Environmental assessment Ämmässuo landfill (Finland) by means of LCA-modeling (EASEWASTE)
Department of Energy and Environmental Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland.Waste Management & Research (Impact Factor: 1.3). 06/2009; 27(5):542-50. DOI: 10.1177/0734242X08096976
The Old Ammässuo Landfill (Espoo, Finland) covers an area of 52 hectares and contains about 10 million tonnes of waste that was landfilled between 1987 and 2007. The majority of this waste was mixed, of which about 57% originated from households. This paper aims at describing the management of the Old Ammässuo Landfill throughout its operational lifetime (1987-2007), and at developing an environmental evaluation based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) using the EASEWASTE-model. The assessment criteria evaluate specific categories of impact, including standard impact categories, toxicity-related impact categories and an impact categorized as spoiled groundwater resources (SGR). With respect to standard and toxicity-related impact categories, the LCA results show that substantial impact potentials are estimated for global warming (GW), ozone depletion (OD), human toxicity via soil (HTs) and ecotoxicity in water chronic (ETwc). The largest impact potential was found for SGR and amounted to 57.6 person equivalent (PE) per tonne of landfilled waste. However, the SGR impact may not be viewed as a significant issue in Finland as the drinking water is mostly supplied from surface water bodies. Overall, the results demonstrate that gas management has great importance to the environmental performance of the Old Ammässuo Landfill. However, several chemicals related to gas composition (especially trace compounds) and specific emissions from on-site operations were not available or were not measured and were therefore taken from the literature. Measurement campaigns and field investigations should be undertaken in order to obtain a more robust and comprehensive dataset that can be used in the LCA-modelling, before major improvements regarding landfill management are finalized.
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- "The majority of published works on the LCA of MSW landfilling employ an energy consumption amount (e.g. as megajoules of energy or liters of diesel) to represent the environmental impacts of the landfill C&O process (Damgaard et al., 2011; Khoo et al., 2012; Manfredi et al., 2009). Although Manfredi et al. (2010) and Niskanen et al. (2009) considered the C&O process during the LCA of landfilling, they did not include the original data in their papers, which limited the applicability of these data for further research . Of studies that did cover C&O in detail, Ecobalance Inc. (Camobreco et al., 1999; Ecobalance Inc., 1999 ) collected and summarized the consumption of materials and energy for more than 20 landfill sites in the United States as a life cycle inventory (LCI) report. "
ABSTRACT: An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.
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- "roved that site - specific data are essential for consistent data . Additionally , the results for global warming of the scenario ' land - fill ' and scenario 5 ' landfill with 20% recycling ' could have less environmental burden as it can be assumed that there is a lower production of biogas under Siberian versus European climatic con - ditions . Niskanen et al . ( 2009 ) also confirmed that a detailed data - set about special parameters such as gas composition or gas production from the landfill , which can be entered in the LCA model need to be obtained in order to get reliable results . Thereafter , improvement of the landfill can be planned . The time period cho - sen for the landfilling process al"
ABSTRACT: Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra in Siberia has recently started to play a major role in the Russian economy because key oil and gas extraction sites are located in this region. As a result, the extensions of infrastructure and higher incomes have been leading to an accelerated population growth and consequent increase in the generation of solid household waste. The current methods of waste disposal have now reached their limits, especially in the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. The key objectives of this study were to identify the influence of waste composition and transport routes on the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and to assess the current waste treatment option for solid household waste and to compare it with proposed scenarios. Furthermore, recommendations for an optimal use of LCA within a decision-making process for a waste management plan are presented. LCA methodology was used to evaluate different waste management scenarios such as landfilling and incineration. One result was that the options 'incineration with recycling' and 'anaerobic mechanical-biological treatment with recycling' demonstrated lower environmental impact in both Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. Another finding was that there were hardly any differences in the ranking of the scenarios for Surgut and Khanty-Mansiysk. However, the special socio-cultural circumstances and location of each town have to be considered seriously in the development of a sustainable waste management plan.
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- "• Provision of electricity used for light on the site, administration buildings, pumps and fans. This may amount to 2– 12 kWh tonne –1 waste landfilled (Hunziker & Paterna 1995, Niskanen et al. 2009). Provision of electricity is here counted as 0.1–0.9 "
ABSTRACT: Accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste landfilling is summarized with the focus on processes and technical data for a number of different landfilling technologies: open dump (which was included as the worst-case-scenario), conventional landfills with flares and with energy recovery, and landfills receiving low-organic-carbon waste. The results showed that direct emissions of GHG from the landfill systems (primarily dispersive release of methane) are the major contributions to the GHG accounting, up to about 1000 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for the open dump, 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1) for conventional landfilling of mixed waste and 70 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) for low-organic-carbon waste landfills. The load caused by indirect, upstream emissions from provision of energy and materials to the landfill was low, here estimated to be up to 16 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1). On the other hand, utilization of landfill gas for electricity generation contributed to major savings, in most cases, corresponding to about half of the load caused by direct GHG emission from the landfill. However, this saving can vary significantly depending on what the generated electricity substitutes for. Significant amounts of biogenic carbon may still be stored within the landfill body after 100 years, which here is counted as a saved GHG emission. With respect to landfilling of mixed waste with energy recovery, the net, average GHG accounting ranged from about -70 to 30 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(- 1), obtained by summing the direct and indirect (upstream and downstream) emissions and accounting for stored biogenic carbon as a saving. However, if binding of biogenic carbon was not accounted for, the overall GHG load would be in the range of 60 to 300 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne( -1). This paper clearly shows that electricity generation as well as accounting of stored biogenic carbon are crucial to the accounting of GHG of waste landfilling.
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