Association of Breakfast Skipping With Visceral Fat and Insulin Indices in Overweight Latino Youth

Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 05/2009; 17(8):1528-33. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.127
Source: PubMed


Few studies have investigated the relationship between breakfast consumption and specific adiposity or insulin dynamics measures in children. The goal of this study is to determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with adiposity, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Participants were a cross-sectional sample of 93 overweight (> or =85th percentile BMI) Latino youth (10-17 years) with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-h recalls, IAAT, and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and insulin dynamics by a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling. Participants were divided into three breakfast consumption categories: those who reported not eating breakfast on either day (breakfast skippers; n = 20), those who reported eating breakfast on one of two days (occasional breakfast eaters; n = 39) and those who ate breakfast on both days (breakfast eaters; n = 34). Using analyses of covariance, breakfast omission was associated with increased IAAT (P = 0.003) independent of age, Tanner, sex, total body fat, total body lean tissue mass, and daily energy intake. There were no significant differences in any other adiposity measure or in insulin dynamics between breakfast categories. Eating breakfast is associated with lower visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth. Interventions focused on increasing breakfast consumption are warranted.

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    • "The frequency of breakfast was inversely associated with weight gain in a cohort of 2,216 adolescents [82]. Similarly, skipping breakfast increases the odds ratios for adult obesity, overweight children, and visceral adiposity in overweight Latino youth [83–85]. In addition to frequency, the glycemic index of breakfast might affect control of appetite and blood sugar levels in both adults and children [86]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Circadian clocks that comprise clock genes exist throughout the body and control daily physiological events. The central clock that dominates activity rhythms is entrained by light/dark cycles, whereas peripheral clocks regulating local metabolic rhythms are determined by feeding/fasting cycles. Nutrients reset peripheral circadian clocks and the local clock genes control downstream metabolic processes. Metabolic states also affect the clockworks in feedback manners. Because the circadian system organizes whole energy homeostasis, including food intake, fat accumulation, and caloric expenditure, the disruption of circadian clocks leads to metabolic disorders. Recent findings show that time-restricted feeding during the active phase amplifies circadian clocks and improves metabolic disorders induced by a high-fat diet without caloric reduction, whereas unusual/irregular food intake induces various metabolic dysfunctions. Such evidence from nutrition studies that consider circadian system (chrononutrition) has rapidly accumulated. We review molecular relationships between circadian clocks and nutrition as well as recent chrononutrition findings.
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    • "Previously, Alexander et al. reported that breakfast skipping was related to increased visceral fat independent of age, gender, total fat, total lean tissue, and total energy intake in overweight Latino youth [1]. Similar cross-sectional studies have also demonstrated that breakfast skipping is associated with obesity in Hong Kong children, US adults, and Taiwanese adults [2-4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background People who skip breakfast have more visceral fat than those who eat breakfast; however, the mechanism underlying this difference is unclear. In this study, we examined 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and assessed 1) whether restricted feeding (i.e., “breakfast skipping”) alters the cyclic expression of brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and lipogenic proteins and 2) whether repeated exposure to growth media at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals increases de novo lipogenesis and lipid storage. Methods Differentiated adipocytes were divided into two groups: a control group and a restricted feeding group, for which incubation with growth medium from ZT 9 to ZT 12 was withheld. Results A bout of restricted feeding disrupted the cyclic expression of BMAL1 protein and increased the expression of lipogenic proteins, such as fatty acid synthase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes. Furthermore, the repeated exposure to growth media at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid storage. Conclusion These findings suggest that direct disruption of intracellular molecular clock systems by breakfast skipping and the concurrent changes in the daily cycle of lipogenic proteins in adipocytes, as a consequence of repeated nutrition at the time-points with enhanced lipogenic regulatory signals, would result in increased lipogenesis and lipid storage. These alterations are important molecular mechanisms underlying augmented adiposity induced by breakfast skipping.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Lipids in Health and Disease
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    • "We defined breakfast per the Student Nutrition Dietary Assessment, which is any food or beverage consumption between awakening and 45 minutes after the start of school [15,21]. Subjects who did not consume breakfast on one of two days or neither day were categorized as breakfast skippers, while those that consumed breakfast on both days were classified as breakfast eaters [22]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Few studies on the breakfast consumption habits of medical students in China have been carried out. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of skipping breakfast and factors associated with skipping breakfast among medical students in Inner Mongolia of China, and to assist in the design of interventions to improve breakfast consumption habits of medical college students in this region. Methods From December 2010 to January 2011 a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students in the Inner Mongolia Medical College using a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of skipping breakfast in relation to lifestyle habits was described and factors associated with breakfast consumption were identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The overall prevalence of skipping breakfast was 41.7% and 23.5% for males and females, respectively. The Faculty of Medicine Information Management had the highest breakfast skipping prevalence. Logistic regression models found that the main factors associated with breakfast consumption habits among medical students were gender, class years of education, monthly expenses, faculty, appetite, sleeping quality, and the learning process; monthly expenses, sleeping quality, and the learning process showed a dose-dependent relationship. Conclusions Breakfast consumption was associated with many factors, most importantly monthly expenses, sleeping quality and the learning process. The prevalence of skipping breakfast is significantly higher compared recently reported figures for medical students in western countries and other areas of China. Improvement of breakfast education should be considered for students in which higher monthly expenses, poor sleeping quality, or a laborious learning process have been identified.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Public Health
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