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# Whole-body vibration training increases muscle strength and mass in older women: A randomized-controlled trial

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## Abstract

To determine whether 10 weeks of whole-body vibration (WBV) training has a significant effect on strength, muscle mass, muscle power, and mobility in older women, 26 subjects were randomly assigned to a WBV training group (n=13; mean age 79 years) and a control (CON) group (n=13; mean age 76 years). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) increased 38.8% in the WBV group, without changes in the CON group. Electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis (VM), the vastus lateralis, and the biceps femoris (BF) did not change in either group. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area increased significantly after training in VM (8.7%) and BF (15.5%). Muscle power at 20%, 40%, and 60% MVIC decreased from pre-test to post-test in the CON group; however, WBV training prevented the decrease in the WBV group. Consequently, mobility, measured by the Timed Up and Go test, increased significantly after training (9.0%) only in the WBV group. Ten weeks of lower limb WBV training in older women produces a significant increase in muscle strength induced by thigh muscle hypertrophy, with no change in muscle power. The adaptations to WBV found in the present study may be of use in counteracting the loss of muscle strength and mobility associated with age-induced sarcopenia.

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... The average score of the methodological quality of the six selected studies, according to the PEDro scale, was six points, being classified as fair (Table 2). One study [41] was "high" quality and five were "fair" [42][43][44][45][46]. ...
... The level of evidence (NHMRC, 2003(NHMRC, -2007 [37] of three studies included in the current review was LE II [41,42,46], one study, LE III-1 [43], and two studies, LE III-2 [44,45]. ...
... The risk of bias of the included publications was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool ( Figure 3). All the studies [41][42][43]46] were classified as high risk of bias. ...
Article
Purpose Reduction of muscle strength and lean mass, increase in the risk of falls, higher mortality, and morbidity are observed in geriatric syndromes. Physical activity is an effective intervention in reducing signs and symptoms of geriatric syndromes. Whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) is an intervention with low cost and has been effective. Materials and methods The aim of this systematic review aimed to determine the effects of WBVE on neuromuscular activation and muscle strength in the elderly. Searches in PubMed, Embase, Science direct, and Scopus databases were conducted. Six studies, that analyzed the use of surface electromyography evaluating effects of WBVE on neuromuscular activation and muscle strength in the elderly, published in English, were included. Results Six studies were included. One hundred forty-six individuals participated in the studies and 24 were males (16.43%), with an average age of 74.20 ± 7.66 years. Five publications were defined as “fair” methodological in the PEDro scale, the risk of bias was high and the risk of bias for non-randomized studies was moderate/high. In general, increased strength muscle was reported in the studies. Conclusion This systematic review suggests that WBVE might promote desirable neuromuscular responses in healthy elderly. However, it is necessary to perform further studies to reinforce the reported findings. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • The reduction in lean mass and consequent reduction in muscle strength are present in healthy elderly people and the whole-body vibration exercise can reduce or alleviate these symptoms caused by the geriatric syndrome. • Whole-body vibration exercise is a training modality that increases neuromuscular activation and muscle strength. • Surface electromyography is a useful tool for the evaluation of the neuromuscular activation of the muscle fibers.
... Given the existing gap in the current scientific literature, the main objective of this study was to identify potential long-term adaptations of WBV superimposed with BFR regarding muscle mass, muscular strength and jump performance. A 10-week training program was implemented as this has been shown to increase muscular adaptations after WBV (15,27). ...
... In addition, cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis muscle (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis muscle (GM), isometric leg strength and jump performance was determined before and after completion of the intervention period. An intervention period of 10 weeks has previously been shown to facilitate functional and structural adaptations after WBV training (27). All outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. ...
... Thus, we speculate that future studies might verify significant effects of BFR in clinical populations with an already reduced muscle mass and function, who are also contraindicated to using high training loads. Although several investigations have demonstrated that an intervention period of 10-12 weeks to be adequate to elicit positive training adaptations after WBV training (15,27), we assume that a training of 10 weeks might not have been long enough to induce structural changes in female, recreationally active subjects. A post hoc power analysis revealed that even in these subjects, a total sample size of N 5 66 is needed to confirm these effects as statistically significant (a 5 0.05, power 5 0.8). ...
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Centner, C, Ritzmann, R, Gollhofer, A, and König, D. Effects of whole-body vibration training and blood flow restriction on muscle adaptations in women: a randomized controlled trial. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-The purpose of the present randomized controlled trial was to investigate potential synergistic effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle mass and strength, and jump performance. Fifty healthy women (26.1 ± 4.6 years) were randomly allocated to one of the following experimental groups: WBV training combined with BFR (WBV + BFR) or WBV only. Before and after the 10-week training intervention, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) was evaluated. Additionally, changes in muscle strength and jump performance were assessed before and after the intervention. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Vastus lateralis muscle CSA increased in both groups (p < 0.05). The increase in CSA was less pronounced after WBV than WBV + BFR, although the difference was not significant (p = 0.30). Likewise, GM CSA demonstrated comparable increases in both groups with a significant main effect of time (p < 0.05) but no interaction effect (p = 0.89). Assessment of muscular strength (p = 0.70) and jump performance (p = 0.40) did not reveal significant differences between the groups. The results of the present study indicate that the combination of WBV training with BFR shows a noticeable trend toward higher increases in muscle CSA compared with WBV alone. Despite the lack of significance, the results imply clinical relevance particularly in populations showing contraindications toward high training loads. This, however, needs to be confirmed in future research.
... In line with our findings, body composition did not change in nursing home residents (80-95 years) that completed 6 or 8 wks of lower limb static (30-50 Hz, 2-5 mm) (5) or dynamic WBVT (30-35 Hz, 4 mm) (1). Studies that reported changes in muscle tissue using WBVT used a training frequency of 3x/wk, higher exercise volume, and imaging methods of body composition (7,28). Increases in muscle cross sectional area (CSA) (Computed tomography) of the vastus medialis (+8.7%) and biceps femoris (+15.5%) were reported in community-dwelling females (79.3 years) following 10 wks of static and dynamic WBVT Hz, 2-4 mm) (28). ...
... Studies that reported changes in muscle tissue using WBVT used a training frequency of 3x/wk, higher exercise volume, and imaging methods of body composition (7,28). Increases in muscle cross sectional area (CSA) (Computed tomography) of the vastus medialis (+8.7%) and biceps femoris (+15.5%) were reported in community-dwelling females (79.3 years) following 10 wks of static and dynamic WBVT Hz, 2-4 mm) (28). Lean mass CSA of the right leg increased 3.4% (p < 0.001) after 12 months of International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com ...
... Compared to baseline measurements, isometric knee extension strength significantly improved by ~33.7% following 12 wks of WBVT, thereby supporting our alternative hypothesis. This is comparable to the 38.8% improvement in maximal isometric leg press strength reported in 26 older women (79 yrs) following 10 wks of unloaded static and dynamic lower body WBVT (28). Conversely, interventions of longer duration have reported smaller magnitudes of change compared to the present study. ...
Article
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International Journal of Exercise Science 13(3): 140-156, 2020. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished muscle strength, endurance, and weakened physical function. Physical frailty is often unaddressed clinically as it tends to manifest among chronic illnesses and sarcopenia, and consensus criteria for frailty diagnosis remains elusive. Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) has been used to improve deficits in lower body muscular strength and functional performance in healthy and high functioning older adults; therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of WBVT on physical frailty in skilled nursing home residents. This study compared the effects of 12 wks (2x/wk) of WBVT (n = 10) to standard care, which served as the control (CON: n = 10), on isometric knee extension strength (KE), body composition, and functional performance in 20 (16 female) pre-frail and frail skilled nursing home residents (82 ± 5 yrs). Frailty was assessed using the FRAIL scale and function was measured using the short physical performance battery (SPPB). WBVT consisted of 4 lower body exercises (partial squat, narrow squat, wide squat, calf raise) during vertical vibration (25-40 Hz). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (group x time) and post-hoc paired and independent t-tests. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There were significant group-by-time interactions for KE and SPPB. Post-hoc paired t-tests revealed that WBVT improved KE (22.3 ± 4.0 to 29.0 ± 4.5 kg) and improvement in SPPB performance approached significance (4.5 ± 2.3 to 5.2 ± 2.1 units, p = 0.089). WBVT was well tolerated and occurred without adverse health complications. WBVT can be used to counteract losses in leg strength without adverse health complications in skilled nursing home residents.
... , state that whole body vibration exercises applied three times a week over a three-month period to 19 people aged 50 and over, resulted in an increase in muscular strength and speed of muscular contraction, without an increase in muscular cross sectional area. On the other hand, Machado et al. (2010), state that WBV exercises carried out over a 10-week period in the form of squatting actions, and variations at 20-40Hz and 2-4mm resulted in increases in mobility, quadriceps hypertrophy and lower-extremity muscle power, yet did not cause increases in muscular strength or neural activity. Machado et al. (2010) at the end of their study, explain the observed increase in muscle strength with an increase in mobility. ...
... On the other hand, Machado et al. (2010), state that WBV exercises carried out over a 10-week period in the form of squatting actions, and variations at 20-40Hz and 2-4mm resulted in increases in mobility, quadriceps hypertrophy and lower-extremity muscle power, yet did not cause increases in muscular strength or neural activity. Machado et al. (2010) at the end of their study, explain the observed increase in muscle strength with an increase in mobility. Boagerts et al. (2007), state that WBV exercises are an effective method for preventing loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) that appears with ageing. ...
... Most of the studies included both men and women except for three with women only (32, 55, 62) and one with only men (45). Only one study failed to mention the eligibility criteria (44) and seven studies exhibited heterogeneity in their baselines (9,36,40,44,55,62,64 (9,30,31,36,40,44,53,56,69), the subjects maintained a static position, while they performed dynamic exercises in three studies (32, 50, 55), or both in four studies (45, 59, 62, 64). The most frequently used outcome was TUG, found in 14 studies (9, 30-32, 36, 40, 45, 50, 53, 55, 59, 62, 64, 69). ...
... Four meta analyses (9, 31, 36, 55) were conducted for the following outcomes: TUG test, 10MWT, Tinetti test and 6MWT. For the TUG test (Figure 2A), 10 studies were included in meta-analysis and four studies were excluded due to a lack of data despite requests to the authors (9,31,36,55). Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in time in favor of the WBV groups (SMD = −0.18; 95% CI: −0.33, −0.04), with consistent results (I 2 = 7%, p = 0.38). ...
Article
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Background: Whole-body vibration is commonly used in physical medicine and neuro-rehabilitation as a clinical prevention and rehabilitation tool. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the long-term effects of whole-body vibration training on gait in different populations of patients. Methods: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Sage and in study references for articles published prior to 7 December 2018. We used the keywords “vibration”, “gait” and “walk” in combination with their Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology was used. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in English peer-reviewed journals were included. All patient categories were selected. The duration of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) training had to be at least four weeks. The outcomes accepted could be clinical or biomechanical analysis. The selection procedure was conducted by two rehabilitation experts and disagreements were resolved by a third expert. Descriptive data regarding subjects, interventions, types of vibration, training parameters and main results on gait variables were collected and summarized in a descriptive table. The quality of selected studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The level of evidence was determined based on the results of meta-analysis (effect size), statistical heterogeneity (I2). Results: Twenty-five studies were included in meta-analysis for quantitative synthesis. In elderly subjects, small but significant improvements in the TUG test were found in the WBV groups with a strong level of evidence. In stroke patients, significant improvement in the 6MWT was found after WBV interventions, with a strong level of evidence. Results were inconsistent in COPD patients. Similarly, the heterogeneous results in the TUG test in patients with knee osteoarthrosis make it impossible to draw a conclusion. Conclusions: WBV training can be effective for improving balance and gait speed in the elderly. The intervention is also effective in improving walking performance following stroke and in patients with knee osteoarthrosis. However, no effect was found on gait quality in the elderly or on balance in stroke and multiple sclerosis patients. The results are too heterogenous in COPD to conclude on the effect of the treatment.
... Four meta analyses (9,31,36,55) were conducted for the following outcomes: TUG test, 10MWT, Tinetti test and 6MWT. For the TUG test (Figure 2A), 10 studies were included in meta-analysis and four studies were excluded due to a lack of data despite requests to the authors (9,31,36,55). ...
... Four meta analyses (9,31,36,55) were conducted for the following outcomes: TUG test, 10MWT, Tinetti test and 6MWT. For the TUG test (Figure 2A), 10 studies were included in meta-analysis and four studies were excluded due to a lack of data despite requests to the authors (9,31,36,55). Meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in time in favor of the WBV groups (SMD = −0.18; 95% CI: −0.33, −0.04), with consistent results (I 2 = 7%, p = 0.38). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Whole-body vibration is commonly used in physical medicine and neuro-rehabilitation as a clinical prevention and rehabilitation tool. The goal of this systematic review is to assess the long-term effects of whole-body vibration training on gait in different populations of patients.Methods: We conducted a literature search in PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Sage and in study references for articles published prior to 7 December 2018. We used the keywords “vibration,” “gait” and “walk” in combination with their Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology was used. Only randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in English peer-reviewed journals were included. All patient categories were selected. The duration of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) training had to be at least 4 weeks. The outcomes accepted could be clinical or biomechanical analysis. The selection procedure was conducted by two rehabilitation experts and disagreements were resolved by a third expert. Descriptive data regarding subjects, interventions, types of vibration, training parameters and main results on gait variables were collected and summarized in a descriptive table. The quality of selected studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate intergroup differences and changes after the WBV intervention compared to the pre-intervention status. The level of evidence was determined based on the results of meta-analysis (effect size), statistical heterogeneity (I2) and methodological quality (PEDro scale).Results: A total of 859 studies were initially identified through databases with 46 articles meeting all of the inclusion criteria and thus selected for qualitative assessment. Twenty-five studies were included in meta-analysis for quantitative synthesis. In elderly subjects, small but significant improvements in the TUG test (SMD = −0.18; 95% CI: −0.32, −0.04) and the 10MWT (SMD = −0.28; 95% CI: −0.56, −0.01) were found in the WBV groups with a strong level of evidence (I2 = 7%, p = 0.38 and I2 = 22%, p = 0.28, respectively; PEDro scores ≥5/10). However, WBV failed to improve the 6MWT (SMD = 0.37; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.78) and the Tinetti gait scores (SMD = 0.04; 95% CI: −0.23, 0.31) in older adults. In stroke patients, significant improvement in the 6MWT (SMD = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.59) was found after WBV interventions, with a strong level of evidence (I2 = 0%, p = 0.58; PEDro score ≥5/10). On the other hand, there was no significant change in the TUG test despite a tendency toward improvement (SMD = −0.29; 95% CI: −0.60, 0.01). Results were inconsistent in COPD patients (I2 = 66%, p = 0.03), leading to a conflicting level of evidence despite a significant improvement with a large effect size (SMD = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.32, 1.51) after WBV treatment. Similarly, the heterogeneous results in the TUG test (I2 = 97%, p < 0.00001) in patients with knee osteoarthrosis make it impossible to draw a conclusion. Still, adding WBV treatment was effective in significantly improving the 6 MWT (SMD = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.99), with a strong level of evidence (I2 = 64%, p = 0.06; PEDro score ≥5/10). As in stroke, WBV failed to improve the results of the TUG test in multiple sclerosis patients (SMD = −0.11; 95% CI: −0.64, 0.43). Other outcomes presented moderate or even limited levels of evidence due to the lack of data in some studies or because only one RCT was identified in the review.Conclusions: WBV training can be effective for improving balance and gait speed in the elderly. The intervention is also effective in improving walking performance following stroke and in patients with knee osteoarthrosis. However, no effect was found on gait quality in the elderly or on balance in stroke and multiple sclerosis patients. The results are too heterogenous in COPD to conclude on the effect of the treatment. The results must be taken with caution due to the lack of data in some studies and the methodological heterogeneity in the interventions. Further research is needed to explore the possibility of establishing a standardized protocol targeting gait ability in a wide range of populations.
... A PRISMA ( 24 ) flowchart of the method of selection and screening is provided (Figure 1). The included articles focus on WBV (25)(26)(27)(28)(29)(30)(31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40) and EMS (21,(41)(42)(43)(44)(45). All the significant findings of the included articles were summarized in Table I and in Table II. ...
... In our study we included six studies on the use of EMS (21,(41)(42)(43)(44)(45) involving 319 sarcopenic subjects and thirteen studies on the use of WBV (28)(29)(30)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40) involving 865 sarcopenic subjects. The protocol of treatment for EMS studies was similar in all the studies (bipolar, 85 Hz, impulse-width: 350 μs practising simple free weight or isometric exercises) with minor variation (time of session, nr of sessions per week). ...
Article
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Background. Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of the skeletal muscle mass and function associated to aging. Among the different possible practical approaches, the Electromyostimulation (EMS) and the whole-body vibration (WBV) were proposed. The aim of this review is to synthetize the most up-to-date evidence behind the use of this therapeutic approaches. Methods. A systematic review and Meta-Analyses of the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) present in the literature was performed. The focus was on use of WBV and EMS in sarcopenic human subjects. Results. Whole Body Vibration seems to be an effective alternative to other exercise and in particular resistance training in sarcopenic subjects. All the studies involved in our systematic review reported several muscle benefits, both locally and overall in the body of the patients involved. The use of WB-EMS and the consequent full body involvement is interesting and promising. In all the included RCTs several primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated: from local to overall muscle quality, size and performance, fat distribution and strength parameters Conclusion. The EMS and WBV seems to be an effective and safe solution for sarcopenia. They should be considered in elder sarcopenic patients among the others possible approaches.
... Evidence has suggested that WBV exercise using a static squat position can increase thigh muscle mass in older population (Machado, García-López, González-Gallego, & Garatachea, 2010). However, research conducted by Osawa, Oguma, and Onishi did not find significant changes in thigh muscle mass among untrained young adults (Osawa et al., 2011). ...
... The results of our study indicate that regular WBV training improves muscle strength, supporting the results published by Machado and associates (Machado et al., 2010). It has been suggested that the use of vibration that causes reflexive muscle contractions to enhance muscle strength has a similar mechanism, which consists of both neural and muscular adaptations, as resistance training (Rehn, Lidström, Skoglund, & Lindström, 2007). ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle fitness. Twenty physically inactive adults were randomly assigned to a WBV + BFR group (8 men and 2 women) and a WBV group (8 men and 2 women). The participants in the WBV group were subjected to 10 sets of intermittent WBV exercise 20 min/day, 3 days/week, for 8 weeks. The participants in the WBV + BFR group received the same WBV treatment, but the proximal portion of their thighs was compressed using inflatable cuffs. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry estimated thigh muscle mass, one repetition maximal (1RM) leg press, and muscle endurance were measured before and after the training program. The results indicated that thigh muscle mass significantly increased (3%) after the 8-week training period only in the WBV + BFR group. Meanwhile, 1RM leg press and muscle endurance significantly increased in both groups after training (p < 0.05). Analysis of covariance revealed that the increase in 1RM leg press and muscle endurance was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the WBV + BFR group than the WBV group (leg press: 11.1%. vs. 4.37%; muscle endurance: 48.84% vs. 15.19%, respectively). In conclusion, exposure to regular WBV + BFR training can increase thigh muscle mass, maximal strength, and muscle endurance compared with exposure to WBV training alone. WBV + BFR training appears to be a feasible strategy for improving muscle mass, strength, and endurance in previously untrained participants.
... 18,65,66 Although low levels of WBV-induced muscle activation and acceleration were deemed unlikely to cause hypertrophy in young healthy individuals, they "may be sufficient in weak and inactive . frail older people" 61 Increases in isometric muscle strength have been reported in community-dwelling elderly people 18,56,67 and related to increases in muscle mass. 56,67 Similar strength improvements in the frail elderly with WBV training range from 8% 33 to 52%. ...
... frail older people" 61 Increases in isometric muscle strength have been reported in community-dwelling elderly people 18,56,67 and related to increases in muscle mass. 56,67 Similar strength improvements in the frail elderly with WBV training range from 8% 33 to 52%. 34 The challenge of keeping equilibrium during rotational WBV is thought to result in neuromuscular adaptations, 68 leading to subsequent improvements in dynamic balance. ...
Article
Objective To investigate the feasibility and benefits of Whole Body Vibration (WBV) exercise as a safe and effective training-tool for countering sarcopenia and age-related declines in mobility and function in the frail elderly. Design An open, randomised control trial. Setting Residential care-facilities Participants 117 male and female volunteers (82.5 ± 7.9 years) Interventions After pre-screening for contra-indications, participants were randomly allocated to a Control (CON), Simulated-WBV (SIM) or WBV-exercise (WBV) group. All participants received regular care, whilst WBV- and SIM- participants also underwent thrice-weekly exercise sessions for 16 weeks. Delivered by overload principle, WBV-training began with 5 x 1-min bouts at 6 Hz/2 mm (1:1min exercise:rest), progressing to 10 x 1-min at up-to 26 Hz/4 mm, maintaining knee-flexion. Training for SIM participants mimicked WBV-exercise stance and duration only Main outcome measures Timed-Up-and-Go, Parallel Walk and 10-m Timed-Walk test performance were assessed, in addition to the Barthel Index Questionnaire, at baseline, 8- and 16-weeks of exercise, and 3-, 6- and 12-months post-exercise. Results High levels of compliance were reported in SIM (89%) and WBV-training (93%), with ease-of-use and no adverse effects. In comparison to baseline-levels, WBV-training elicited clinically-important treatment-effects in all parameters compared to SIM and CON groups. Treatment-effects remained apparent up-to 12-months post-intervention for Parallel Walk and 6-months for 10-m Timed-Walk. Functional-test performance declined during- and post-intervention in non-WBV groups. Conclusions Findings indicate that 16-weeks of low-level WBV-exercise provides easily-accessible, adequate stimulus for the frail elderly to attain improved levels of physical functionality.
... Most of the studies showed very small negative or very small positive effects, while the pooled effect was heavily influenced by the aforementioned study. Furthermore, 3 WBV studies [42,87,88] (5 intervention groups) and 3 RT studies [47,62,66] reported the quadriceps muscle (or individual heads of quadriceps muscle) cross-sectional area. In order to obtain a sufficient number of studies for meaningful comparison, these results were compared together and expressed as SMD. ...
... The results on functional performance are summarized in Figure 6. The timed up-and-go test was performed in 2 WBV [87,88] and 6 RT studies [52,55,69,75,90]. Overall, there were no differences between intervention and control groups across all studies (MD = −0.12 ...
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It has been shown that resistance exercise (RT) is one of the most effective approaches to counteract the physical and functional changes associated with aging. This systematic review with meta-analysis compared the effects of RT, whole-body vibration (WBV), and electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on muscle strength, body composition, and functional performance in older adults. A thorough literature review was conducted, and the analyses were limited to randomized controlled trials. In total, 63 studies were included in the meta-analysis (48 RT, 11 WBV, and 4 EMS). The results showed that RT and WBV are comparably effective for improving muscle strength, while the effects of EMS remains debated. RT interventions also improved some outcome measures related to functional performance, as well as the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps. Muscle mass was not significantly affected by RT. A limitation of the review is the smaller number of WBV and particularly EMS studies. For this reason, the effects of WBV and EMS could not be comprehensively compared to the effect of RT for all outcome measures. For the moment, RT or combinations of RT and WBV or EMS, is probably the most reliable way to improve muscle strength and functional performance, while the best approach to increase muscle mass in older adults remains open to further studies.
... The muscular behavior of CKD patients is similar to that of non-CKD older adults (Isoyama et al., 2014), making it possible to compare our results. In this sense, quadriceps thickness in older adults was evaluated in different WBV protocols and the results were controversial (Bogaerts et al., 2007;Machado et al., 2009;Santin-Medeiros et al., 2015). An increase in muscle thickness was observed in studies by Machado et al. (2009) andBogaerts et al. (2007) after 10 weeks and 1 year of training, respectively; however, this increase was not verified at the end of the study by Santin-Medeiros et al. (2015) with older women (82.4 ± 5.7 years) undergoing an 8-month WBV program. ...
... In this sense, quadriceps thickness in older adults was evaluated in different WBV protocols and the results were controversial (Bogaerts et al., 2007;Machado et al., 2009;Santin-Medeiros et al., 2015). An increase in muscle thickness was observed in studies by Machado et al. (2009) andBogaerts et al. (2007) after 10 weeks and 1 year of training, respectively; however, this increase was not verified at the end of the study by Santin-Medeiros et al. (2015) with older women (82.4 ± 5.7 years) undergoing an 8-month WBV program. However, there are controversial results observed among reported publications with those prescribing the WBV training protocol varying in their parameters (frequency, peak displacement, vibration rate, training duration, and static or dynamic positioning during a vibration) (Ritzmann et al., 2013), which may have led to different results. ...
Article
Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) may be an alternative of physical training for kidney transplant recipients. Objective To evaluate the effect of a training program on quadriceps muscle strength and thickness, distance walked in the 6-minute walking test (6MWT), respiratory muscle strength and quality of life in adult kidney transplant recipients. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Method Twelve kidney transplant recipients of both genders who underwent WBV training (35 Hz) twice a week for 12 weeks on alternate days (WBVG), and training with a Sham Group (SG) were evaluated before and after intervention. Results No difference was observed in quadriceps muscle strength and thickness between groups, however a large (d = 0.81) and a small (d = 0.44) effect size were observed after the training, respectively. Both groups improved the execution time of Sit-to-Stand Test before and after analysis, but this effect did not show superiority between them, however there was a large effect size provided by training (d= 1.11). No changes were observed between groups in relation to inspiratory muscle strength, but training effects could be observed by the effect size after the study period (d= 0.59). No changes were observed regarding the distance walked in the 6MWT and the effect size was small (d= 0.31). Conclusion WBV program would induce physiological responses that must be taken into consideration in adults’ kidney transplant recipients. Our results show considerable effect sizes were observed for muscle strength and quadriceps thickness, inspiratory muscle strength, and 6MWT walking distance, although no difference was observed between groups at the end of the study.
... In this context, whole-body vibration (WBV) is considered an alternative therapy with easy application and low risk to post-stroke individuals Pang et al., 2013). Despite WBV being traditionally used to increase tone and gain strength (Machado et al., 2010;Rønnestad, 2004), some recent studies have suggested that vibration is also able to temporarily reduce the spinal cord excitability level, which could benefit individuals with neurological impairment (Mileva et al., 2009;Steyvers et al., 2003). ...
Article
Introduction This study aimed to evaluate the acute effects (up to 30 minutes) of whole-body vibration (WBV) on spinal excitability level and ankle plantar flexion spasticity in chronic stroke subjects. Methods Twenty-one subjects (age 30-70 years old) with chronic stroke and ankle plantar flexion spasticity were randomly assigned to the vibration group (VG, n=11) or the control group (CG, n=10). Subjects in the VG underwent 10 minutes of WBV with a frequency of 35 Hz and amplitude of 2 mm. Subjects in the CG remained on the platform for 10 minutes without receiving vibratory stimulus. The spinal excitability level was estimated by the Hmax/Mmax ratio extracted from the H-reflex with simple stimulus examination. The value of the second/first wave ratio (H2/H1 ratio) at the peak of the first facilitation was also considered through the recovery curve with double stimulation. Spasticity was estimated by the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and global perception of change. All outcomes were assessed before and at 10, 20, and 30 minutes after the WBV, except for MAS, which was evaluated only 10 minutes after WBV. Results No between-group differences were found in either the spinal excitability level or plantar flexor spasticity at the three evaluated moments after WBV. Conclusion These results suggest that WBV does not reduce spinal excitability level or spasticity of the plantar flexor muscles in chronic stroke patients in the first 30 minutes after vibratory stimulus.
... Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to be effective for maintenance of muscle mass and strength in elderly individuals. However, its impact on long-term outcome of ICU patients has not been investigated, although it is feasible in critically ill patients (40,183,184). We recently investigated if additional muscle activating measures (e.g., NMES or WBV) have an effect on muscle structure and function when applied in combination with daily protocol-based physiotherapy in critically ill patients (SOFA ≥ 9). ...
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Critically ill patients at the intensive care unit (ICU) often develop a generalized weakness, called ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW). A major contributor to ICUAW is muscle atrophy, a loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Skeletal muscle assures almost all of the vital functions of our body. It adapts rapidly in response to physiological as well as pathological stress, such as inactivity, immobilization, and inflammation. In response to a reduced workload or inflammation muscle atrophy develops. Recent work suggests that adaptive or maladaptive processes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), also known as sarcoplasmic reticulum, contributes to this process. In muscle cells, the ER is a highly specialized cellular organelle that assures calcium homeostasis and therefore muscle contraction. The ER also assures correct folding of proteins that are secreted or localized to the cell membrane. Protein folding is a highly error prone process and accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins can cause ER stress, which is counteracted by the activation of a signaling network known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Three ER membrane residing molecules, protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol requiring protein 1a (IRE1a), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) initiate the UPR. The UPR aims to restore ER homeostasis by reducing overall protein synthesis and increasing gene expression of various ER chaperone proteins. If ER stress persists or cannot be resolved cell death pathways are activated. Although, ER stress-induced UPR pathways are known to be important for regulation of skeletal muscle mass and function as well as for inflammation and immune response its function in ICUAW is still elusive. Given recent advances in the development of ER stress modifying molecules for neurodegenerative diseases and cancer, it is important to know whether or not therapeutic interventions in ER stress pathways have favorable effects and these compounds can be used to prevent or treat ICUAW. In this review, we focus on the role of ER stress-induced UPR in skeletal muscle during critical illness and in response to predisposing risk factors such as immobilization, starvation and inflammation as well as ICUAW treatment to foster research for this devastating clinical problem.
... A number of literatures have been published on the effects of WBV on muscle strength and performance (Osawa et al., 2013;Rogan et al., 2015). The most basic function of vertical vibration is to stimulate the contraction of a large number of muscle fibers in a short period of time, which helps increase muscle strength, balance and muscle power (Machado et al., 2010;Sitja-Rabert et al., 2012), enhance mobility (Torvinen et al., 2002), reduce chronic pain (Rittweger et al., 2002), and stimulate limb blood circulation (Cochrane, 2011). Moreover, WBV may also affect other physiological systems of the body. ...
Article
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Whole body vibration (WBV) is a non-invasive physical therapy that has recently been included in the hospital's patient rehabilitation training catalog, but its health effects have not been sufficiently studied. In the present study, to examine the possible effects of WBV on immune cell differentiation, the IFN, IL-4,−17, F4/80 and CD3,−4,−8,−11b,−11c,−19 markers were used to characterizing the cells in mouse spleen. The results showed that the CD4 and CD25 positive lymphocytes in the spleen were significantly increased in the WBV group, and the population of Treg cells was enhanced significantly in response to WBV. Since the differentiation in immune cells is usually associated with microbiota, therefore the intestinal flora was characterized in mice and human individuals. The results indicated that WBV significantly reduced the α-diversity of mouse intestinal microbiota. Moreover, the principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) results indicated that the β-diversities of both mice and human fecal microbiota increased after WBV. Analysis of the bacterial composition indicated that the contents of a variety of bacteria changed in mice upon the stimulation of vibration, such as Lactobacillus animalis in mice, and Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in human. The succeeding correlation analysis revealed that some bacteria with significant content variations were correlated to the regulatory T cell differentiation in mice and physical characteristics in human. Our research will provide the basis for future non-invasive treatment of microbial and immune related diseases.
... However, as diet modification may work in the short term, and the long term adherence to routine exercise programs is generally poor and requires high motivation, WBV is a novel alternative [42][43][44][45] which can provide early results. To date, WBV therapy has been applied primarily as a supplement or adjunct to conventional exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength [11,46] or to examine the effects of WBV therapy on cardiovascular health [15,47]. These studies confirm that WBV therapy has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also on cardiovascular health in the elderly and subjects with comorbidities [15]. ...
Article
Purpose: This review describes the effects of Whole Body Vibration therapy (WBV) for reducing fat mass (%/kg) among healthy (no comorbid disease) overweight and obese adults. Materials and Methods: Systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PubMed databases up to 27th March 2019. Studies evaluating the effects of WBV therapy on fat mass as a primary or secondary outcome among healthy (no comorbid disease), overweight or obese adults (Body Mass Index ≥25) were included. Results: Following the search, 2,420 studies were reviewed and 1,603 studies were selected for title and abstract screening. Of 153 studies considered for full-text review, 13 controlled trials were included in the systematic review. Two meta-analyses were performed for five studies. The first random effects (I² = 70%, p-value = 0.02) meta-analysis, revealed a statistically significant mean change for percent fat mass (−2.56, 95% CI: −3.81, −1.31). The second fixed effects meta-analysis, revealed a significant mean change (−1.91, 95% CI: −2.64, −1.18) for fat mass/kg. Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analyses indicate a positive effect of Whole Body Vibration therapy on reducing fat mass (%/kg), especially when combined with conventional weight loss interventions specifically, diet and exercise. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • Whole Body Vibration therapy may assist obese and bariatric clients with weight loss. • Whole Body Vibration therapy with conventional weight loss strategies may augment reductions in fat mass among obese clients in rehabilitation setting.
... were initially sedentary and both did not improve their quadríceps force after the training. Some factors may be contributing to this lack of response, such as those inherent to the time of CKD, the previous activity level as well as those regarding the properties of WBV prescription (Machado, García-López, González-Gallego, & Garatachea, 2010;Petit et al., 2010;Wei & Ng, 2018). ...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the effect of a 12-week whole-body vibration (WBV) training program on quadriceps muscle strength, quadriceps thickness, the 6-min walk test (6MWT), respiratory muscle strength and quality of life in adults with a kidney transplant. Method: Five renal transplant recipients (age: 43-52 years; body mass: 67.1 kg; height: 1.60 m) were examined individually before and after a 12-week WBV program (two weekly sessions, 35 Hz frequency, 2-4 mm amplitude) using quadriceps strength, quadriceps thickness, 6-min walking test, inspiratory muscle strength and quality of life. Results: There were no complications during WBV protocol, and the program was considered safe. Two of the participants changed quadriceps muscle strength, and one increased muscle thickness. Inspiratory muscle strength improved in one participant. The distance covered on 6MWT increased for two participants. Most of the subjects (P3, P4 and P5) reported improved quality of life, mainly regarding pain and social aspects. Conclusion: The protocol improved the physical function and quality of life in some of the patients. However, WBV training prescription should be adjusted according to individual needs. Thus, studying the use of WBV in this patient group is necessary to understand and apply the benefits for this population.
... Por isso, seus efeitos no corpo humano, tanto positivos quanto negativos, têm sido documentados [6,7]. No que condiz aos efeitos positivos, geralmente associados ao campo da reabilitação, da atividade física e do desporto [8,9] podemos citar: aumento da força [10,11], potência [6,12], flexibilidade [12,13], equilíbrio [14,15] e densidade mineral óssea [10,16]. Quanto aos efeitos negativos, são quase sempre observados nos locais de trabalho, em função de longos períodos de exposição a cargas vibracionais elevadas [17]. ...
Article
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O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar o efeito do emprego da estimulação mecânica vibratória (EMV) aplicada durante o intervalo entre séries sobre o volume de treinamento de força obtido no exercício supino horizontal. A amostra foi composta por 19 homens com experiência no treinamento de força que realizaram 4 séries a 80% de 1RM conduzidas em 2 sessões de treinamento, com 2 minutos de intervalo (na primeira, recuperação passiva de 2 minutos; na segunda 1 minuto passiva e 1 minuto com EMV). Não foram detectadas diferenças entre as duas situações investigadas em cada série isoladamente. Contudo, verificou-se aumento no volume total de treinamento somando-se as 4 séries a favor da sessão submetida à EMV (p < 0,05). Ao menos neste protocolo a EMV aumentou o volume total de treinamento em séries múltiplas no exercício supino horizontal em indivíduos treinados, mas não o volume em cada série isoladamente.Palavras-chave: estimulação mecânica vibratória, intervalo entre séries, treinamento de força, séries múltiplas.
... The vibrations created from the platform mechanically generate rapid changes in the muscle-tendon complex length, which, in turn, stimulates repetitive, reflexive contractions of the muscle, subsequently leading to increased muscular fitness [146]. WBVT has been shown to have favorable effects on muscle function, flexibility, oxygen uptake, body composition, and blood pressure [147][148][149][150][151]. Unfortunately, the research looking into the efficacy of vibration therapy among people with DPN is limited. ...
Article
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Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after the exclusion of other causes. It is associated with pain, paresthesia, sensory loss, muscle atrophy with fat infiltration, and muscular dysfunction typically starting distally in the feet and progressing proximally. Muscle deterioration within the leg and foot can lead to muscle dysfunction, reduced mobility, and increases the risk of disability, ulceration, and amputation. Exercise training is an established method for increasing the different components of physical fitness, including enhancing body composition and improving neuromus-cular strength. A number of experimental studies have utilized exercise training to treat various impairments associated with DPN, such as nerve conduction velocity, pain tolerance, and balance. However, the broad spectrum of exercise training modalities implemented and differences in target outcome measurements have made it difficult to understand the efficacy of exercise training interventions or provide appropriate exercise prescription recommendations. Therefore, the aims of this review were to (1) briefly describe the pathophysiology of DPN and (2) discuss the effects of exercise training interventions on sensorimotor, metabolic, and physical functions in people with DPN.
... Clinical studies indicated that WBVT could be applied to the rehabilitation of several chronic diseases including stroke, diabetes, osteoarthritis, and musculoskeletal pain (Wang et al., 2020;Rodríguez-Reyes et al., 2021;Wei and Cai, 2021;Qiu et al., 2022). Furthermore, fundamental research has investigated the underlying mechanisms of WBVT on muscle strength and performance, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density (Bleeker et al., 2005;Machado et al., 2010). Considering the increasing number and the diversity of published studies, an urgent bibliometric analysis on WBVT is needed to explore the hotspots and predict the future trends of WBVT research. ...
Article
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To evaluate the global scientific output of the research on whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and explore the current status and trends in this field over the past decades using bibliometric methods, we retrieved the literature related to WBVT from 2000 to the present in the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). We analyzed annual publications, citations, countries, organizations, productive authors, and source 14 journals by the Web of Science online bibliometric analysis. We visualized the WBVT research trends and explored influential organizations and authors through VOSviewer. Then, we constructed a citation chronology map by HistCite to obtain the knowledge base of this field and made a primary citation path analysis by Pajek. Finally, we mined the hot spots of WBVT by BICOMB and gCLUTO. Overall, there were 1,629 publications included in this study between 2000 and 2022. The United States contributed the most publications in this field, and the country with the most active partnership was Spain. The University of Cologne ranked highest among top productive organizations. Bernardo-Filho, Mario, from Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, ranked first among the top productive authors. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research topped the list of journals with the most publications on WBVT by a wide margin. The WBVT research field started from Rittweger’s study on the acute physiological effects of WBVT in 2000, which was divided into two stages. The first stage focused on improving athletic ability, and the second stage gradually turned to the application in medicine. A keyword analysis showed the exercise rehabilitation of several aging chronic diseases was the research trend and hot spot of WBVT. The current study provided a time-based development and a global network hub for WBVT research, contributing to identifying core target diseases of WBVT and providing various insights for researchers in the future.
... 32,33 WBV exercise seems to be a promising exercise modality for the management of individuals with MetS. 12 Some studies have evaluated the effect of WBV exercise on the body composition in individuals 34,35 or in an experimental model. 36 Various populations have been studied, and in the current work, a protocol is proposed to evaluate the effect of WBV exercise on the body composition of MetS individuals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a group of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density cholesterol and increased abdominal fat. Over the years, changes in body composition occur, with accelerated loss of lean mass and increased fat mass, favoring cardiometabolic disorders. A strong relationship exists between physical inactivity and the presence of multiple risk factors for MetS. Thus, physical exercise has been recommended for the prevention of cardio-vascular, chronic and MetS diseases. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise can be considered to be an exercise modality that benefits the muscular strength and cardiovascular health of elderly, sick and healthy people. Individuals with MetS are unmotivated to perform physical exercise regularly and, therefore, new approaches to intervention for this population are desirable. Objectives: The aim of this study is to present a protocol to verify the effect of WBV exercise on the body composition of MetS individuals. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with MetS individuals that will be allocated to an intervention group (WBVG) and a control group (CG). Participants will be placed barefoot on the base of a side alternating vibrating platform, with 130º knee flexion. Individuals (WBVG and CG) will perform the protocol for 12 weeks, twice a week. The CG subjects will perform the exercises at 5Hz throughout the intervention and those from the WBVG will perform the 5Hz exercises in the first session, adding 1Hz per session, ending the protocol at 16Hz. The body composition will be evaluated before and after the protocol using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Discussion: Studies involving WBV exercise have shown improvement in composition in individuals with different conditions (healthy and unhealthy). Conclusion: The proposed protocol will permit the acquisition of findings that will be relevant in the evaluation of the effect of the WBV on the body composition of MetS individuals due to its ease of realization, low cost and safety.
... Furthermore, a small dose of VT would be difficult for older adults with sarcopenia who are inclined to lose muscle mass and who have a limited number of muscle spindles to excite to cause a significant increase in muscle mass [55]. However, we observed studies reporting that muscle mass increases ranged from 3.4 to 8.7% after whole-body VT [67,68]. These studies required participants to exercise on the vibration platform, for instance, to perform a squat, deep squat, wide stance squat, toes-stand, deep toes-stand and one-legged squat. ...
Article
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Background: Sarcopenia, a progressive loss of muscle mass and function with advancing age, is a prevalent condition among older adults. As most older people are too frail to do intensive exercise and vibration therapy has low risk and ease of participation, it may be more readily accepted by elderly individuals. However, it remains unclear whether vibration therapy would be effective among older adults with sarcopenia. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effect of vibration therapy including local vibration therapy and whole-body vibration therapy, for enhancing muscle mass, muscle strength and physical function in older people with sarcopenia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in March 2019 in the following 5 electronic databases: PubMed, CINAHL, Embase, PEDro, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, with no restriction of language or the year of publication. Randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies examining effects of vibration therapy on muscle mass, muscle strength or physical function in older adults with sarcopenia were included in this systematic review. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies. Results: Of the 1972 identified studies, seven publications from six studies involving 223 participants were included in this systematic review. Five of them conducted whole-body vibration therapy, while two conducted local vibration therapy. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies indicated that muscle strength significantly increased after whole-body vibration therapy (SMD 0.69, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.11, I2 = 0%, P = 0.001) and local vibration therapy (SMD 3.78, 95% CI 2.29 to 5.28, P < 0.001). Physical performance measured by the sit-to-stand test and the timed-up-and-go test were significantly improved after the intervention (SMD -0.79, 95% CI - 1.21 to - 0.37, I2 = 0%, P < 0.001) and SMD -0.83, 95% CI - 1.56 to - 0.11, I2 = 64%, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Vibration therapy could be a prospective strategy for improving muscle strength and physical performance in older adults with sarcopenia. However, due to the limited number of the included studies, caution is needed when interpreting these results. More well-designed, large sample size studies should be conducted to further explore and validate the benefits of vibration therapy for this population.
... Three articles of which two were meta-analyses discussed a relatively new strategy, resistance training combined blood flow restriction (BFR), and found a stronger improving effect than single resistance training; thus, the low-load resistance training combined BFR may provide a comparable surrogate for heavy-load training, which is of great significance for older people (30)(31)(32). Six articles discussed the effects of vibration therapy, and among them, three RCT found that whole-body-vibration training can effectively counteract the loss of muscle strength and mobility associated with age-induced sarcopenia (33)(34)(35). One of its remarkable advantages is the combined effect on the neuromuscular and neuroendocrine systems, and it could be a feasible treatment option for sarcopenia, as well as osteoporosis (36). ...
Article
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Objective: Vast quantities of literature regarding the applications of exercise therapy for sarcopenia have been published. The main objective of this study is to determine the top 100 most-cited articles and analyze their bibliometric characteristics. Design: This study reports a bibliometric analysis via a systematic search of the academic literature regarding the applications of exercise therapy for sarcopenia. Methods: All databases in the Web of Science were searched with the following strategy: term search (TS) = (exercise* OR training OR "physical activit*") AND TS = (sarcopenia) on 25 February 2022. The results were presented in descending order by their total citations. The list of the top 100 articles was finally determined by negotiation of two independent researchers. Results: The top 100 articles were published between 1993 and 2020. More than half of the articles (n = 54) were published during the decade 2006-2015. Total citations of the top 100 articles ranged from 155 to 1,131 with a median of 211.5. The average of annual citations was constantly increasing with year (P < 0.05). The most studied exercise therapy is strength/resistance training, with about 71% articles had discussed about it. The top 100 articles were from 54 different journals, and the Journal of Applied Physiology was the journal that contributed the most articles (n = 8). A total of 75 different first corresponding authors from 15 countries made contributions to the top 100 list. Luc J.C. van Loon from the Maastricht University in the Netherlands published the most articles (n = 5) as the first corresponding author. Most articles (87%) were from North America (58%) and Europe (29%), while the United States as a country contributed over half of the articles (51%). Conclusion: Our study determined the top 100 most-cited articles on exercise therapy for sarcopenia and analyzed their bibliometric characteristics, which may provide a recommended list for researchers in this field and pave the way for further research.
... Nowadays, the exact mechanism by which WBVT increases muscle mass and decreases fat mass remains unclear. Clinical studies have shown that 10 weeks of WBVT training can increase the crosssectional area of thigh muscles in elderly women [13], and it has been previously reported that WBVT may increase the levels of serum testosterone and growth hormone [14]. Furthermore, studies in rats have shown that long-term WBVT stimulates lipolysis [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study examined the effects of a 12-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in the obese female college students. Methods: Participants were assigned to either the WBVT (n = 17) or obese control group (n = 19). The students in the WBVT group conducted a 12-week (5 times per week and 30 min per time) exercise protocols (30 to 40 Hz of frequency and 4 mm of amplitude), and the obese control group did not perform regular physical training during 12 weeks of study. Then, body composition (body weight, BMI, body fat, body fat percentage; trunk fat mass, muscle mass, MM) and HRV (time domain and frequency domain index) were measured in all subjects before and after WBVT intervention. Results: (1) After 12-week WBVT intervention, body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and body fat percentage significantly decreased and muscle mass increased in the WBVT group (P < 0.01, respectively); there was no significant change in body weight and BMI (P > 0.05, respectively). (2) After 12-week WBVT intervention, LFn, LF/HF, and HR significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), R-R interval and RMSSD significantly increased (P < 0.01, respectively), and there was no significant difference in HFn (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, there was no significant change before and after the test in body composition and HRV in the obese control group (P > 0.05, respectively). (3) After 12-week WBVT intervention, compared with the obese control group, body fat mass, body fat percentage, trunk fat mass, and LF/HF significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), muscle mass, and RMSSD increased (P < 0.05) in the WBVT group; but there were no significant difference in other indicators (P > 0.05) between the obese control group and WBVT group. (4) The reduction of body fat percentage before and after the WBVT intervention are positively correlated with the reduction in the LFn and LF/HF (r = 0.542, r = 0.504; P < 0.05, respectively) and negatively correlated with the increase in the RMSSD (r = -0.514, P < 0.05), and the reduction of trunk fat mass are positively correlated with the reduction in the LF/HF (r = 0.540, P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that WBVT improves HRV and body composition in obese female college students, and the reduction in body fat percentage and trunk fat mass are associated with a shift in cardiac autonomic regulation towards vagal dominance and improve sympathetic-vagus balance after WBVT intervention. In conclusion, WBVT may be a feasible treatment to improve cardiac autonomic function and body composition.
... In general, the evidence for the efficacy of adding WBV to conventional exercise training is controversial. Some studies found that WBV added to exercise therapy considerably increased muscle strength and power [66], flexibility [48], muscle cross-section [67], and bone mineral density [68], and also decreased abdominal fat [69]. Delecluse et al. showed that 12 weeks of WBV and resistance training, including static and dynamic knee extensor exercises, significantly increased isometric and dynamic knee extensor strength and counter-movement jump height in untrained females. ...
Article
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Background: Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most prevalent orthopedic problem in active young adults. Due to its multifactorial etiology, a variety of therapeutic measures have been adopted to treat PFP, including exercise therapy, electrotherapy, and manual therapy. It has also been suggested that whole body vibration (WBV) can improve neuromuscular function in persons with knee problems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of adding WBV to routine exercise programs on flexibility, vertical jump height, agility and pain in athletes with PFP. Methods: Twenty-four male athletes with PFP were randomized into two groups of WBV + exercise (n = 12) or exercise only (n = 12). Participants received their interventions during 4 consecutive weeks (12 sessions). Pain intensity, flexibility and agility were assessed respectively as score on a numerical rating scale, the sit-and-reach test, and a modified T-test, and vertical jump height was measured to the nearest centimeter. The tests were done before and after the interventions, and the results were compared between the two groups. Independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used for between- and within-group comparisons, respectively. Results: After the interventions, all variables for vertical jump height, flexibility, agility and pain intensity improved significantly in both groups (p < 0.05). The flexibility test showed significantly greater improvement in the WBV + exercise group (p<0.001), whereas for vertical jump height, agility and pain intensity, there were no statistically significant differences between groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The present findings showed that exercise therapy with and without WBV can significantly decrease pain and increase agility, vertical jump height and flexibility in athletes with PFP. Adding WBV to routine exercise therapy, however, can augment the effects of the latter on flexibility. Trial registration: IRCT, IRCT20090831002391N39. Registered 7 February 2018, https://en.irct.ir/search/result?query=IRCT20090831002391N39 .
... Other mechanisms associated with improved strength following WBV reported in healthy subjects include increased cortical excitability 12 , reduced recruitment threshold, increased activation of fast-twitch muscle motor units 73 , and motor unit reflex activation 47 . Overall, our findings are largely in line with previous studies showing increased muscle strength in elderly populations, both with and without sarcopenia, following WBV exercise 29,74 . However, the positive improvement in muscle strength reported in this study cannot be attributed to the WBV stimulation alone. ...
Article
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This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of different whole body vibration (WBV) frequencies on concentric and eccentric leg muscle strength, bone turnover and walking endurance after stroke. The study involved eighty-four individuals with chronic stroke (mean age = 59.7 years, SD = 6.5) with mild to moderate motor impairment (Fugl-Meyer Assessment lower limb motor score: mean = 24.0, SD = 3.5) randomly assigned to either a 20 Hz or 30 Hz WBV intervention program. Both programs involved 3 training sessions per week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic knee concentric and eccentric extension strength, serum level of cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx), and walking endurance (6-min walk test; 6MWT) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed a significant time effect for all muscle strength outcomes and NTx, but not for 6MWT. The time-by-group interaction was only significant for the paretic eccentric knee extensor work, with a medium effect size (0.44; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.87). Both WBV protocols were effective in improving leg muscle strength and reducing bone resorption. Comparatively greater improvement in paretic eccentric leg strength was observed for the 30 Hz protocol.
... populations [6,9,13,27]and an improvement in walking capacity [28] were found. Two studies with WBV at lower intensities (0.3-0.4 g) showed improvements in the chair stand test [17]and maximal isometric knee extensors torque and performance as measured by a counter movement jump [9]. ...
Preprint
The use of whole-body vibration (WBV) for therapeutic purposes is far from being standardized and only very recently an empirical foundation for reporting guidelines for human WBV studies has been published. Controversies about safety and therapeutic dosage stll exist. The present study aimed to investigate the metabolic and mechanical effects of low-intensity WBV in according to the ISO 2631 norm on subjects with obesity. 41 obese subjects (BMI≥ 35 kg/mˆ2) were recruited to participate in a 3-week multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation program including fitness training and WBV training. During WBV the posture was monitored with an optoelectronic system with 6 infrared cameras (Vicon, Vicon Motion System, Oxford, UK). The primary endpoints were: variation in body composition, factors of the metabolic syndrome, functional activity (sit-to-stand and 6-min walking test), muscle strength, and quality of life. Secondary endpoints were: modification of irisin, testosterone, growth hormone, IGF1 levels. We observed significant changes in salivary irisin levels, Group 2 (p<0.01) as compared to the control group, while muscle strength, function, and other metabolic and hormonal factors did not change after a 3-week low-intensity WBV training respect control group. Future studies are needed to deeper investigate the potential metabolic effect of low-intensity WBV in managing weight.
... 32,33 WBV exercise seems to be a promising exercise modality for the management of individuals with MetS. 12 Some studies have evaluated the effect of WBV exercise on the body composition in individuals 34,35 or in an experimental model. 36 Various populations have been studied, and in the current work, a protocol is proposed to evaluate the effect of WBV exercise on the body composition of MetS individuals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized bya group of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension,hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, low high-density cholesteroland increased abdominal fat. Over the years, changesin body composition occur, with accelerated loss of lean massand increased fat mass, favoring cardiometabolic disorders.A strong relationship exists between physical inactivity andthe presence of multiple risk factors for MetS. Thus, physicalexercise has been recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular,chronic and MetS diseases. Whole-body vibration(WBV) exercise can be considered to be an exercise modalitythat benefits the muscular strength and cardiovascular healthof elderly, sick and healthy people. Individuals with MetSare unmotivated to perform physical exercise regularly and,therefore, new approaches to intervention for this populationare desirable. Objectives: The aim of this study is to presenta protocol to verify the effect of WBV exercise on the bodycomposition of MetS individuals. Methods: Randomized controlledtrial with MetS individuals that will be allocated to anintervention group (WBVG) and a control group (CG). Participantswill be placed barefoot on the base of a side alternatingvibrating platform, with 130º knee flexion. Individuals (WBVGand CG) will perform the protocol for 12 weeks, twice a week.The CG subjects will perform the exercises at 5Hz throughoutthe intervention and those from the WBVG will perform the5Hz exercises in the first session, adding 1Hz per session, endingthe protocol at 16Hz. The body composition will be evaluatedbefore and after the protocol using bioelectrical impedanceanalysis. Discussion: Studies involving WBV exercise haveshown improvement in composition in individuals withdifferent conditions (healthy and unhealthy). Conclusion: Theproposed protocol will permit the acquisition of findings thatwill be relevant in the evaluation of the effect of the WBV onthe body composition of MetS individuals due to its ease ofrealization, low cost and safety.Keywords: Whole body vibration exercise; Metabolic syndrome;Physical activity.
... Several other studies have reported performance improvements associated with WBV, but these too have combined exercise with a WBV regimen (19,25). One study reported significant between group differences with participants in the WBV group showing greater increases in muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy compared to the control group (26). Another study reported significant improvements in participants who underwent 8-weeks of WBV. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Falling is the second leading cause of injury-related death worldwide and is a leading cause of injury among older adults. Whole-body vibration has been used to improve fall risk factors in older adults. No study has assessed if vibration benefits can be retained over time. Objectives. The aims of this study were to examine if six-weeks of whole-body vibration could improve fall risk factors and to assess if benefits associated with the training program could be sustained two months following the final training session. Design and Setting. Repeated measures randomized controlled design. Participants. Twenty-four independent living older adults were recruited and were randomly assigned to the WBV or control group. Intervention. Participants performed three sessions of whole-body vibration training per week with a vibration frequency of 20Hz or with only an audio recording of the vibration noise. An assessment of fall risk factors was performed prior to, immediately following, and two-months after the completion of the training program. Main Outcome Measures. Fall risk factors including functional capacity, mobility, strength, and walking speed were assessed pre-training, post-training, and two-months post-training. Results. Seventeen participants completed the study. No improvements (p<0.05) between groups were found in the measures of physical performance. Conclusions. Findings revealed that six weeks of whole-body vibration is not effective in improving fall risk factors or producing benefits post-training.
... The main physical changes from aging include hormonal changes, decreased neuroregulation, and muscle mass loss. Sarcopenia is defined as the loss of muscle mass and strength with aging [1]. Muscle weakness and decreased strength production are major factors in reducing functional activity. ...
Article
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Whole-body vibration training (WBVT) is emerging as an alternative exercise method that be easily performed by older adults. This clinical trial investigates the efficacy of WBVT in improving muscle strength and physical performance before resistance exercise, in comparison to conventional resistance exercise after stretching exercise in older adults. The WBVT group (n = 20) performed WBVT using a vibrating platform (SW-VC15™), followed by strengthening exercises. The control group (n = 20) performed stretching instead of WBVT. Both groups underwent a total of 12 sessions (50 min per session). The primary outcome was isokinetic dynamometer. The secondary outcomes were grip strength, short physical performance battery (SPPB), a 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and body composition analysis. In all results, only the time effect was significant, and the group effect or time x group effect was not. Both groups showed a significant increase in isokinetic dynamometer. Although there was no significant group effect, the increase in mean peak torque was greater in the WBVT group. The only WBVT group showed significant improvement in SPPB. In SF-36, only the control group showed significant improvements. WBVT can be safely performed by older adults and may be an alternative exercise method to boost the effect of strengthening exercise.
... Partiendo de lo anterior, se ha consultado lo que refiere la literatura científica especializada, en cuanto a experiencias que muestran los efectos benéficos de la actividad física para este grupo etario en variables como; mantención del equilibrio estático y dinámico (Sturnieks, George & Lord, 2008;Saüch, Castañer & Hileno, 2013;Real, Robles & Ponce, 2017), bienestar y autoeficacia (Dionigi, 2007), personalidad positiva, bienestar psicológico y estado de ánimo (Guillén & Angulo, 2016;Villarreal, Jiménez, Gallegos & Ruiz, 2016), rendimiento muscular (Dolny & Reyes, 2008), movilidad (Machado, García, González & Garatechea, 2010). ...
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... 11,12 WBV increases muscle density based on the characteristics of neural adaptation and high-strength resistance exercise. Furthermore, it enhances human mobility by increasing the power of extensor muscles at knee and hip joints, 13 i.e., it activates the lower extremity muscles of people and improves their balance control and locomotion abilities. [14][15][16][17] Moreover, research has been conducted to examine cognitive functions based on WBV. ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the effect of lower limb exercise on electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and posture stability during whole body vibration (WBV) for healthy elderly people. Subjects were composed of 20 elderly people who were over 60 years old and had no disease. They were subjected to WBV of 30[Formula: see text]Hz and strength intensity of 20 (total 5 sets, 20[Formula: see text]s/set, rest time: 20[Formula: see text]s, except for the final set). The subjects were grouped into two groups. One group of 11 subjects was WBVSt (WBV of upright stance) and the other group of nine subjects was WBVSq (WBV of squat posture). In the WBVSt group, the subjects were requested to maintain a standing position, whereas those in the WBVSq group were asked to perform 60 ∘ -knee flexion squat at 2[Formula: see text]s intervals during WBV stimulation. In this study, the electromyography (EMG) was measured on the right and left erector spinae, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, tibialis anterior to evaluate lower limb muscle activity and postural stability during timed up and go (TUG) test before and after WBV. The EEG was measured on frontal (F3, F4, F7, F8), central (Cz, C3, C4), temporal (T3, T4, T5, T6), parietal (P3, P4), and occipital (O1, O2) lobes to evaluate brain activity during the check of mini-mental state examination for dementia screening (MMSE-DS) before and after WBV. The results of this study showed improved postural stability and muscle activation for the healthy elderly during lower limb and WVB exercises. The WBVSq group showed higher changes in TUG-test ([Formula: see text]) and iEMG analysis by EMG ([Formula: see text]) compared with the WBVSt group. However, there was no significant change in MMSE-DS ([Formula: see text]). Because of the increase in relative SMR power by EEG, the central (C4), frontal (F7) and parietal (P3, P4) lobes were activated in WBVSt group ([Formula: see text]); however, all regions, except the parietal lobe, were activated in WBVSq group ([Formula: see text]). Lower limb exercise with WBV stimulation improved postural stability, lower limb muscle, and brain activation for the elderly. These results may be helpful to the protocol of exercise using WBV for the healthy elderly.
... Whole body vibration training (WBVT) is a promising intervention that increases muscle strength (Machado et al. 2010) and balance (Ritzmann et al. 2014). In fact, enhanced markers of bone formation (Chung et al. 2014;Xie et al. 2006) and bone density (Wenger et al. 2010) have been reported in animal studies. ...
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Purpose Osteopenia is common in postmenopausal women and effective interventions increasing or stabilizing bone mineral density (BMD) to prevent fractures are urgently needed. Methods Sixty-five postmenopausal women diagnosed with osteopenia (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5) were randomly assigned to either a vibration training group (VT), a resistance training group (RT), or a control group (CG). BMD T-score values (primary endpoint) were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 12 months (T12), secondary endpoints (muscle strength, postural control, and health-related quality of life) at baseline (T0), after 6 months (T6), after 12 months (T12), and as follow-up after 15 months (T15). Results After the intervention period, neither the VT nor the RT showed any significant changes in BMD T-score values compared to the CG. Isokinetic strength improved significantly within all training groups, with the exception of the flexors of VT at an angular velocity of 240°/s. Health-related quality of life as well as postural control improved significantly for the RT only. Conclusions We conclude that participants of all three groups were able to maintain their BMD. The improvements in quality of life and postural control after resistance training are nevertheless meaningful for postmenopausal osteopenic women and support the importance of regular loadings of the musculoskeletal system. This study was retrospectively registered in January 2022 at the DRKS (S00027816) as clinical trial.
... TVV fizyoterapide ve profesyonel sporcularda kullanılmaktadır. TVV'nin kas kuvvetini, performansını, esnekliği ve kemik yoğunluğunu artırdığı, propriyosepsiyonu ve dengeyi geliştirdiği çeşitli çalışmalarda gösterilmiştir (15,16,17). ...
... It was shown to be a safe alternative intervention to stimulate balance, and to improve muscle strength, body composition, and endurance in sedentary individuals who cannot perform conventional exercises such as walking and functional training. Protocols vary according to number of sessions per week, number of weeks, and frequency used in WBV in hertz (Hz) and amplitude (mm) [16][17][18][19]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of a single whole-body vibration (WBV) training session to peripheral skin temperature and peripheral blood flow of older adults with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted following the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines. A single session of WBV (24 Hz; amplitude 4 mm; vibration time 45 s, with a series of eight repetitions with recovery between repetitions of 30 s; total time of 10 min) or sham vibration on the Kikos P204 Vibrating Platform was employed. To assess skin temperature, the FLIR E40bxs thermographic camera and the ultrasonic vascular Doppler for flow velocity were used. Evaluation occurred before and after a WBV or sham intervention. The sample consisted of three men and 17 women. In the WBV group, there was a decrease in the temperature from 29.7 °C (±1.83) to 26.6 °C (±2.27), with p = 0.01. Temperature following sham decreased from 28.6 °C (±1.84) to 26.3 °C (±2.49), with p = 0.01. Regarding blood flow, there was a decrease in the analyzed arteries, especially the left posterior tibial artery, where there was a statistically significant flow reduction from 27.1 m/s (±25.36) to 20.5 m/s (±19.66), post WBV (p = 0.01). In the sham group, an increased flow velocity was observed for all the arteries analyzed, except for the left dorsal artery. Immediately following a full-body vibration session, peripheral skin temperature and lower-limb blood flow tend to decrease in diabetic patients. However, from the design of study developed, we cannot infer the maintenance of this effect in the medium and long term.
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The aging process is accompanied by reduced muscle mass, referred to as sarcopenia, which contributes to fragility, loss of functional mobility, independence and mortality in the elderly. Although resistance exercises are preferred, whole body vibration exercise (WBV) has recently been introduced as an alternative training modality. Recent studies have demonstrated that the application of WBV in sarcopenic elderly improves bone mineral density, hormonal status, mobility, balance, reduction an prevention of falls and fractures. Thus, the present study aims to evaluate the cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses during the exercise of a dynamic squat with and WBV in the elderly population. The individuals who underwent both intervention protocols: squats with and without WBV. The exercise protocol was 40 Hz and 4 mm, with eight sets of the 40 s of exercise and rest. This study suggests that cardiorespiratory and hormonal responses after different types of exercise were similar in both groups.
Article
Occupational whole-body vibration (WBV) increases the risk of developing low back and neck pain; yet, there has also been an increased use of therapeutic WBV in recent years. Although the resonant frequency (fr) of the spine decreases as the exposure acceleration increases, effects of varying the vibration profile, including peak-to-peak displacement (sptp), root mean squared acceleration (arms) and frequency (f), on pain onset are not known. An established in-vivo rat model of WBV was used to characterize the resonance of the spine using sinusoidal sweeps. The relationship between arms and fr was defined and implemented to assess behavioral sensitivity - a proxy for pain. Five groups were subjected to a single 30-minute exposure, each with a different vibration profile, and a sham group underwent only anaesthesia exposure. The behavioral sensitivity was assessed at baseline and for 7 days following WBV-exposure. Only WBV at 8Hz induced behavioral sensitivity, and the higher arms exposure at 8Hz led to a more robust pain response. These results suggest that the development of pain is frequency-dependent, but further research into the mechanisms leading to pain are warranted to fully understand which WBV profiles may be detrimental or beneficial.
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OBJECTIVES This study was to investigate the efficacy of intensity-controlled whole-body vibration exercise on architecture properties of the ankle plantar flexors in elderly women. METHODS A randomized-controlled design was used. Three groups were recruited in this study (VI group (n=15, 69.5±3.9 years), ET Group (n=13, 68.5±4.0 years), CON Group (n=15, 69.9±3.3 years)). Ultrasound was used to measure the architecture parameters (pennation angle, fascicle length and muscle thickness) in the triceps surae muscles. And also, circumference of the lower leg was measured. During the 8-week exercise protocol, elderly women performed exercise program using their body weight on a whole-body vibration device (Pro6 power plate, Power plate International Ltd, UK). Changes in the muscle architecture and circumference were compared between groups by two-way repeated measures of ANOVA (2 groups x 4-time points, 3 groups x 2-time points), and an LSD post-hoc test and t-test were performed to determine significant differences between pairwise comparisons. The significance level was set at ⍺=.05. RESULTS Medial gastrocnemius became thicker after the 8 week training session (p
Chapter
The age-related frailty syndrome is characterized by the parallel and interlinked appearance of generalized inflammation, metabolic derailment, muscle wasting and muscle weakening, bone loss, and ultimately increases in the risk to fall and to fracture. Exercise is generally beneficial at all ages and also apt to halt the frailty syndrome. However, the feasibility of most types of physical exercise diminishes in old age. Whole body vibration exercise, by contrast, is feasible and well accepted until very old age. It is typically performed on vibrating platforms, with or without additional exercises. The rhythmic platform movements engender the loading of muscles and bones that cause neurophysiological and metabolic responses.
Article
Background: to investigate the efficacy of addition of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to the whole body vibration (WBV) on functional outcomes, physical performance, muscle strength and metabolism in pre-frail older women. Methods: this study was a randomized double-blind trial. Forty-two older women aged 60-80 years who meet the Cardiovascular Health Study frailty criteria for pre-frailty were randomly allocated to IMT + WBV, IMTsham + WBV or Sham groups. IMT + WBV group received 12 weeks of both trainings, whereas IMTsham + WVB received 12 weeks of WBV alone. Sham group received 12 weeks of IMT with a low fixed load and were positioned at the vibratory platform without therapeutic effect. Participants were evaluated before and after the intervention for the following outcomes: 6-min walk test distance (6MWD), balance using Tinetti test, functional mobility using timed up and go test (TUG), handgrip strength (HGS) and peripheral muscle metabolism (glucose and lactate levels). Results: after the training, both groups IMT + WBV and IMTsham + WBV improved 6MWD [mean percentage changes = 20.31 (SD = 14.62) and 13.02 (SD = 12.14), respectively] compared with Sham [0.27 (SD = 6.51)], P <0.01. There was also a significant decrease of mean percentage changes on time of the TUG for IMT + WBV [-21.87 (SD = 7.87)] and IMTsham + WBV [-11.15 (SD = 13.64)] compared with Sham [-4.25 (SD = 13.25)], P <0.01. IMT + WBV group improved balance when compared with IMTsham + WBV and Sham groups (P <0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). HGS and levels of lactate and glucose were similar between groups. Conclusions: the addition of IMT to the WBV was effective to improve functionality, balance and physical performance in pre-frail older women.
Article
El objetivo de este estudio fue estudiar el efecto de un entrenamiento de Vibracio?n Meca?nica de Cuerpo Completo (VMCC) de 12 semanas en el dolor de espalda de personas sedentarias con Fibromialgia (FM). 41 mujeres diagnosticadas con FM de una media de 47 an?os (±10.5) fueron aleatorizadas en un grupo control (n= 20) y grupo de VMCC (n=21). La intervencio?n de VMCC consistio? en 6 repeticiones a 12,5 Hz repartidas en 3 sesiones por semana durante 12 semanas. Se midio? el dolor de espalda con el cuestionario Roland Morris y el grado de discapacidad con el Cuestionario de Impacto de FM. Tras la realizacio?n del programa VMCC no se han obtenido diferencias estadi?sticamente significativas en el dolor de espalda. Como conclusio?n, el programa propuesto no ha mejorado el dolor especi?fico de espalda en mujeres sedentarias con FM
Chapter
This chapter presents information on the effects of vibration exercise on variation in neuromuscular responses in healthy subjects. The content is drawn from evidence-based research in this area of study. The main aim is to help health, fitness, and medical professionals to integrate this modality of exercise and treatment into their practice and program design. This chapter presents how the use of vibration in a part of the body evokes effects in other body areas. Health, fitness and medical professionals can employ vibrations at the lower body to improve muscular performance in the upper body. The chapter outcomes leave many open lines of research and future developments. The future lines of work are given in the last section of this chapter, such as new models of simultaneous applications.
Chapter
Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of diseases and disabilities, which threaten a person’s functional independence. Within the progression of disablement, neuromuscular decline is a key factor, conceptualized by the terms ‘sarcopenia’ and ‘frailty’. Physical activity, and in particular physical exercise, is the only acknowledged countermeasure to halt this process. However, the majority of old persons do not attain the recommended levels of physical activity, and readiness to engage in a physical exercise program is declining as we grow old. On the other hand, physical activity would have to be maintained over years and decades for a profound impact on health at old age. We therefore question whether the currently recommended training regimens, which had originally been designed for younger people or even athletes, are fit for purpose in the geriatric population. It is then discussed in how far the particularities of whole-body vibration (WBV) address the specific needs of geriatric patients. The efficacy for a broad range of age-related deficits, the short time frame with multiple repetitions, the relatively low demands for the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems, the low rating of perceived exertion, and an easy way to instruct and supervise the method could facilitate long-term adherence of vibration therapy in geriatric medicine. Especially for bed-ridden and chair-bound patients, tilt table WBV could be a supplementary opportunity to enlarge the established therapy and training regimens.
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of reticulated hyaluronic acid (HA) alone or associated with whole-body vibration (WBV) in dogs with osteoarthritis due to hip dysplasia. Fourteen dogs were randomized assigned into two groups of seven animals: Group 1 (G1) — single intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid; Group 2 (G2) — single intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid associated with WBV sessions. The affected hip joint received 0.70 mL of reticulated HA guided by ultrasound. Dogs were submitted to a single session of WBV (30 and 50 Hz, for 15 min) every 48 hours for 12 weeks. Dogs were evaluated for morphometric measurements; orthopedic, radiographic and lameness scores of the hip joints; kinetic analysis; and ultrassonographic measurement of the following muscles: middle gluteal, vastus lateralis and biceps femoris. The morphometric measurements, lameness scores, and muscle measurements were conducted at 10 minutes before treatments (TP0), and at days 30 (TP30), 60 (TP60) and 90 (TP90) after treatments. The orthopedic and radiographic scores and kinetic analysis were performed at TP0 and TP90. The scores of lameness showed a statistical decrease in G1 and G2 between time-points. Significant decreases (P = 0.01) were observed in orthopedic scores in both groups between time-points. The Peak Vertical Force between TP0 and TP90 was significantly higher in G2 (P = 0.01). Vertical Impulse was null in G1 and positive in G2. Dogs treated with single intra-articular injection of hyaluronic acid alone and associated with WBV had beneficial effects in dogs with osteoarthritis due to hip dysplasia, however the association of viscosupplementation with hyaluronic acid and WBV had an earlier improvement clinical outcome and allowed better kinetic results.
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Background Deterioration of neuromuscular function is a major mechanism of age-related strength loss. Resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength and mass. However, the effects of RT on neuromuscular adaptations in middle-aged and older adults are unclear. Methods Randomised controlled RT interventions (≥2 weeks) involving adults aged ≥50 years were identified. Primary outcome measures were voluntary activation (VA), electromyographic (EMG) activity during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and antagonist coactivation. Data were pooled using a weighted random-effect model. Sub-analyses were conducted by muscle or muscle group and health status of participants. Sensitivity analysis was based on study quality. P < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results Twenty-seven studies were included. An effect was found for VA (standardised mean difference [SMD] 0.54, 0.01 to 1.07, P = 0.04), This result remained significant following sensitivity analysis involving only studies that were low risk of bias. Subgroup analyses showed an effect for plantar flexor VA (SMD 1.13, 0.20 to 2.06, P = 0.02) and VA in healthy participants (SMD 1.04, 0.32 to 1.76, P = 0.004). There was no effect for EMG activity or antagonist coactivation of any muscle group (P > 0.05). Discussion Resistance training did not alter EMG activity or antagonist coactivation in older adults. Sensitivity analysis resulted in the effect for VA remaining significant, indicating that this finding was not dependent on study quality. Studies predominantly involved healthy older adults (78%), limiting the generalisability of these findings to clinical cohorts. Future research should determine the effects of RT on neuromuscular function in people with sarcopenia and age-related syndromes.
Article
From the third decade of life and due to multiple causes, muscle mass and strength are gradually lost, which affects the function of the musculoskeletal system. This combined loss of muscle mass and strength with aging is called sarcopenia, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Early treatment is therefore essential, and physical exercise is the therapeutic approach that has given the best results. This literature review intended to analyze the effect of physical exercise, excluding the role that other treatments proposed, including the nutritional approach, could play in the treatment of sarcopenia, refers to 12 articles. In studies including high intensity strength exercises in isolation, either alone or combined with aerobic exercise, improvements were seen in muscle mass, muscle strength, and functional test times. There is also a significant increase in fat-free mass in individuals who exercised more frequently (more than two sessions per week). Current evidence shows that strength-resistance training and its combination in multimodal programs with aerobic exercise show significantly beneficial effects on anthropometric and muscle function parameters. Programs of prescribed exercises including strength exercises adequate to the characteristics should therefore be adapted to the characteristics of each individual and replace the usual practice of prescribing aerobic exercises (walking) only.
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 40 million people worldwide. The ineffectiveness of the available pharmacological treatments against AD has fostered researchers to focus on alternative strategies to overcome this challenge. Mechanical vibrations delivered in different stimulation modes have been associated with marked improvements in cognitive and physical performance in both demented and non-demented elderly. Some of the mechanical-based stimulation modalities in efforts are earlier whole-body vibration, transcranial ultrasound stimulation with microbubble injection, and more recently, auditory stimulation. However, there is a huge variety of treatment specifications, and in many cases, conflicting results are reported. In this review, a search on Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was performed, resulting in 37 papers . These studies suggest that mechanical vibrations delivered through different stimulation modes are effective in attenuating many parameters of AD pathology including functional connectivity and neuronal circuit integrity deficits in the brains of AD patients, as well as in subjects with cognitive decline and non-demented older adults. Despite the evolving preclinical and clinical evidence on these therapeutic modalities, their translation into clinical practice is not consolidated yet. Thus, this comprehensive and critical systematic review aims to address the most important gaps in the reviewed protocols and propose optimal regimens for future clinical application.
Chapter
This chapter describes a new method for pinpointing the latency of the vibration-induced muscular reflex. To determine the reflex latency, the vibration-altered electromyography (EMG) and acceleration data were spike triggered and averaged using the tip of the EMG response as the trigger. Averaged results belonging to several different vibration frequencies were then superimposed to achieve a ‘cumulative averaged record’. The lowest standard error of the cumulative averaged record for the acceleration data was marked to indicate the effective stimulus point on the vibration cycle. Similarly, the lowest standard error of the cumulative averaged record for the EMG data showed the start of the reflex response. The time between the effective stimulus point and the start of the reflex response on EMG data was designated as the ‘reflex latency’ of this circuit. Using this technique, we have examined the latency of whole-body vibration (WBV)-induced reflexes. We found that the WBV induced two different reflex responses depending on the vibration amplitude. While low amplitude WBV (0.1–0.4 mm) produced short latency reflex similar to muscle spindle-based T-reflex (34 ms), high amplitude vibration (1.1–2.8 mm) generated long latency reflex response (44 ms) which may have a different receptor origin than the spindles. We have also summarized the modulatory effects of vibration on spindle-based reflexes and indicated that these reflexes are reduced during and/or following vibration. It is suggested that this effect may originate from the reduction in effectiveness of the spindle synapses on motoneurons via premotoneuronal means.
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The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been used during strength-training movements such as elbow flexion, and vibration has also been applied to the entire body by having subjects stand on vibration platforms. Exposure to whole-body vibration has also resulted in a significant improvement in power output in the postvibratory period and has been demonstrated to induce significant changes in the resting hormonal profiles of men. In addition to the potential training effects of vibration, the improvement in power output that is observed in the postvibratory period may also lead to better warm-up protocols for athletes competing in sporting events that require high amounts of power output. These observations provide the possibility of new and improved methods of augmenting the training and performance of athletes through the use vibration training. Despite the potential benefits of vibration training, there is substantial evidence regarding the negative effects of vibration on the human body. In conclusion, the potential of vibration treatment to enhance the training regimes of athletes appears quite promising. It is essential though that a thorough understanding of the implications of this type of treatment be acquired prior to its use in athletic situations. Future research should be done with the aim of understanding the biological effects of vibration on muscle performance and also the effects of different vibration protocols on muscle performance.
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Because of the scarcity of data available from direct comparisons of age and gender groups using the same relative training stimulus, it is unknown whether older individuals can increase their muscle mass as much as young individuals and whether women can increase as much as men in response to strength training (ST). In addition, little is known about whether the hypertrophic response to ST is affected by myostatin genotype, a candidate gene for muscle hypertrophy. Eleven young men (25 +/- 3 years, range 21-29 years), 11 young women (26 +/- 2 years, range 23-28 years), 12 older men (69 +/- 3 years, range 65-75 years), and 11 older women (68 +/- 2 years, range 65-73 years) had bilateral quadriceps muscle volume measurements performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after ST and detraining. Training consisted of knee extension exercises of the dominant leg three times per week for 9 weeks. The contralateral limb was left untrained throughout the ST program. Following the unilateral training period, the subjects underwent 31 weeks of detraining during which no regular exercise was performed. Myostatin genotype was determined in a subgroup of 32 subjects, of which five female subjects were carriers of a myostatin gene variant. A significantly greater absolute increase in muscle volume was observed in men than in women (204 +/- 20 vs 101 +/- 13 cm3, p < .01), but there was no significant difference in muscle volume response to ST between young and older individuals. The gender effect remained after adjusting for baseline muscle volume. In addition, there was a significantly greater loss of absolute muscle volume after 31 weeks of detraining in men than in women (151 +/- 13 vs 88 +/- 7 cm3, p < .05), but no significant difference between young and older individuals. Myostatin genotype did not explain the hypertrophic response to ST when all 32 subjects were assessed. However, when only women were analyzed, those with the less common myostatin allele exhibited a 68% larger increase in muscle volume in response to ST (p = .056). Aging does not affect the muscle mass response to either ST or detraining, whereas gender does, as men increased their muscle volume about twice as much in response to ST as did women and experienced larger losses in response to detraining than women. Young men were the only group that maintained muscle volume adaptation after 31 weeks of detraining. Although myostatin genotype may not explain the observed gender difference in the hypertrophic response to ST, a role for myostatin genotype may be indicated in this regard for women, but future studies are needed with larger subject numbers in each genotype group to confirm this observation.
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Using an integrative approach, this review highlights the benefits of resistance training toward improvements in functional status, health and quality of life among older adults. Sarcopenia (i.e. muscle atrophy) and loss of strength are known to occur with age. While its aetiology is poorly understood, the multifactorial sequelae of sarcopenia are well documented and present a major public health concern to our aging population, as both the quality of life and the likelihood of age-associated declines in health status are influenced. These age-related declines in health include decreased energy expenditure at rest and during exercise, and increased body fat and its accompanying increased dyslipidaemia and reduced insulin sensitivity. Quality of life is affected by reduced strength and endurance and increased difficulty in being physically active. Strength and muscle mass are increased following resistance training in older adults through a poorly understood series of events that appears to involve the recruitment of satellite cells to support hypertrophy of mature myofibres. Muscle quality (strength relative to muscle mass) also increases with resistance training in older adults possibly for a number of reasons, including increased ability to neurally activate motor units and increased high-energy phosphate availability. Resistance training in older adults also increases power, reduces the difficulty of performing daily tasks, enhances energy expenditure and body composition, and promotes participation in spontaneous physical activity. Impairment in strength development may result when aerobic training is added to resistance training but can be avoided with training limited to 3 days/week.
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To investigate the effects of whole body vibration in the elderly. Randomized controlled trial. Nursing home. Forty-two elderly volunteers. Six-week vibration intervention plus physical therapy (PT) (n=22) or PT alone (n=20). We assessed gait and body balance using the Tinetti test (maximum scores of 12 for gait, 16 for body balance, 28 for global score), motor capacity using the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). After 6 weeks, the vibration intervention group improved by a mean +/- standard deviation of 2.4+/-2.3 points on the gait score compared with no score change in the control group ( P <.001). The intervention group improved by 3.5+/-2.1 points on the body balance score compared with a decrease of 0.3+/-1.2 points in the control group ( P <.001). TUG test time decreased by 11.0+/-8.6 seconds in the treated group compared with an increase of 2.6+/-8.8 seconds in the control group ( P <.001). The intervention group had significantly greater improvements from baseline on 8 of 9 items on the SF-36 compared with the control group. Controlled whole body vibration can improve elements of fall risk and HRQOL in elderly patients.
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The effects of vibration on the human body have been documented for many years. Recently, the use of vibration for improving the training regimes of athletes has been investigated. Vibration has been used during strength-training movements such as elbow flexion, and vibration has also been applied to the entire body by having subjects stand on vibration platforms. Exposure to whole-body vibration has also resulted in a significant improvement in power output in the postvibratory period and has been demonstrated to induce significant changes in the resting hormonal profiles of men. In addition to the potential training effects of vibration, the improvement in power output that is observed in the postvibratory period may also lead to better warm-up protocols for athletes competing in sporting events that require high amounts of power output. These observations provide the possibility of new and improved methods of augmenting the training and performance of athletes through the use vibration training. Despite the potential benefits of vibration training, there is substantial evidence regarding the negative effects of vibration on the human body. In conclusion, the potential of vibration treatment to enhance the training regimes of athletes appears quite promising. It is essential though that a thorough understanding of the implications of this type of treatment be acquired prior to its use in athletic situations. Future research should be done with the aim of understanding the biological effects of vibration on muscle performance and also the effects of different vibration protocols on muscle performance.
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Muscle power (force x velocity) recedes at a faster rate than strength with age and may also be a stronger predictor of fall risk and functional decline. The optimal training paradigm for improving muscle power in older adults is not known, although some literature suggests high velocity, low load training is optimal in young adults. One hundred twelve healthy older adults (69 +/- 6 years) were randomly assigned to either explosive resistance training at 20% (G20), 50% (G50), or 80% (G80) one repetition maximum (1RM) for 8-12 weeks or to a nontraining control group (CON). Participants trained twice per week (five exercises; three sets of eight rapidly concentric and slow eccentric repetitions) using pneumatic resistance machines. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and covariance (ANOVA and ANCOVA) were used to determine the effects of training. Average peak power increased significantly and similarly in G80 (14 +/- 8%), G50 (15 +/- 9%), and G20 (14 +/- 6%) compared to CON (3 +/- 6%) (p < .0001). By contrast, a positive dose-response relationship with training intensity was observed for relative changes in average strength (r = .40, p = .0009) and endurance (r = .43, p = .0005). Average strength increased in G80 (20 +/- 7%), G50 (16 +/- 7%), and G20 (13 +/- 7%) compared to CON (4 +/- 4%) (p < .0001). Average muscle endurance increased in G80 (185 +/- 126%, p < .0001), G50 (103 +/- 75%, p = .0004), and G20 (82 +/- 57%, p = .0078) compared to CON (28 +/- 29%). Peak muscle power may be improved similarly using light, moderate, or heavy resistances, whereas there is a dose-response relationship between training intensity and muscle strength and endurance changes. Therefore, using heavy loads during explosive resistance training may be the most effective strategy to achieve simultaneous improvements in muscle strength, power, and endurance in older adults.
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Vibration transmitted to the whole body or part of it has been extensively studied in relation to the risks to the health and safety of workers. These studies have highlighted the particular danger of lower-back morbidity and spinal trauma arising after prolonged exposure to vibration. However, short-term exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) or the use of vibrating dumbbells can have beneficial effects on the musculoskeletal system. As a consequence of this encouraging work, many manufacturers have developed exercise devices characterized by vibrating plates transmitting vibration to the whole body and vibrating dumbbells. Preliminary results seem to recommend WBV exercise as a therapeutic alternative for preventing/reversing sarcopenia and possibly osteoporosis. However, there is a paucity of well designed studies in the elderly. In particular, there is a lack of understanding of the physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptive responses to vibration exposure, and of the most appropriate vibration parameters to be used in order to maximize gains and improve safety. The effectiveness of this novel exercise modality on musculoskeletal structures is examined in this review. The physiological mechanisms involved in the adaptive responses to vibration exercise are discussed and suggestions for future studies are made.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on leg muscular performance from whole-body vibration exercise. Literature search was performed on the databases Pubmed, Cinahl, ISI web of science (Sci-expanded, SSCI) and Embase (Rehab & Physical Med). Rating of 19 relevant studies was performed (14 on long-term exercise and five on short-term exercise) using a score system for the methodological quality. Several randomized-controlled trial studies of high to moderate quality show similar improvements from long-term regimen on muscular performance in the legs after a period of whole-body vibration exercise. As there were few studies on short-term exercise and as they had no control groups, the same convincing improvements regarding muscular performance were not achieved. Preliminarily, there is strong to moderate evidence that long-term whole-body vibration exercise can have positive effects on the leg muscular performance among untrained people and elderly women. There is no clear evidence for effects on muscular performance after short-term vibration stimuli.
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This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 1-year whole-body vibration (WBV) training on isometric and explosive muscle strength and muscle mass in community-dwelling men older than 60 years. Muscle characteristics of the WBV group (n = 31, 67.3 +/- 0.7 years) were compared with those of a fitness (FIT) group (n = 30, 67.4 +/- 0.8 years) and a control (CON) group (n = 36, 68.6 +/- 0.9 years). Isometric strength of the knee extensors was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer, explosive muscle strength was assessed using a counter movement jump, and muscle mass of the upper leg was determined by computed tomography. Isometric muscle strength, explosive muscle strength, and muscle mass increased significantly in the WBV group (9.8%, 10.9%, and 3.4%, respectively) and in the FIT group (13.1%, 9.8%, and 3.8%, respectively) with the training effects not significantly different between the groups. No significant changes in any parameter were found in the CON group. WBV training is as efficient as a fitness program to increase isometric and explosive knee extension strength and muscle mass of the upper leg in community-dwelling older men. These findings suggest that WBV training has potential to prevent or reverse the age-related loss in skeletal muscle mass, referred to as sarcopenia.
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Vibration training is a relatively new exercise intervention. This study investigated the effects of vibration exercise on strength (force-producing capacity) and power in older adults who are healthy. Thirty participants (mean age=73.7 years, SD=4.6) were randomly assigned to a vibration exercise training (VIB) group or an exercise without vibration training (EX) group. The interventions consisted of 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included isokinetic flexor and extensor strength and power of the hip, knee, and ankle. The VIB group significantly improved ankle plantar flexor strength and power compared with the EX group. However, there were no significant differences between the VIB and EX groups for knee flexor or extensor strength. Vibration training contributed to an increase in plantar flexor strength and power. However, the strength gains for the knee and hip flexors and extensors for the VIB group and the EX group were comparable. Future vibration protocols should explore different body positions to target muscles higher up on the leg.
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A description of different levels of the normal adult human skeletal muscular system is given as derived by computed tomography (CT). A standard program is presented by which a maximum number of muscles which are affected by neuromuscular diseases can be examined with a minimum of radiation. Twenty-four patients of different ages, 12 males and 12 females, were examined. Descriptions of different levels of the skeletal muscular system, with measurements of cross-section and density of a number of important marker muscles are presented. Variations of these parameters with age, sex, and cerebral dominance are discussed. It is concluded that CT scans can greatly enhance our insight into the effects of neuromusclar diseases on normal and abnormal skeletal muscles.
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This study evaluated a modified, timed version of the "Get-Up and Go" Test (Mathias et al, 1986) in 60 patients referred to a Geriatric Day Hospital (mean age 79.5 years). The patient is observed and timed while he rises from an arm chair, walks 3 meters, turns, walks back, and sits down again. The results indicate that the time score is (1) reliable (inter-rater and intra-rater); (2) correlates well with log-transformed scores on the Berg Balance Scale (r = -0.81), gait speed (r = -0.61) and Barthel Index of ADL (r = -0.78); and (3) appears to predict the patient's ability to go outside alone safely. These data suggest that the timed "Up & Go" test is a reliable and valid test for quantifying functional mobility that may also be useful in following clinical change over time. The test is quick, requires no special equipment or training, and is easily included as part of the routine medical examination.
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1. Six weeks of a dynamic heavy-resistance training of the quadriceps muscle in healthy young men resulted in a continuous increase in muscle strength, in an increase in muscle cross-sectional area (significant only in the second half of the training period) and in an increase in radiological density of the muscle tissue of 3.1% (2P less than 0.001) in the first three weeks and 1.6% (2P less than 0.01) in the second three weeks. 2. The linear distance between myosin filaments (38.7 +/- 0.3 nm before, 38.7 +/- 0.4 nm after training; mean +/- S.E.M.) as well as the ratio of actin to myosin filaments (3.94 +/- 0.03 before, 3.86 +/- 0.06 after training) did not change with training. 3. These results refute the concept that the increases in muscle strength or radiological density during short-term heavy-resistance training are caused by changes in myofilament spacing.
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Treatment with glucocorticoids causes wasting of proximal skeletal muscles. There is evidence that physical training improves muscle mass and strength in glucocorticoid-treated rats. Whether this is also true in humans is unknown. The present investigation was designed to establish in what respect moderate physical training may alter muscle mass and function as assessed quantitatively by computed tomography (CT) and with an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex II). Compared with matched controls, both female (n = 17) and male (n = 22) patients treated with prednisone (15.4 +/- 6.6 mg die-1) had a lower mid-thigh muscle area of 20 and 45% and an increased mid-thigh fat/muscle ratio of 25 and 100%, respectively. The mean peak torque and the total work output of the thigh muscle were lower by 20-30% (n = 14). Fifty days of isokinetic training in six patients increased the thigh muscle area, decreased the thigh fat area and normalized the mean peak torque and total work output. Thus, glucocorticoid-induced muscle wasting can be reversed by increasing physical activity.
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The time course of strength gain with respect to the contributions of neural factors and hypertrophy was studied in five young men and five older men during the course of 8 weeks progressive strength training. Young and old men showed similar and significant percentage increases in strength. However, the neurophysiological adaptations in response to the training were quite different, increases in maximal muscle activation (neural factors) played a dominant role throughout the training for old subjects, while young subjects showed strength gains due to neural factors only at the initial stage, with hypertrophy becoming the dominant factor after some 4 weeks of training. Our data suggest that the effect of muscle training in the old may entirely rest on the neural factors presumably acting at various levels of the nervous system which could result in increasing the maximal muscle activation level in the absence of significant hypertrophy.
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Advancing adult age is associated with profound changes in body composition, the principal component of which is a decrease in skeletal muscle mass. This age-related loss in skeletal muscle has been referred to as sarcopenia. Age-related reduction in muscle is a direct cause of the age-related decrease in muscle strength. Muscle mass (not function) appears to be the major determinant of the age- and sex-related differences in strength. This relationship is independent of muscle location (upper vs lower extremities) and function (extension vs flexion). Reduced muscle strength in the elderly is a major cause for their increased prevalence of disability. With advancing age and extremely low activity levels seen in the very old, muscle strength is a critical component of walking ability. The high prevalence of falls among the institutionalized elderly may be a consequence of their lower muscle strength. Daily energy expenditure declines progressively throughout adult life. In sedentary individuals, the main determinant of energy expenditure is fat-free mass, which declines by about 15% between the third and eighth decade of life, contributing to a lower basal metabolic rate in the elderly. Data indicate that preservation of muscle mass and prevention of sarcopenia can help prevent the decrease in metabolic rate. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, skeletal muscle and its age-related decline may contribute to such age-associated changes as reduction in bone density, insulin sensitivity, and aerobic capacity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The effects of 18 wk of intensive strength and endurance training on knee extensor, knee flexor, and lower leg muscle mass and composition were studied in 76- to 78-yr-old women. Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), lean tissue CSA, and relative proportion of fat were determined using computed tomography. The strength-trained women increased their total muscle lean tissue CSA of the thigh (1.5%; P = 0.035), quadriceps CSA (4.5%; P = 0.021), quadriceps lean tissue CSA (5.8%, P = 0.009), and mean Hounsfield unit of the lower leg muscles (11.2%; P = 0.035) compared with the changes that occurred in the control group during the experiment. The change in quadriceps lean tissue CSA because of the strength training was also significant compared with that in the endurance group. The relative proportion of fat within the quadriceps muscle decreased due to the strength training compared with the changes that occurred in the endurance group. The results show that intensive strength training can induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy in elderly women and thereby also reduce the relative amount of intramuscular fat, whereas the effects of endurance training are negligible.
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Vibration exercise (VE) is a new neuromuscular training method which is applied in athletes as well as in prevention and therapy of osteoporosis. The present study explored the physiological mechanisms of fatigue by VE in 37 young healthy subjects. Exercise and cardiovascular data were compared to progressive bicycle ergometry until exhaustion. VE was performed in two sessions, with a 26 Hz vibration on a ground plate, in combination with squatting plus additional load (40% of body weight). After VE, subjectively perceived exertion on Borg's scale was 18, and thus as high as after bicycle ergometry. Heart rate after VE increased to 128 min-1, blood pressure to 132/52 mmHg, and lactate to 3.5 mM. Oxygen uptake in VE was 48.8% of VO2max in bicycle ergometry. After VE, voluntary force in knee extension was reduced by 9.2%, jump height by 9.1%, and the decrease of EMG median frequency during maximal voluntary contraction was attenuated. The reproducibility in the two VE sessions was quite good: for heart rate, oxygen uptake and reduction in jump height, correlation coefficients of values from session 1 and from session 2 were between 0.67 and 0.7. Thus, VE can be well controlled in terms of these parameters. Surprisingly, an itching erythema was found in about half of the individuals, and an increase in cutaneous blood flow. It follows that exhaustive whole-body VE elicits a mild cardiovascular exertion, and that neural as well as muscular mechanisms of fatigue may play a role.
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A decline in muscle mass and function, and in the mass and integrity of the skeletal system, are well-known consequences of aging. These changes impinge on the functional performance required for independent living and contribute to frailty and fracture risk. Resistance exercise has been shown to be an effective mode to circumvent age-related changes in the muscular system, although the benefit of exercise on bone mass in the aging skeleton is comparatively modest at best. This brief review highlights results from several studies that we have undertaken in older adults, examining aspects of the resistance training prescription as well as the potential beneficial role of hormones. What is common to all of these studies is the high degree of residual plasticity that remains in aging skeletal muscle. Risk factors for falls and fracture include reduced bone mass, muscle weakness, impaired balance, and lessened visual acuity. Among these, only muscle strength is reliably enhanced with resistance exercise, which may aid in reducing hip fracture risk as well as improving the ability to undertake daily activities and maintain independence.