Pandolfino JE, Fox MR, Bredenoord AJ, et al. High-resolution manometry in clinical practice: utilizing pressure topography to classify oesophageal motility abnormalities

Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611-2951, USA.
Neurogastroenterology and Motility (Impact Factor: 3.59). 05/2009; 21(8):796-806. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01311.x
Source: PubMed


High-resolution manometry capable of pressure monitoring from the pharynx to the stomach together with pressure topography plotting represents an unquestionable evolution in oesophageal manometry. However, with this advanced technology come challenges and one of those is devising the optimal scheme to apply high-resolution oesophageal pressure topography (HROPT) to the clinical evaluation of patients. The first iteration of the Chicago classification was based on a systematic analysis of motility patterns in 75 control subjects and 400 consecutive patients. This review summarizes the analysis process as it has evolved. Individual swallows are analysed in a stepwise fashion for the morphology of the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ), the extent of OGJ relaxation, the propagation velocity of peristalsis, the vigour of the peristaltic contraction, and abnormalities of intrabolus pressure utilizing metrics that have now been customized to HROPT. These results are then synthesized into a comprehensive diagnosis that, although based on conventional manometry criteria, is also customized to HROPT measures. The resultant classification objectifies the identification of three unique subtypes of achalasia. Additionally, it provides enhanced detail in the description of distal oesophageal spasm, nutcracker oesophagus subtypes, and OGJ obstruction. It is our expectation that modification of this classification scheme will continue to occur and this should further clarify the utility of pressure topography plotting in assessing oesophageal motility disorders.

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Available from: Peter J Kahrilas
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    • "Recently, high-resolution manometry (HRM) capable of pressure monitoring from the pharynx to the stomach together with pressure topography plotting was used for clinical diagnosis of functional esophageal disorders and clinical researches.11 Based on the recent reports, we decided to collect HRM analysis data in patients with globus symptom, thereafter compared the HRM analysis parameters including upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure, contractile front velocity (CFV), proximal contractile integral (PCI), distal contractile integral (DCI) and transition zone (TZ) in patients with globus, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) patients without globus and normal controls to suggest the correlation specific HRM findings for globus. "
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    ABSTRACT: Globus is a foreign body sense in the throat without dysphagia, odynophagia, esophageal motility disorders, or gastroesophageal reflux. The etiology is unclear. Previous studies suggested that increased upper esophageal sphincter pressure, gastroesophageal reflux and hypertonicity of esophageal body were possible etiologies. This study was to quantify the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure, contractile front velocity (CFV), proximal contractile integral (PCI), distal contractile integral (DCI) and transition zone (TZ) in patient with globus gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) without globus, and normal controls to suggest the correlation of specific high-resolution manometry (HRM) findings and globus. Fifty-seven globus patients, 24 GERD patients and 7 normal controls were studied with HRM since 2009. We reviewed the reports, and selected 5 swallowing plots suitable for analysis in each report, analyzed each individual plot with ManoView. The 5 parameters from each plot in 57 globus patients were compared with that of 24 GERD patients and 7 normal controls. There was no significant difference in the UES pressure, CFV, PCI and DCI. TZ (using 30 mmHg isobaric contour) in globus showed significant difference compared with normal controls and GERD patients. The median values of TZ were 4.26 cm (interquartile range [IQR], 2.30-5.85) in globus patients, 5.91 cm (IQR, 3.97-7.62) in GERD patients and 2.26 cm (IQR, 1.22-2.92) in normal controls (P = 0.001). HRM analysis suggested that UES pressure, CFV, PCI and DCI were not associated with globus. Instead increased length of TZ may be correlated with globus. Further study comparing HRM results in globus patients within larger population needs to confirm their correlation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility
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    • "Transnasal esophageal manometry (ESM) was performed in all patients according to standard procedures [13,14], with characterization of LES and esophageal function. Topical nasal anesthesia with viscous lidocaine was used. "
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC) is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC), but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM). Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1) ESM + SC, 2) ESM + WC and 3) endoscopically placed WC (EGD + WC) using publicly funded health care system perspective. 86 patients (mean age 51 ± 2 years, 71% female) were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26 ± 4 mm vs 39 ± 4 mm VAS, respectively, p = 0.012) but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p = 0.71). Per patient costs ($Canadian) were $1475 for EGD + WC, $1014 for ESM + WC, and $906 for ESM + SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM + WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM + WC to $991. The ESM + SC and ESM + WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Identifier NCT01364610.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    • "Maximal peristaltic contractions were determined and the mean of 5 separate contractions was calculated to determine the representative contraction value for each segment in each subject, as previously reported. The contractile front velocity (CFV), defined as the slope of the line connecting points on the 30 mmHg isobaric contour at the proximal margin and the distal margin of the smooth muscle esophagus,5,6 was also determined in each subject. After determining esophageal motor activity out of water, each subject immersed their body in water to the neck in a standing position in a warm pool (approximate temperature 25℃). "
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, it is customary to take a daily bath during which the body is immersed in water to the neck. During full-body immersion, hydrostatic pressure is thought to compress the chest and abdomen, which might influence esophageal motor function and intra-gastric pressure. However, whether water immersion has a significant influence on esophageal motor function or intragastric pressure has not been shown. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of full-body water immersion on esophageal motor function and intragastric pressure. Nine healthy male volunteers (mean age 40.1 ± 2.8 years) were enrolled in this study. Esophageal motor function and intragastric pressure were investigated using a high-resolution 36-channel manometry device. All subjects completed the study protocol. Intragastric pressure increased significantly from 4.2 ± 1.1 to 20.6 ± 1.4 mmHg with full-body water immersion, while the lower esophageal high pressure zone (LEHPZ) value also increased from 20.5 ± 2.2 to 40.4 ± 3.6 mmHg, with the latter being observed regardless of dietary condition. In addition, peak esophageal peristaltic pressure was higher when immersed as compared to standing out of water. Esophageal motor function and intragastric pressure were altered by full-body water immersion. Furthermore, the pressure gradient between LEHPZ and intragastric pressures was maintained at a high level, and esophageal peristaltic pressure was elevated with immersion.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility
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