Excess mortality following hip fracture: a systematic epidemiological review. Osteoporos Int

Department of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Niels Andersensvej 65, 2900, Hellerup, Denmark.
Osteoporosis International (Impact Factor: 4.17). 06/2009; 20(10):1633-50. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-009-0920-3
Source: PubMed


This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlighting the need for interventions to reduce this risk.Patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable risk for subsequent osteoporotic fractures and premature death. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify all studies that reported unadjusted and excess mortality rates for hip fracture. Although a lack of consistent study design precluded any formal meta-analysis or pooled analysis of the data, we have shown that hip fracture is associated with excess mortality (over and above mortality rates in nonhip fracture/community control populations) during the first year after fracture ranging from 8.4% to 36%. In the identified studies, individuals experienced an increased relative risk for mortality following hip fracture that was at least double that for the age-matched control population, became less pronounced with advancing age, was higher among men than women regardless of age, was highest in the days and weeks following the index fracture, and remained elevated for months and perhaps even years following the index fracture. These observations show that patients are at increased risk for premature death for many years after a fragility-related hip fracture and highlight the need to identify those patients who are candidates for interventions to reduce their risk.

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    • "Hip fracture patients are at an increased risk of both subsequent fracture and premature death[1,2]. An estimated 91,500 hip fractures were expected to occur in the UK during 2015, at a cost in excess of £2 billion (including medical and social care)[3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: to evaluate orthogeriatric and nurse-led fracture liaison service (FLS) models of post-hip fracture care in terms of impact on mortality (30 days and 1 year) and second hip fracture (2 years). Setting: Hospital Episode Statistics database linked to Office for National Statistics mortality records for 11 acute hospitals in a region of England. Population: patients aged over 60 years admitted for a primary hip fracture from 2003 to 2013. Methods: each hospital was analysed separately and acted as its own control in a before–after time-series design in which the appointment of an orthogeriatrician or set-up/expansion of an FLS was evaluated. Multivariable Cox regression (mortality) and competing risk survival models (second hip fracture) were used. Fixed effects meta-analysis was used to pool estimates of impact for interventions of the same type. Results: of 33,152 primary hip fracture patients, 1,288 sustained a second hip fracture within 2 years (age and sex standardised proportion of 4.2%). 3,033 primary hip fracture patients died within 30 days and 9,662 died within 1 year (age and sex standardised proportion of 9.5% and 29.8%, respectively). The estimated impact of introducing an orthogeriatrician on 30-day and 1-year mortality was hazard ratio (HR) = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.65–0.82) and HR = 0.81 (CI: 0.75–0.87), respectively. Following an FLS, these associations were as follows: HR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.71–0.91) and HR = 0.84 (0.77–0.93). There was no significant impact on time to second hip fracture. Conclusions: the introduction and/or expansion of orthogeriatric and FLS models of post-hip fracture care has a beneficial effect on subsequent mortality. No evidence for a reduction in second hip fracture rate was found.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Age and Ageing
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    • "Medical records were scrutinised for general complications during the first six months and for local complications during the first year after surgery. The shorter time frame for general complications was chosen to identify events with a plausible relation to the hip fracture, in combination with the known increased risk of death during the first six months post fracture [11]. Only complications leading to contact with the hospital were registered; i.e. simple falls or complications treated by general practitioners were not included. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of every patient with hip fracture is to regain previous function but we know little about the outcome, especially patient-reported outcome. We wanted to investigate what factors influence the result one year after hip fracture, including fast-track for hip fracture patients, as well as investigating the patients' satisfaction with their rehabilitation and to what degree they regained their pre-fracture function. All patients (>20 years, non-pathological fracture, residents in the catchment area, n=664) having surgery for hip fracture at our hospital during 2011 were included in a retrospective cohort study. From medical records, information was gathered about pre-fracture condition as well as fracture type, surgical details, length of stay and whether the patient entered the hospital through the fast-track system. Medical records were scrutinised for general complications up to six months and for local complications up to one year after surgery. A postal questionnaire was sent one year after surgery inquiring about health status, pain and satisfaction along with multiple-choice questions regarding mobility and rehabilitation. Variables were analysed with linear regression or the proportional odds model. The most common general complications were new falls, pneumonia and new fractures. Deep infection was the most frequent local complication. The only significant effect of the fast-track system was shorter time to surgery (78 vs. 62% had surgery within 24h, p<0.001). A total of 29% reported to have regained their previous mobility and 30% considered the rehabilitation to be adequate. Mean value for pain VAS was 24 (SD 22) and for satisfaction 28 (SD 25). Absence of general and local complications correlated to satisfaction and hip pain. General complications correlated to loss of function. Higher age correlated to inadequate rehabilitation. General complications seem to be the major risk factor, being the only factor affecting functional outcome and together with local complications affecting pain and satisfaction. To avoid general complications, co-operation between orthopaedic surgeons and internists may be crucial in the aftercare of hip fracture patients. A majority did not receive adequate rehabilitation and efforts need to be made to improve the rehabilitation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Injury
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    • "Males had higher relative mortality than females. Several studies reported in a 2008 review confirm that this higher mortality diminishes in older patients [8]. Although age-standardised death rates in this study tended to be higher for men for at least 4 years, we could not confirm that the degree of excess mortality was greater for men. "
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    ABSTRACT: One-year mortality after hip fracture may exceed 30% with a very large number of reported risk factors. Determinants of mortality beyond 1 year are rarely described. This study employs multiple data linkages to examine mortality rates, risk factor profiles and age-specific excess mortality at intervals from 30 days to 4 years. Retrospective cohort study of linked administrative datasets describing hospital episodes, residential aged care (RAC) admissions and date of death for 2552 Australian veterans and war widows hospitalised for hip fracture in 2008-09. Associations between time to death and patient age, sex, pre-fracture accommodation, fracture type, treatment options, selected comorbidities and complications were tested in Cox proportional hazards models. In a population with mean age of 86.6 years (range 54-100 years), overall death rate was 11% at 30 days, 34% at 1 year, 47% at 2 years and 67% after 4 years. For males hospitalised from RAC 1-year mortality was 72%, contrasting with 19% for females from the community. Risk of death within 1 year was increased by male sex, increasing age, pre-fracture RAC residency, transfer to intensive care and coexistent cancer, cardiac and renal failure, cerebrovascular disease and pressure ulcers. Patients selected for rehabilitation had lower mortality rates. Patterns of determinants for mortality changed over time. Above-expected age-specific mortality was sustained for 4 years except for males 90 years and older. Pre-fracture RAC residence was the strongest determinant factor for mortality. Patients selected for rehabilitation had lower mortality rates. The profiles of explanatory variables for death altered with increasing time from the index fracture event. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Injury
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