad fully mediates the relationship between endorser attractiveness and brand attitudes. Being the first study in investigating how visual attention is related to perceptions of celebrity endorser attractiveness, attitude toward the ad and brand evaluations, this article adds to the existing body of knowledge
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Brand Management
Show more