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Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium

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Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium

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This paper reports how D+ was compressed galvanostatically into sheet, rod and cube samples of Pd from 0.1 M LiOD in 99.5% D2O+0.5% H2O solutions. Experiments of several kinds were performed: (1) calorimetric measurements of heat balances at low current densities; (2) calorimetric measurements at high current densities; (3) determination of γ-rays emitted from the water both, as well as that of the neutron flux; and (4) determination of the generation/accumulation of tritium. It was found that enthalpy generation can exceed 10 W cm-3 of the palladium electrode; this is maintained for experiment times in excess of 120 h, during which typical heat in excess of 4 MJ cm-3 of electrode volume was liberated. The authors believe it inconceivable that this could be due to anything but nuclear processes.

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... One of such fields related to the complexity is the cold fusion phenomenon discovered in 1989 [1] as we have discussed already [2 -10] giving an insight into a possible consistent explanation of the whole phenomena observed in the cold fusion materials composed of transition metals and hydrogen isotopes briefly introduced in the next section. Brief explanations on the fundamental common questions related to the nuclear transmutation are discussed in the Appendix. ...
... The experimental data include generation of new elements (including tritium and helium), emission of neutrons with energies up to 10 MeV and generation of excess energy accompanied with these nuclear products. The successful theoretical trials to give a unified explanation of the various experimental data using the model were compiled in a book published in 1998 [1]. ...
... In conclusion, we want to stress again that the discovery of the nuclear reactions in the CF material at around room temperature [1,18] ...
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Since the discovery of nuclear reactions in PdDx alloys in 1989, there have been accumulated very many experimental data sets showing existence of nuclear reactions in materials composed of lattice nuclei of transition metals and occluded hydrogen isotopes (let us call them the CF materials, for short) resulting in various nuclear products such as transmuted nuclei, tritium, neutrons, and others accompanied with large excess energies at relatively low temperatures up to 1000 ºC (let us call these whole events the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), for short). As the cause of these nuclear reactions in the CFP, we have to accept the existence of the interactions between nucleons in the CF material through the nuclear force, i.e. the weak interaction (let us call this interaction the nuclear-force interaction, for short) recognized in the nuclear physics. It should be emphasized that our phenomenological approach based on the nuclear-force interaction between lattice nuclei and occluded hydrogen isotopes has been successful to give qualitative and sometimes semi-quantitative explanations for the events in the CFP. In this paper, we have given contemplations of the effect of the nuclear-force interaction revealed in the CFP on physics and chemistry in transition metal hydrides where have been observed the peculiar phenomena such as the super-diffusivity, HER (hydrogen electrode deposition), and UPD (underpotential deposition) for long without satisfactory explanation consistent with other characteristics of the materials. It is shown that the fundamental mechanism giving a consistent explanation of the CFP seems also an essential factor giving rise to the peculiar characteristics observed in the transition-metal hydrides even if the necessary condition for the CFP is not satisfied there. 2
... Let us review the nuclear reactions related to the CFP. Reactions supposed by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989, Kozima 2019c The branching ratios of these reactions have been determined in the nuclear physics as 1 : 1 : 10 -7 down to low energies of a few keV. The gamma in Eq. (1.3) in free space should be read as φ's (phonons excited by the reaction in contact with trapped neutrons) in the CF materials. ...
... Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989]. Their elaborate and precise experiments denied the presumed production of Qex and NHe without further investigation of causes of the CFP. ...
... [Yamaguchi 1993]. [Bockris 1990] To confirm the nuclear origin of the excess heat observed by many including the pioneering work by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989], experiments had been performed to detect existence and amount of tritium in the experimental systems. One of the early reliable data confirmed the production of tritium was obtained in Texas A&M group [Packham 1989]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using our TNCF model composed in a phenomenological approach, we investigated the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) observed in the compound (combined) CF materials, the CF materials composed of host elements (Pd, Ni, C, etc.) and hydrogen isotopes (H and/or D) with solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas and solid-plasma interfaces. The CF materials are surrounded by an environment composed of a gas, a liquid or by plasma according to the experimental condition to feed a hydrogen isotope into it. A CF material, therefore, has inevitably an interface dividing itself from the environment. Sometimes, a CF material has a solid-solid interface between a substrate or solid-solid interfaces between layers intentionally imposed to it. In this paper, we use the TNCF and ND models, which we have used successfully to give a unified explanation of various kinds of experimental data sets obtained in a great variety of CF materials hitherto, to investigate and deduce explanations of the specific experimental data obtained in these compound CF materials with various structures. Some characteristics and specific features of the CFP observed in these compound CF materials have been explained for the first time. In the investigation, we noticed especially the important effect of the interfaces on the CFP. The interfaces are classified into four types which have specific influences on the CFP respectively, solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas and solid-plasma interfaces. The physics and chemistry of the atomic processes in the solid-liquid interface have been investigated intensively in electrochemistry for many years. The characteristics of the catalytic action found in the solid-liquid interfaces must have common characteristics to those in other 2 interfaces and we must give more attention to them in the investigation of the CFP in the compound CF materials. It is regrettable that we have almost ignored its importance until now even if there were some electrochemists who had given their attention to this phase of the CFP in the early days in this field. The fundamental problems related to the premises of our models in relation to the existence of the interfaces in the compound CF materials will be developed in another paper presented in this Conference.
... The following points should be noted in the discussion of the cold fusion phenomenon (or "cold fusion" phenomenon). [Fleischmann 1989] observed not only the excess energy but also neutrons and tritium. Furthermore, the samples they used in their experiments were checked their helium content and had shown existence of helium [Morrey 1990]. ...
... As we see in their sentences written in their controversial paper [Fleischmann 1989 [Fleischmann 1989 (p. 301, p. 302)] In their words, they considered their results are perplexing ones beyond their expected reactions (v) and (vi) (even if they supposed that the neutrons and tritium they observed were the results of these reactions): ...
... The neutrons and tritium measured in the experiments by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989] are not persuasive for their unsatisfactory detection techniques, the detection of helium in the samples they used had been performed by experts and shown clear evidence of the helium generation in their experiments [Morrey 1990]. ...
Article
The paper “Mechanism of Thermal Runaway as a Cause of Fleischmann-Pons Effect,” by N.E. Galushkin, N.N. Yazvinskaya, D.N. Galushkin, published in the Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 870, pp. 114237 – 114246 (2020), ISSN 0022-0728, does not contain enough data on the study of nuclear reactions in CF materials that accompany the Fleischmann-Pons effect. Therefore, it is necessary to add an overview of these studies based on the data written in the papers by Fleischmann et al. and data including the paper by Morrey et al. and others obtained in these about 30 years.
... Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989, Kozima 2019c d + d → 4 2He* → t (1.01 MeV) + p (3.12 MeV), (1.1) → 3 2He (0.82 MeV) + n (2.45 MeV), ...
... Yamaguchi et al. Yamaguchi et al. [Yamaguchi 1993] had investigated the relation between the excess heat Qex and the 4 2He production NHe to confirm the presumption assumed by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989]. Their elaborate and precise experiments denied the presumed production of Qex and NHe without further investigation of causes of the CFP. ...
... [Yamaguchi 1993]. [Bockris 1990] To confirm the nuclear origin of the excess heat observed by many including the pioneering work by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989], experiments had been performed to detect existence and amount of tritium in the experimental systems. One of the early reliable data confirmed the production of tritium was obtained in Texas A&M group [Packham 1989]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using our TNCF model composed in a phenomenological approach, we investigated the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) observed in the compound (combined) CF materials, the CF materials composed of host elements (Pd, Ni, C, etc.) and hydrogen isotopes (H and/or D) with solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas and solid-plasma interfaces. The CF materials are surrounded by an environment composed of a gas, a liquid or by plasma according to the experimental condition to feed a hydrogen isotope into it. A CF material, therefore, has inevitably an interface dividing itself from the environment. Sometimes, a CF material has a solid-solid interface between a substrate or solid-solid interfaces between layers intentionally imposed to it. In this paper, we use the TNCF and ND models, which we have used successfully to give a unified explanation of various kinds of experimental data sets obtained in a great variety of CF materials hitherto, to investigate and deduce explanations of the specific experimental data obtained in these compound CF materials with various structures. Some characteristics and specific features of the CFP observed in these compound CF materials have been explained for the first time. In the investigation, we noticed especially the important effect of the interfaces on the CFP. The interfaces are classified into four types which have specific influences on the CFP respectively, solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas and solid-plasma interfaces. The physics and chemistry of the atomic processes in the solid-liquid interface have been investigated intensively in electrochemistry for many years. The characteristics of the catalytic action found in the solid-liquid interfaces must have common characteristics to those in other interfaces and we must give more attention to them in the investigation of the CFP in the compound CF materials. It is regrettable that we have almost ignored its importance until now even if there were some electrochemists who had given their attention to this phase of the CFP in the early days in this field.
... Reactions in free space supposed by Fleischmann et al. to be responsible to their experimental results are written down as follows [Fleischmann 1989, Kozima 2019c: The branching ratios of these reactions have been determined in the nuclear physics as 1 : 1 : 10 -7 down to low energies of a few keV. ...
... These values will be used in the discussion of the experiments by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989] given in Sec. 2.4.1. ...
... (2) Surface nature of nuclear reactions in the CFP [Kozima 1998 (Sec. 12 [Fleischmann 1989], (b) Stainless steel cathode Fe1-x-yCrxNiy [Dufour 1993], (c) Pd-Rh alloys, PdRhxCoyB (x=5%, y=3%), PdRhxCry (x=5%, y=5%) [Claytor 1998], (d) Ceramic cathode TiC, VC, ZrB, ZrC, ZrN, LaB in glow discharges [Romodanov 1998b], (e) ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Using the TNCF (trapped neutron catalyzed fusion) and ND (neutron drop) models, which were successful to give a unified explanation of various kinds of experimental data sets obtained in a great variety of CF materials hitherto, we explained various features of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) observed in the composite (multi-component) CF materials, CF materials composed of host elements (alloys, ceramics, and polymers) and hydrogen isotopes (H or/and D). We take up in this paper following CF materials: (1) Alloys, (2) Ceramics, and (3) Polymers including XLPE and biological systems in addition to (4) the case where used a mixture of hydrogen isotopes, H and D. Despite of the rather complex host materials of various compositions and structures in the composite CF materials, we could give a consistent explanation of the specific experimental data obtained in them. We have proposed a tentative criterion for a minor element added to a major element (Pd or Ni) to make the alloy to be a composite CF material. Because of the importance of the composite CF materials used frequently in recent works with many interesting results especially on the improved qualitative reproducibility and the elevated amount of excess heat generation, it is useful to understand the physics of the nuclear reactions occurring there. The fundamental problems related to the premises of our models in relation to the composite CF materials will be discussed in another paper presented in this Conference.
... In 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons were catapulted into the limelight with their claim to have achieved fusion in a simple tabletop apparatus working at room temperature [1]. Their report described an experiment involving electrolysis using D2O in which the cathode fused (melting point 1544 ºC) and partially vaporized, and the fume cupboard housing the experimental cell was partially destroyed. ...
... Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons reported the abnormal heat generation of D2O with Pd Rod under the electrolysis conditions reported in ref [1], which is now called "Fleischmann Pons Effect", or "FPE". Because the real Cold fusion needs the positive metal surface potential however FPE has the negative metal surface potential under the electrolysis condition. ...
... The experimental results on FPE replication are listed below: (1) High D/Pd ratio is needed to generate the excess heat [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is proposed that Cold fusion can occur in metal by D + hopping to T sites with Don the metal surface. In this mechanism, D + hopping is assisted by the Coulomb attractive force between D + and D-, suggesting that control of the positive surface potential of the metal is important. D2 thus formed at surface T site is compressed by T-site atoms due to the size difference between D2 and the original T-site volume. Compression of the D2 covalent bonds creates a small D2 atom with Electron Deep Orbit (EDO) at a radius of a few femtometers, which is small enough to completely shield the Coulomb repulsive force between d-d and thus leads to the fusion. Hydrogen with DEO is verified by the experimental data of "high compressibility of hydrogen" and soft x-ray spectra which roughly matched the theoretical value of EDO. Because the current Cold fusion reactors are based on Fleischmann and Pons Effect (FPE), they have serious issues originating from voltage conditions of D absorption under the electrolysis condition which has the negative metal surface potential although the real Cold fusion needs the positive metal surface potential. Thus, it is very difficult to trigger fusion due to the voltage condition mismatch. Therefore, FPE needs a very high temperature by a strong local resistive heating of Pd Rod caused by the insulating film growth on fragments of Pd surface during D charging. The inhomogeneous insulating film growth is caused by very high electric field and by its variation caused by the Pt wire anode cage. Thus, I propose the novel Cold fusion reactor based on the real Cold fusion mechanism, with the proper metal surface potential control for D absorption and for Cold Fusion separately with very high surface potential uniformity, which fixes the most of the issues of reactors based on FPE. D supply from the backside of the reaction surface can eject 4 He at the surface T site, resulting in high excess heat generation. Because the total excess heat generation is determined by the D supply speed to the reaction surface of metal, D supply from the backside of metal is also needed to maximize the D supply speed, and Thus Ni-D layer deposition under the reaction surface is promising to have the larger excess heat generation because it has huge amount of D at the very close location to the reaction surface, like FPE.
... The main reason is that physics has a poor working model for dense matter. The other reason: New paths [1] [2] [3][4] [5], since 30 years at least, have been systematically ignored as each would have challenged running projects like ITER, CERN. In 1989 two electro-chemists announced a breakthrough new process [1] called cold fusion(LENR****). ...
... The other reason: New paths [1] [2] [3][4] [5], since 30 years at least, have been systematically ignored as each would have challenged running projects like ITER, CERN. In 1989 two electro-chemists announced a breakthrough new process [1] called cold fusion(LENR****). Within hours a world wide tsunami wave of excitement flooded the news channels and many laboratories immediately started a replication experiment to verify the claims. ...
... The term cold fusion has first been used in the 1989 presentation of Pons & Fleischmann [1]. The notion is that in cold fusion two nuclei at rest, which signifies zero kinetic input energy, do fuse. ...
Preprint
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A gamma spectrum is the ultimate proof of a nuclear - cold fusion - reaction. For this paper about 10 spectra with a very high signal:noise ratio have been analyzed that did contain > 300 active lines. We explain how energy in LENR is transported by looking at gamma spectra containing a large number of so called "magnetic lines". We show how new elements are produced what also explains why Deuterium on earth is more rare than in comets. This paper relates to both research fields.
... Reactions in free space supposed by Fleischmann et al. to be responsible to their experimental results are written down as follows [Fleischmann 1989, Kozima 2019c (1. ...
... These values will be used in the discussion of the experiments by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989] given in Sec. 2.4.1. ...
... Several examples of the composite CF materials taken up in this paper are (a) Pd cathodes with an electrolytic solution 0.1 M LiOD in 99.5% D2O + 0.5% H2O solutions [Fleischmann 1989], (b) Stainless steel cathode Fe1-x-yCrxNiy [Dufour 1993], (c) Pd-Rh alloys, PdRhxCoyB (x=5%, y=3%), PdRhxCry (x=5%, y=5%) [Claytor 1998], (d) Ceramic cathode TiC, VC, ZrB, ZrC, ZrN, LaB in glow discharges [Romodanov 1998b], (e) Stainless steel cathode Fe71Cr18Ni10Ti1 in glow discharges [Romodanov 1998c], (f) Nickel alloy Ni7.6Cr20.6Fe70.4Mn1.4 in gas contact experiments [Campari 2004b], (g) Constantan Cu55Ni44Mn1 [Celani 2012]. (h) Pd-Ni alloys PdxNi0.35-xZr0.65 ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Using the TNCF (trapped neutron catalyzed fusion) and ND (neutron drop) models, which were successful to give a unified explanation of various kinds of experimental data sets obtained in a great variety of CF materials hitherto, we explained various features of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) observed in the composite (multi-component) CF materials, CF materials composed of host elements (alloys, ceramics, and polymers) and hydrogen isotopes (H or/and D). We take up in this paper following CF materials: (1) Alloys, (2) Ceramics, and (3) Polymers including XLPE and biological systems in addition to (4) the case where used a mixture of hydrogen isotopes, H and D. Despite of the rather complex host materials of various compositions and structures in the composite CF materials, we could give a consistent explanation of the specific experimental data obtained in them. We have proposed a tentative criterion for a minor element added to a major element (Pd or Ni) to make the alloy to be a composite CF material. Because of the importance of the composite CF materials used frequently in recent works with many interesting results especially on the improved qualitative reproducibility and the elevated amount of excess heat generation, it is useful to understand the physics of the nuclear reactions occurring there. The fundamental problems related to the premises of our models in relation to the composite CF materials will be discussed in another paper presented in this Conference.
... The following points should be noted in the discussion of the cold fusion phenomenon (or "cold fusion" phenomenon). [Fleischmann 1989] observed not only the excess energy but also neutrons and tritium. Furthermore, the samples they used in their experiments were checked their helium content and had shown existence of helium [Morrey 1990]. ...
... As we see in their sentences written in their controversial paper [Fleischmann 1989 [Fleischmann 1989 (p. 301, p. 302)] In their words, they considered their results are perplexing ones beyond their expected reactions (v) and (vi) (even if they supposed that the neutrons and tritium they observed were the results of these reactions): ...
... The neutrons and tritium measured in the experiments by Fleischmann et al. [Fleischmann 1989] are not persuasive for their unsatisfactory detection techniques, the detection of helium in the samples they used had been performed by experts and shown clear evidence of the helium generation in their experiments [Morrey 1990]. ...
... In March 1989 Fleischmann and Pons announced the experimental observation of an unusual heat effect during the electrolytic loading of Palladium with Deuterons [1]. Besides calorimetric heat measurements, the authors also presented some measurements of nuclear radiation, which however where even less convincing, than the heat measurements. ...
... This was in accordance with calculations of tunneling probabilities through the Coulomb wall, indicating that any detectable neutron emission between free Deuterons at 0,1 ... 1 eV kinetic energy seems impossible. Further investigations could have been stopped at this point, stating a disapproval of nuclear radiations announced in [1]. ...
... But nevertheless at least two questions where still open, if for Deuterons loaded in solids due-to electron screening of Coulomb repulsion and dynamical processes in the lattice -an upper level of neutron emission could be established in low background measurements and -physical information could be derived about the mechanisms for such processes, if detectable. This was the motivation for a detailed experimental program at TUD from April 1989 until December 1991 (see table 1), results of which are summarized briefly in the following. The first electrolytic cell used consists of a Palladium cathode (slab, 60x47x3 mm 3 ) and Platinum anode (grid, at distance 2... 5 mm), using LiOHxH 2 O (0,1 M) in D 2 O (99,8%) electrolyte at temperatures between 20 to 22 o C. The current density related to the geometrical surface of the cathode was 50 mA cm -2 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The article contains a recollection of results on neutron and tritium production obtained in the early phase of research into nuclear reactions in condensed matter. Some examples are discussed, showing results taken from different publications at that time. Finally the question is discussed about the outcome from these old investigations, looking back from the actual situation of the research into Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and from new results presented in some recent publications.
... Cold fusion experiments were described with atomic deuterium occluded in the cubic face-centered palladium lattice having 4 octahedral interstitials besides 8 tetrahedral ones in the unit-cell. First evidenced by Fleischmann and Pons [31], the reader may follow an explanation of lattice assisted low-energy nuclear fusion recently given by Garai [32], where two protons respectively deuterons are confined in the octahedral interstitials of the cubic Pd lattice. Theoretical considerations of Gurbich [33] indicate the problem of cold fusion. ...
... Green straight line: linear approximation of the high-kT relativistic data. Cyan curve: approximation according to relation(31). ...
... The events described above took place over 30 years ago. 2 In the fateful press conference, 3 the researchers reported the emission of an anomalous amount of heat, as well as small amounts of 4 He, 3 H, and neutrons. 4 The world was captivated by the extraordinary speculation that they might represent products of a sustained nuclear fusion reaction involving 2 H atoms dissolved in the palladium cathode. ...
... The events described above took place over 30 years ago. 2 In the fateful press conference, 3 the researchers reported the emission of an anomalous amount of heat, as well as small amounts of 4 He, 3 H, and neutrons. 4 The world was captivated by the extraordinary speculation that they might represent products of a sustained nuclear fusion reaction involving 2 H atoms dissolved in the palladium cathode. The announcement stunned both the electrochemistry and physics communities, since it violated well-established physical laws. ...
... In conclusion, we want to stress again that the discovery of the nuclear reactions in the CF material at around room temperature [14] revealed importance of the nuclear-force The examples pointed out above may be a scarce ones out of many possible cases where the nuclear-force interaction (or the weak interaction) plays a decisive role in the realization of interesting physics and chemistry in the solids which we did not know all of them, yet. One of the most interesting fields of this new phenomena may be the biological system where we have already discovered some examples of the CFP after many long investigations since 1799 when Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin observed one of the biotransmutation without satisfactory explanations for them (e.g., Section 10.1 in [3], [66] [67]). ...
... " ([14] Table 1).Table 1. Generation of excess enthalpy in Pd cathodes as a function of current density and electrode size ([14] Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Since the discovery of nuclear reactions in PdDx alloys in 1989, there have been accumulated very many experimental data sets showing existence of nuclear reactions in materials composed of lattice nuclei of transition metals and occluded hydrogen isotopes (let us call them the CF materials, for short) resulting in various nuclear products such as transmuted nuclei, tritium, neutrons, and others accompanied with large excess energies at relatively low temperatures up to 1000 ºC (let us call these whole events the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), for short). As the cause of these nuclear reactions in the CFP, we have to accept the existence of the interactions between nucleons in the CF material through the nuclear force, i.e. the weak interaction (let us call this interaction the nuclear-force interaction, for short) recognized in the nuclear physics. Before the discovery of the CFP, existence of the nuclear-force interaction in solid state physics had been known only in limited phenomena as the neutron diffraction and the Moessbauer effect. Even if the nuclear force has recognized as the cause of nuclear reactions observed in the CFP since its discovery in 1989, there should be its fingerprints in other phenomena in solid state physics and chemistry occurring in materials with similar compositions to the CF material (let us call these materials the nuclear-solid materials, for short). Since the Graham's discovery of the absorption of hydrogen by palladium and palladium-silver alloys in 1866, the physics of the transition metal hydrides has shown a great development revealing various characteristics of the physics in them especially the extremely high 2 diffusivity of hydrogen in metals and alloys (let us call this phenomenon as the super-diffusivity, for short). We have noticed the relation between the CFP and the super-diffusivity and explained some characteristics of the CFP using the data of the super-diffusivity. Thus, we may be able to expect that the nuclear-force interaction between lattice nuclei and occluded hydrogen isotopes will give explanations for some of the unsolved problems in the super-diffusivity in the solid state-nuclear physics. On the other hand in the electrochemistry, there have been observed such wonderful events closely related to the interaction between the transition metals and the hydrogen at the electrode surface as the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) and the underpotential deposition (UPD). There are many characteristics of the HER and UPD remaining unexplained for more than 80 years after the formulation of the problem in 1933 by A.N. Frumkin. In relation to the nuclear-force interaction recognized in the CFP, we can apply the same new concept to investigate the unsolved problems in the HER and UPD in the solid state-nuclear chemistry. Furthermore, there have been discovered the exotic nuclei with a large unbalance of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the isolated nucleus in these 20 years. The halos observed in these exotic nuclei have shed light on the new features of the nucleon interaction in the isolated nucleus. We may expect existence of new features of exotic nuclei in the nuclear-solid materials where the lattice nuclei and the occluded hydrogen isotopes interact through the nuclear-force interaction. These themes in the nuclear-solid materials pointed out above may be only a little examples in our knowledge in the solid state-nuclear sciences where the nuclear-force interaction between the occluded hydrogen isotopes and the lattice nuclei plays decisive roles. We want to throw light on the physics and chemistry of the nuclear-solid materials composed of specific elements (including transition metals) and occluded hydrogen isotopes by taking up the possible participation of the nuclear-force interaction which has not noticed its importance seriously until now. In this paper, we point out several characteristic events in the super-diffusivity, HER, UPD, and the exotic nucleus in the nuclear-solid materials which seems to have close relations to the nuclear-force interaction noticed in the CFP.
... Introduction. Observation of an anomalously large amount of energy in the electrolysis of heavy water reported by Fleischman and Pons over thirty years ago was interpreted as a result of deuteron-deuteron (DD) fusion reactions in the Palladium electrode [1,2]. However, the lack of experimental reproducibility and expected nuclear reaction products observed in accelerator experiments at higher deuteron energies caused strong skepticism about the data. ...
... The abnormal phenomenon that metal lattice absorbed in a certain amount of deuterium or hydrogen atoms under certain conditions could be released excess heat exceeding chemical energy in the field of condensed matter nuclear science continues to attract the attention and research from scientists since 1989 [1]. Scientists and researchers have tried to use different ways to get excess heat energy in many systems [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of low energy nuclear reaction, isothermal calorimetry is often used to calculate the excess heat power released in the system. Due to the structure of the reaction chamber and the differences of the thermal conductivities of the gases used in the calibration and triggering experiments, the chamber will have different temperature gradient or distribution which leads to errors when calculating the excess heat power using isothermal calorimetry. Different gas pressure also has an influence on the heat transfer.
... The abnormal phenomenon that solids containing deuterium (hydrogen) could be released excess heat exceeding chemical energy in the field of condensed matter nuclear science continues to attract the attention and research [1,2] from scientists since 1989 [3]. For the existing or newly proposed theories do not match with experimental results well, instability and unsatisfactory repetition rate of experimental results have caused many scientists to hold pessimistic and negative attitudes [4,5] towards the research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Measurement of a reaction between deuterium (hydrogen) gas and materials using a calorimeter which is calibrated by nitrogen will show erroneous excess heat power production due to the structure of the reaction chamber and the difference of thermal conductivity of the gases used in the calibration and triggering experiments, which leads to the energy generated in the chamber of the calorimeter has not been totally measured. The error is not obvious at low applied power, and it increases significantly with the increase of applied power. This insidious error is discussed by using a stable heat-flow (Seebeck) calorimeter and procedures to reduce error are put forward. And the authenticity of Rossi’s patent is questioned.
... In 1989, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons were catapulted into the limelight with their claim to have achieved fusion in a simple tabletop apparatus working at room temperature [1]. Their report described an experiment involving electrolysis using D2O in which the cathode fused (melting point 1544 ºC) and partially vaporized, and the fume cupboard housing the experimental cell was partially destroyed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the nano-metal particles have the high capability to generate the very high excess heat due to the larger reaction site on the nano-metal particle, the mechanism of triggering Cold Fusion with nano-metal particles is not clear so far. In most reactors with nano-metal particles have no triggering mechanism except the heater and conventional heating seems to cause the agglomeration, thus currently composite nano-metals are used in the reactor. In this MHE (nano-Metal Hydrogen Energy) Reactor, the composite nano-metal particles have the excellent heat generation without agglomeration, however its mechanism of trigger of cold fusion and D absorption is not clear so far. Thus, I will explain my hypo of the mechanism of this reactor with composite nano-metal as follows. This reactor has no nano-particle potential control and heating is indirect and insufficient. Because nano-metal particles are embedded in the pores of ZrO2, nano-metals inside the pore can have the cold fusion without cooling by D2O, it helps the triggering of cold fusion. Although without electrical connection of nano-metal particle in the pore of ZrO2, they have the stray capacitance and can have the D + current to the capacitance and thus I presumed that it is possible for the limited amount of total ion current by charging the nano-metal parasitic capacitance, and it can create the locally high temperature in nano-particle embedded in pore of ZrO2. Because nano-particles have the space between its body and pore wall which prevent cooling by D2O. Because they have the excellent heat resistance to prevent agglomeration so the excess heat generation is excellent. However MHE (nano-Metal Hydrogen Energy) Reactors have no mechanism of potential control of nano-metal particles Thus, I presumed that this reactor must have the positive potential electrode around particles for D loading, which is probably the heater around particles. Because the heater has the temperature gradient on metal chassis, heater metal can have the potential difference due to William Thomson effect which is that lower temperature region has the negative potential. Composite particle is excellent to prevent agglomeration of particle due to ZrO2 property of very high heat resistance, Thus, I propose that new reactor design with nano-metal particle potential control with parallel metal plate, and nano-metal particles are on the flat plate and they can be heated directly by the flat plate with the heater on the backside of the plate. Other Reactor is for the prevention of nano-metal particle not the composite particle to prevent agglomeration by the charging of the same charge to have the coulomb repulsive force to keep a distance between the particles, enabled by the switching of the metal plate voltage and the location control of particle by ultrasonic oscillator. This Reactor can run Cold Fusion and D loading simultaneously by adjusting the electrode voltage and location of particle with ultrasonic oscillator. I also propose the transmutation reactor with Cold Fusion with H2 gas through the diffusion of thin metal layer with H + supply from the backside.
... "Capsules", according to the author, are plasma formations with a strong electromagnetic field inside. Since the diameters Numerous experiments have shown that transmutation reactions are carried out from room temperature of a condensed matter [23] to temperatures of ~2000°С. One of the characteristic temperatures favorable for triggering transmutation reactions is the temperature range of 300-400°С. ...
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The article presents a number of experiments in liquid media on the transformation (transmutation) of atomic nuclei of some chemical elements into atomic nuclei of other chemical elements. In the theory of low-energy nuclear reactions, the transmutation of atomic nuclei occurs in strong magnetic fields, more than 30 T. Magnetic fields appear in ionized liquid media as a result of the unidirectional motion of an ensemble of electrons. The exchange interaction between electrons with parallel spins forms a self-consistent field in the medium, in which electrons pair into orthobosons with S = 1ћ. Orthobosons are attracted to each other and form orthoboson “solenoids” - “capsules” with strong magnetic fields inside. “Capsules” can fly out of liquid media, and then they are registered as unknown particles with strange properties. In some cases, when an electric current passes through the liquid, the electric current can be realized in the form of orthobosonic “solenoids” connected in continuous “filaments” from one electrode to another. Such “filaments” exhibit characteristics of superconductivity.
... Investigation of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) for about 30 years since its discovery in PdDx by M. Fleischmann et al. in 1989 has revealed existence of nuclear reactions in specific solids (CF materials) at near room-temperature without any mechanism of acceleration for particles in the system. The Cold Fusion Phenomenon (CFP) is defined as a phenomenon including nuclear reactions observed in such materials (CF materials) composed of host elements and hydrogen ...
... A classic case of an electrolytic LENR is the Fleischmann-Pons "cold fusion" experiments (Fleischmann and Pons, 1989). Their experiments are typical of LENR electrolytic reactors, and they used platinum-group metals as anodes and cathodes. ...
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There have been numerous low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experiments that produce results suggestive of nuclear fusion. These experiments stretch back from the early 1900s to the present. Significant excess amounts of heat are emitted from these reactions-greater than their electrical and chemical energy inputs. Most of these LENRs, or "new hydrogen energy experiments," are based on electrolytic or electrical discharge plasma reactors. Results suggestive of fusion include the detection of gamma-and X-ray radiation; alpha, beta, neutron, and proton emissions; as well as Helium 4. X-ray spectroscopic analysis of the metal electrodes used in LENR experiments has resulted in the discovery of new elements not originally present in the electrode metal. There are no currently accepted fusion synthesis pathways to account for the appearance of these new elements. Metal-oxygen fusion (MOXY) can explain many LENR results. At the nanoscale level, MOXY is more characteristic of fusion occurring within the degenerate matter of stellar cores. As a process, MOXY can be classified as a form of hot fusion. MOXY can help explain the fusion synthesis and decay pathways observed in LENRs. The MOXY process appears to have a greater propensity to occur when using elements with greater atomic weight, as well as with heavier isotopes of elements. Significant reductions in heavy radioactive nucleotides are observed with MOXY fusion. Controversy exists on the subject of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) experimental claims. Some researchers who conducted these experiments and allege the result of fusion have not been able to reproduce the reactions consistently. Many LENR experiments produce intermittent,
... Using the term "cold fusion" in scientific reports dates back to the 1950s to describe muon-catalyzed fusion (Laurence, 1956;Rafelski and Jones, 1987), but the main and inextricable application of this term is now to describe a wonderful scientific claim sensationalized in 1989 by two electrochemists, Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons, from Utah University (Fleischmann and Pons, 1989). They claimed that the generated thermal energy in heavy water electrolysis using a Pd cathode exceeded the energy produced by all known chemical reactions in those conditions. ...
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The extraordinary claim of observing nuclear fusion products and excess heat during heavy water electrolysis at room temperature was sensationalized in 1989. Unfortunately, it was rejected quickly by scientific communities. At the last attempt to access the accuracy of the previous works in this field, a Google-funded team tried to examine all reported works with their corresponding conditions to confirm the claimed results. Finally, they found that there was no reasonable proof of nuclear fusion reactions under the reported conditions. Here, we introduced a method to apply a unique triggering potential waveform to a simple two micro-shaft system in both heavy and light concentrated salinity waters which resulted in detecting 4-helium, gamma rays, and heat repeatedly and reproducibly. In this work, two types of nuclear fusion reactions were observed: 1) A D + D fusion reaction in potassium halide salt solutions in heavy water and 2) a new type of fusion reaction in carbon-containing salt solutions in both light and heavy waters. In the latter type, it was proved that the existence of carbon atoms in an anion structure is critical to observe the 4-helium, gamma rays, and heat.
... Это подтверждается в течение всего экспериментального времени -120 ч, в течение которого выделилось больше, чем 4 МДж/см 3 электродного объема». И тут же авторы восклицают: «Невероятно, что это могло быть благодаря чему-то другому, нежели ядерному процессу» [55]. ...
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Исследованы процессы взаимодействия металлов, сплавов и композитов с водой в целях получения водорода с последующим его использованием в машинах и установках различного назначения. Может быть полезна для аспирантов, инженеров, научных работников, интересующихся различными проблемами применения энергетически активных металлов и водорода.
... In 1989 M. Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons [1] announced that when using palladium as the metal cathode and platinum as the cathode to electrolyze heavy water, they observed an exothermic phenomenon far beyond ordinary physics and chemistry. It is guessed that at the electrolysis process of heavy hydrogen atoms, a large amount of energy is released due to polymerization reaction for some reason. ...
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The research on cold fusion phenomenon has been in the past 30 years. Based on the research results of the predecessors, this article comprehensively describes the research results of the predecessors on the cold fusion phenomenon, and discusses it theoretically and experimentally. From the perspective of thermodynamics, this paper proposes to charge the palladium wire with hydrogen at low temperature to increase the frequency of abnormal heat generation, and gives a calculation formula for the hydrogen charging rate of the palladium wire. At the same time, a theoretical solution model for the isotope effect on the abnormal heat release phenomenon is proposed.
... Despite the rejection of Fleischmann and Pons experiments [1,2] by mainstream science, in the past three decades many hundreds electrochemically induced excess heat, beyond the quantity of chemical reactions, has been reported from wellestablished laboratories [3]. The measured 4 He fission production in the experiments gives the correct magnitude for typical deuterium fusion. ...
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The required conditions for igniting and maintaining the lattice-assisted nuclear reactions are different. The required conditions are strict for the ignition, and looser for maintaining the reaction. The ignited reaction is stable and remains active for a very long period of time. These observations indicate that the experimental conditions in the deuterium-palladium electrochemical system meet the requirements for sustaining the reaction, and the so-called reproducibility problem arising from the uncertainty of ignition of the process. It is hypothesized that muon catalyzed fusion ignites the reaction, which then becomes self-sustained. The random nature of the cosmic ray produced muons is consistent with the observed reproducibility problem. Cosmic ray muons, collimated by electric, and/or magnetic fields, might be the right tool to reliably ignite the LANR process. The optimum energy and flux density of muons, which can activate the fusion, could be experimentally defined. Planetary and astrophysical aspects of the proposed hypothesis are briefly discussed. Keywords: muon catalyzed fusion, cosmic rays, lattice assisted nuclear reaction, cold fusion, internal heat production of giant planets, ignition of stars, Despite the rejection of Fleischmann and Pons experiments [1, 2] by mainstream science, in the past three decades many hundreds electrochemically induced excess heat, beyond the quantity of chemical reactions, has been reported from well-established laboratories [3]. The measured 4 He fission production in the experiments gives the correct magnitude for typical deuterium fusion. In many cases, the measured quantity of 4 He is higher than the atmospheric level, which excludes the possibility of contamination [4]. These experiments convincingly demonstrate that lattice-assisted nuclear reactions are real, even though reproducibility remains a problem. The required conditions for successful experiments are deduced, and well known for the palladium-deuterium electrochemical system. However, satisfying all the known required conditions still does not guarantee that the reaction will be active. Interesting feature of the experiments is that the required conditions for the initiation and for the maintenance of the reaction are different. It is well established that one of the ingredients of a successful experiment is that the loading ratio of D/Pd should be higher than 0.85% [5]. However, if the reaction is started then the required D/Pd ratio can be reduced significantly without affecting the reaction [6]. Laser excitement can start the electrochemically induced excess heat production in the palladium-deuterium system [7]. However the reaction remains active even if the laser is turned off.
... Other nuclear reactions in H(0) may be the main processes considered to be cold fusion, with very little of normal fusion products like 4 He and neutrons out. 3. So-called cold fusion according to Fleischmann and Pons [8] is probably due to the condensation reactions of H(0) as mentioned above and also due to the spontaneous nuclear processes which take place in H(0) [9]. Such spontaneous nuclear processes are similar to those induced by pulsed lasers [10e12] which do not give 4 He and neutrons as products but instead give mesons, especially charged and neutral kaons [13e15]. ...
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h i g h l i g h t s The use of hydrogen nuclear fuel is tabulated for several types of fusion reactors. The steps in the formation of ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) at surfaces are described. The main function of the catalyst is to give enough density of bound alkali atoms. High density of alkali atoms is required so that alkali RM clusters can be formed. The use of catalysts forming H(0) in chemical industry is investigated. Available online xxx Keywords: Catalyst Ultra-dense hydrogen Nuclear fusion a b s t r a c t Condensation of hydrogen Rydberg atoms (highly electronically excited) into the lowest energy state of condensed hydrogen i.e. the ultra-dense hydrogen phase, H(0), has gained increased attention not only from the fundamental aspects but also from the applied point of view. The physical properties of ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) were recently reviewed (Physica Scripta 2019 https://doi.org/10.1088/1402-4896/ab1276), summarizing the results reported in 50 publications during the last ten years. The main application of H(0) so far is as the fuel and working medium in nuclear particle generators and nuclear fusion reactors which are under commercial development. The first fusion process showing sustained operation above break-even was published in 2015 (AIP Advances) and used ultra-dense deuterium D(0) as fuel. The first generator giving a high-intensity muon flux intended for muon-catalyzed fusion reactors was patented in 2017, using H(0) as the working medium. Here, we first focus on the different nuclear processes using hydrogen isotopes for energy generation, and then on the detailed processes of formation of H(0). The production of H(0) employs heterogeneous catalysts which are active in hydrogen transfer reactions. Iron oxide-based, alkali promoted catalysts function well, but also platinum group metals and carbon surfaces are active in this process. The clusters of highly excited Rydberg hydrogen atoms H(l) are formed upon interaction with alkali Rydberg matter. The final conversion step from ordinary hydrogen Rydberg matter H(l) to H(0) is spontaneous and does not require a solid surface. It is concluded that the exact choice of catalyst is not very important. It is also concluded that the crucial feature of the catalyst is to provide excited alkali atoms at a sufficiently high surface density and in this way enabling formation and
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The present work focus on introducing different electrodes and electrolytes to trigger the cold fusion nuclear reaction process and thereby validating the feasibility and reproducibility of the reaction rate and excess heat density produced. Single cell calorimetric method has been used for the experiment. The reaction rate and excess enthalpy generation was found to be depending on certain parameters and these parameters, when controlled accurately, can ignite the fusion process with considerably high steam generation. A maximum temperature of 120 °C is observed from the experiment with tungsten as cathode, stainless steel as anode and 10 g KOH as electrolytic solution. NaOH and Na2CO3 as electrolytes, tabulated a peak temperature of 110 °C and 103 °C respectively. The present work could be a base to conduct experiments by varying the electrode materials, separation distance, electrolytic solution and voltage density.
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Since the discovery of nuclear reactions in PdDx alloys in 1989, there have been accumulated very many experimental data sets showing existence of nuclear reactions in materials composed of lattice nuclei of transition metals and occluded hydrogen isotopes (let us call them the CF materials, for short) resulting in various nuclear products such as transmuted nuclei, tritium, neutrons, and others accompanied with large excess energies at relatively low temperatures up to 1000 ºC (let us call these whole events the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), for short). As the cause of these nuclear reactions in the CFP, we have to accept the existence of the interactions between nucleons in the CF material through the nuclear force (let us call this interaction the nuclear-force interaction, for short) recognized in the nuclear physics. Before the discovery of the CFP, existence of the nuclear-force interaction in solid state physics had been known only in limited phenomena as the neutron diffraction and the Moessbauer effect. Even if the nuclear force has recognized as the cause of nuclear reactions observed in the CFP since its discovery in 1989, there should be its fingerprints in other phenomena in solid state physics and chemistry occurring in materials with similar compositions to the CF material (let us call these materials the nuclear-solid materials, for short). Since the Graham's discovery of the absorption of hydrogen by palladium and palladium-silver alloys in 1866, the physics of the transition metal hydrides has shown a great development revealing various characteristics of the physics in them especially the extremely high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals and alloys (let us call this phenomenon as the super-diffusivity, for short). We have noticed the relation between the CFP and the super-diffusivity and explained some characteristics of the CFP using the data of the super-diffusivity. Thus, we may be able to expect that the nuclear-force interaction between 2 lattice nuclei and occluded hydrogen isotopes will give explanations for some of the unsolved problems in the super-diffusivity in the solid state-nuclear physics. On the other hand in the electrochemistry, there have been observed such wonderful events closely related to the interaction between the transition metals and the hydrogen at the electrode surface as the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) and the underpotential deposition (UPD). There are many characteristics of the HER and UPD remaining unexplained for more than 80 years after the formulation of the problem in 1933 by A.N. Frumkin. In relation to the nuclear-force interaction recognized in the CFP, we can apply the same new concept to investigate the unsolved problems in the HER and UPD in the solid state-nuclear chemistry. Furthermore, there have been discovered the exotic nuclei with a large unbalance of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the isolated nucleus in these 20 years. The halos observed in these exotic nuclei have shed light on the new features of the nucleon interaction in the isolated nucleus. We may expect existence of new features of exotic nuclei in the nuclear-solid materials where the lattice nuclei and the occluded hydrogen isotopes interact through the nuclear-force interaction. These themes in the nuclear-solid materials pointed out above may be only a little examples in our knowledge in the solid state-nuclear sciences where the nuclear-force interaction between the occluded hydrogen isotopes and the lattice nuclei plays decisive roles. We want to throw light on the physics and chemistry of the nuclear-solid materials composed of specific elements (including transition metals) and occluded hydrogen isotopes by taking up the possible participation of the nuclear-force interaction which has not noticed its importance seriously until now. In this paper, we point out several characteristic events in the super-diffusivity, HER, UPD, and the exotic nucleus in the nuclear-solid materials which seems to have close relations to the nuclear-force interaction noticed in the CFP.
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A heat-flow calorimeter was introduced into the D/Pd gas-loading system to confirm the reliability and accuracy of the results obtained by isothermal calorimetry in the previous work. The effects of input power (electrical current) and pressure on excess heat were discussed under different experimental conditions. The results showed that the heat-flow calorimetry had higher accuracy than isothermal calorimetry. Under deuterium pressure of 30 kPa, the excess heat power decreased with the decrease of the input power, and the maximum excess heat power was (6.40 ± 0.19) W with an input power of 380 W. In the experiments of discussing the relationship between pressure and excess heat, the results showed there was a maximum excess power of (10.28 ± 3.40) W when the deuterium pressure was 220 Pa. The excess heat measured in the system was far more than that in chemical reaction. The results of SEM and EDS implied that excess heat came from nuclear transmutation processes.
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Scientists have the same weaknesses and temptations as people in any other line of work. One could argue that scientists require a stronger moral foundation since they receive considerable resources from grant funding, but they do not have a direct supervisor. Faculty are their own bosses, a situation that many people would regard as desirable. In order to maintain that status, university professors must bring in money. The competition for funding increases every year as more scientists are hired in universities and state and federal budgets do not keep up with that growth. Since universities depend on the income that professors generate, and government funding is not keeping pace, there is increasing pressure to work with corporations, patent or even found a company. While the traditional pressures on scientists had more to do with prestige and recognition, today recognition goes hand-in-hand with being a producer. It is an enormous challenge to manage many projects and responsibilities without a mistake or ethical lapse. Many research misconduct cases arise because of sloppy work, not checking a student’s manuscript or quickly writing the last section of a grant application without proper reflection. When seen in the light of history, we can see that moral failing has been part of science from the beginning, but today the challenges are greater than ever because of the financial pressure.
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The excess heat generation of Cold Fusion is determined by the total fusion reaction site on the metal surface and the supply speed of D to the reaction site. In order to increase the reaction site, generally nano-roughness or nano-structure is used on the metal surface, and it is believed that conceptually D supply through the very thin metal film is the best option in the cold fusion community, however, the mechanism is unclear and no available reactor at the engineering stage is not available due to the difficulty to fabricate such thin film structure with sufficient strength and thinness. Thus, I proposed the conceptualized Reactor with the recently developed nano porous metal papers, which has the larger number of the reaction site on the fiber surface, and it is considered to be thin enough and strong enough for Cold fusion metal. The D can be supplied from the back surface and cold fusion is on the front-surface with the proper voltage applied to each counter-electrodes; for D loading counter-electrode is with positive and metal surface potential is negative, and for Cold fusion counter-electrode is with negative for positive metal surface potential. Because this configuration enables the 4He-ash ejection from at the surface T site, and it will improve the performance of cold fusion. Because the nano-porous paper is made of the fiber of nickel, it is semi-transparent, and do not have the capability to block the D2O and H2O. Thus, the nickel metal deposition the backside surface of this nano-porous nickel paper can block the D2O/H2O mixing in the reactor; where H2O is in the Cold Fusion side and D2O is in the D loading side.
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In our previous and recent publications related with Cold nuclear fusion experiments and theory, we have made an attempt to explain the mystery of origin of energy liberation mechanism in cold nuclear fusion. In this paper, by applying and slightly modifying the cold nuclear experimental procedures, we try to explore the possibility of understanding and producing Gold with Tungsten like heavy and cheap metals via ‘safe and secured’ Hydration mechanism having fast and repeatable cycles in small quantities. Thus, we are providing an experimental procedure for understanding the scope of cold nuclear fusion in a metallurgical perceptive. Really, if ‘cold nuclear fusion’ is having any notable significance in current science and technology, as it seems to be endowed with nuclear isotopic changes, apart from energy liberation mechanisms, it can be studied and validated in this way also. It needs further study with respect to modern metallurgical methods having 3000 deg. C and recent ‘ambient temperature lattice confinement’ technique developed by NASA. Considering the green and clean innovative applications of cold nuclear fusion, as suggested and advised by the Google team and NASA, we appeal the science community to look into the issues of cold nuclear fusion in a positive approach.
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The structure–activity relationship is a cornerstone topic in catalysis, which lays the foundation for the design and functionalization of catalytic materials. Of particular interest is the catalysis of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) by palladium (Pd), which is envisioned to play a major role in realizing a hydrogen‐based economy. Interestingly, experimentalists observed excess heat generation in such systems, which became known as the debated “cold fusion” phenomenon. Despite the considerable attention on this report, more fundamental knowledge, such as the impact of the formation of bulk Pd hydrides on the nature of active sites and the HER activity, remains largely unexplored. In this work, classical electrochemical experiments performed on model Pd(hkl) surfaces, “noise” electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (n‐EC‐STM), and density functional theory are combined to elucidate the nature of active sites for the HER. Results reveal an activity trend following Pd(111) > Pd(110) > Pd(100) and that the formation of subsurface hydride layers causes morphological changes and strain, which affect the HER activity and the nature of active sites. These findings provide significant insights into the role of subsurface hydride formation on the structure–activity relations toward the design of efficient Pd‐based nanocatalysts for the HER. Using a combination of experimental and theoretical approaches, the structure–activity relations that govern the complex electrochemical processes for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) on Pd electrodes is reported. The formation of subsurface hydride results in morphological changes, inducing a strain, which affects the activity toward the HER.
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In interpreting the reactions of low-temperature fusion of nuclei, the conclusion about the possibility of the appearance on hadronic scales of electron pairs ((ee)-pairs) connected by contact (non-potential) interaction is of decisive importance. Before the development of hadronic mechanics, such a possibility could not be taken into account within the framework of quantum mechanics. There are reasons to consider such pairs to be massive and stable. The presence of (ee) - pairs in the internuclear space ensures the convergence of nuclei at the critical distances Rc ∼ 10−13 m, necessary for the start of fusion. Attention is drawn to the simplicity of registration of (ee)-pairs by changing the spectra of characteristic X-ray radiation of atoms. A qualitative explanation of the reason for the lack of registration of γ-radiation is given. It is noted that the use of metals saturated with hydrogen in the synthesis of the lightest elements is also associated with the formation of (ee)-pairs. Attention is focused on the fact that confirmation of the existence of (ee)-pairs opens up broad prospects for the study of a new state of matter.
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Development of a model of a quasi-molecular state for low-temperature synthesis of nuclei and interpretation of the formation of chemical elements in the process of vacuum melting of a metal by an electron beam Kashchenko, Mikhail, Kashchenko, Nadezhda Mikhail P. Kashchenko, Nadezhda M. Kashchenko, "Development of a model of a quasi-molecular state for low-temperature synthesis of nuclei and interpretation of the formation of chemical elements in the process of vacuum melting of a metal by an electron beam," ABSTRACT Earlier, a model of an intermediate quasimolecular state (IQS) was proposed, aimed at finding an electronic configuration that would allow the approach of nuclei to a critical distance sufficient for the start of low-temperature nuclear fusion. Рairs of electrons (with zero spins) were located in the same circular orbit. The size of a pair of about 1F = 10 −15 m is due to the contact interaction of electrons exceeding the Coulomb repulsion. It was shown that a critical approach is achieved even when the mass of a pair is equal to twice the mass of a free electron. The condition for localization of a pair on a hadron scale allows one to associate a pair with an energy of about 400 MeV. Therefore, in a realistic IQS model, pairing of no more than a fifth of the electrons is required. The observed synthesis of elements then obtains a completely natural explanation, which is close in essence to muon catalysis. The variants of synthesis when melting a metal with electron beams, or when exploding wires and foils when passing electric current pulses, are naturally considered in the scheme of binary reactions. Moreover, the synthesis is realized as an exothermic reaction and for the selection of the initial isotope with a charge number > 26 in the region of a monotonic decrease in the dependence of the specific binding energy on the mass number. Experiments on the melting of metals with one stable isotope are proposed. The results are discussed.
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Positive ions confined in a solid state lattice might be driven to low energy reactions by exploring, through quantum control, the 3-body wave function enhancements of the scar effect.
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For palladium (Pd) as a typical high-pressure standard material, studying its structural changes and thermodynamic properties under extreme conditions is widely demanded and challenging. Particularly, the solid-solid phase transition process of Pd under shock loading is understood still scarcely. In this paper, using the classical molecular dynamics simulations with embedded atom method (EAM) based on the interatomic potential, we investigate the phase transition of single crystal Pd from atomic scale under shock loading. A series of structural features is observed in a pressure range of 0–375 GPa, revealing that the structure feature transforms from the initial face-centered cubic (FCC) structure to the stacking faults body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure, and finally complete melting. Under shock loading of \begin{document}$ \left\langle {100} \right\rangle $\end{document} oriented bulk Pd, we find the transformation to BCC structure can take place almost at 70.0 GPa, which is much lower than the previous static calculation result. In addition, we find that the phase transition depends on the direction initially impacting crystal. Under impacting along the \begin{document}$ \left\langle {110} \right\rangle $\end{document} direction and the \begin{document}$ \left\langle {111} \right\rangle $\end{document} direction, the FCC-BCC phase transition pressures increase to 135.8 GPa and 165.4 GPa, respectively. Also, the introduction of defects will increase the phase transition pressure of FCC-BCC by 20–30 GPa in comparison with perfect crystals, which is verified by the distribution of the potential energy. An interesting phenomenon that FCC-BCC transition pressure of Pd decreases under shock loading is found in this work, which provides a new theoretical insight into the application of high pressure experiments in the future.
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Positive ions confined in a solid state lattice might be driven to low energy reactions by exploring, through quantum control, the 3-body wave function enhancements of the scar effect. In March 1989 Fleischmann and Pons [1] claimed to have obtained, at room temperature, nuclear fusion with deuterium atoms absorbed by electrolysis into a palladium electrode. Similar claims were made a few months later by another group [2]. These claims were met with justified disbelief, if nothing else on grounds of the energy scales involved. How could a shielding effect in the solid-state environment, presumably on the order of a few eV's, be sufficient to overcome the Coulomb barrier? Furthermore the results could not be reproduced by experiments under carefully controlled conditions ([3] and references therein). Most influential at the time was a theoretical paper by Leggett and Baym [4] which showed that, under equilibrium many-body conditions, the rate of tunneling to r = 0 separation of the deuterons was rigorously bounded above by the value calculated by the Born-Oppenheimer potential. Much too small to induce any meaningful fusion rates. In fact, if the effective repulsion at short distances of the deuterons were to be much reduced by the solid-state environment, then one would also expect a much increased binding affinity of α−particles to the metal, which is not observed. The work of Leggett and Baym definitely excludes any equilibrium, ground state or even low-lying effect. Although unlikely at low temperatures, non-equilibrium effects require a different approach, namely the study of the full dynamical n−body problem (n ≥ 3). When computing the ground state or the low lying excited states of two positively charged particles surrounded by an electron cloud, the separation r of the particles is treated as a parameter to be fixed by minimizing the energy associated to each wave function. This provides for each state (ground or excited) the mean value of the parameter r. If however, one wants information on the near-collision probability of a 3−body system, the important issue is the value of the wave function at r = 0, with r treated as a dynamical variable. *
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Since 1989 the announcement of “cold fusion” by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleishmann, “cold fusion” field has been surrounded by controversy. After three decades, this field is alive and has produced thousands of publications, most in dedicated periodic and conferences. This work aims at checking whether “cold fusion” fits in pathological science traits. For each type of experiment and year, this work counted the distinct research groups results (success or failure). Experimental results from many research groups suggest that nuclear reactions in solids are more complex than fusion (it is not only fusion) and that they need energy triggers like background radiation, meaning chemical configurations alone do not seem to generate nuclear reactions. Some types of experiments present rising trends (the field does not fit in pathological science model) and have potential to bring disruptive technologies. If confirmed, experimental results will require revisions of accepted nuclear models.
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Hydrogen production from water, or so-called water splitting, by using photocatalysts is intensively studied.
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I review my Cold fusion theory as described below, and I also propose the experiment to prove hydride bond compression theory based on the currently available reactors and propose the conceptualized Cold fusion reactors based on the cold fusion mechanism. (1) Cold fusion occurs at the metal surface T site by the compression of D 2 from the surrounding lattice atoms. (2) Compression of D-D bond can create the small D 2 based on the electron orbit theory, which has been proved experimentally and theoretically. (3) Bond compression is the common mechanism for the successful cold fusion reactors. (4) The reactors of Buffer energy nuclear fusion and E-CAT with Li-H utilize the bond compression of Li-H and created small hydrogen (tightly bound proton-electron pair) and Lattice Confinement Fusion utilize the bond compression of Er-D and create small D (tightly bound d and electron pair). (5) Because both E-CAT with Li-H nuclear reaction and Lattice Confinement fusion of Er-D have no mechanism of bond compression, their reactions can be unstable and irreproducible. (6) I propose that Lattice Confinement Fusion reactor will be used to prove the mechanism of bond compression to produce excess heat because it seems to be designed to prove the lattice confinement fusion because the transmuted element seems to be stable and it is easy to compress Er-d films by mechanical stress. (7) I propose the conceptualized Cold Fusion Reactor with nano-metal particles which potential is controlled by the metal 2 parallel electrode, and location of nano-particles can be mixed by ultrasonic oscillator to vibrate nano-metal particle in D2O to get the uniform reaction of D absorption and cold fusion. (8) Li-H bond can be compressed effectively by the collision of nano Li-H particle by ultrasonic oscillator vibration of Nano-Li-H particle, and can be compressed by 2 parallel metal plates directly This direct compression can be applicable to Lattice Confinement Fusion, however the efficiency is low due to the reaction of D to Er. I also propose the conceptualized Cold fusion reactor for transmutation with metal surface for Cold fusion to create small H2 and backside potential control for H absorption with H2 gas in place of D2 gas to prevent the heat generation because small D2 can be reduced by D+D fusion.
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