Is Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) Useful in Risk Behaviour Assessment of Female and Male Sex Workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

McGill University Health Center, Montreal Chest Institute, Canada
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 02/2009; 4(5):e5340. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005340
Source: PubMed


Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa.
We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men). Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men), intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women), and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men) were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001). Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males) were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2%) and men (69.7%) felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women) mostly lacked reading skills.
About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

Download full-text


Available from: Susan Graham
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that sexual risk behavior would increase following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Prospective cohort study. FSW cohort in Mombasa, Kenya, 1993-2008. Eight hundred and ninety-eight women contributed HIV-1-seropositive follow-up visits, of whom 129 initiated ART. Beginning in March 2004, ART was provided to women qualifying for treatment according to Kenyan National Guidelines. Participants received sexual risk reduction education and free condoms at every visit. Main outcome measures included unprotected intercourse, abstinence, 100% condom use, number of sexual partners, and frequency of sex. Outcomes were evaluated at monthly follow-up visits using a 1-week recall interval. Compared with non-ART-exposed follow-up, visits following ART initiation were not associated with an increase in unprotected sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-1.19, P = 0.4]. There was a nonsignificant decrease in abstinence (AOR 0.81, 95% CI 0.65-1.01, P = 0.07), which was offset by a substantial increase in 100% condom use (AOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.20, P = 0.02). Numbers of sex partners and frequency of sex were similar before versus after starting ART. A trend for decreased sexually transmitted infections following ART initiation provides additional support for the validity of the self-reported behavioral outcomes (AOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.44-1.02, P = 0.06). In the setting of ongoing risk reduction education and provision of free condoms, initiation of ART was not associated with increased sexual risk behavior in this cohort of Kenyan FSWs.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · AIDS (London, England)
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Misreporting of adherence undermines detection of an association between product use and HIV infection in microbicide trials. This study investigates whether, in a placebo trial, audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) produces more accurate reporting of adherence and sexual behavior than a face-to-face interview (FTFI). At three South African clinics, 849 women were enrolled and instructed to use applicators filled with placebo gel; participants were randomly assigned to FTFI or ACASI. Behavioral reports were validated through two biomarkers that detect product usage and unprotected sex. For most behaviors, ACASI generated significantly higher reporting, although differences by interview mode appeared to diminish over time. ACASI participants were more likely to report having had sex without gel, but reported and tested applicators did not indicate greater honesty about gel insertion with ACASI. While comparisons of reported unprotected sex with the validated biomarker revealed more agreement with ACASI than with FTFI, differences were small.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · AIDS and Behavior
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men and inject drugs (MSM-IDU) are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection and have the potential to transmit HIV across multiple populations through their male and female sexual partners and injection drug-using partners. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit men who reported engaging in anal sex with another man in the past 3 months, aged ≥15 years, and living in Unguja, Zanzibar. Participants responded to a face-to-face interview about their HIV and injecting risk behaviours and were tested for HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) and syphilis. Among the 509 MSM who enrolled in the survey, 14% (n=66) reported injecting drugs in the past 3 months among which 66% used heroin, 60% used a needle after someone else had and 68% passed a needle to someone else after using it. MSM-IDU were significantly more likely to have two or more non-paying male receptive sex partners and to have engaged in group sex in the past month, to have symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection in past 6 months, to have been arrested or beaten in the past 12 months and to be infected with HIV and co-infected with HIV and HCV compared to MSM who did not inject drugs. MSM-IDU were less likely to have used a condom at last sex with a non-paid female partner, to know where to get a confidential HIV test and to have ever been tested for HIV compared to MSM who did not inject drugs. MSM-IDU, and MSM in general, in Unguja practice multiple high-risk behaviours that put them at risk for blood-borne and sexual transmission of HIV and HCV infection. Targeted interventions for MSM-IDU must account for the overlap of high-risk sexual and drug-using networks and integrate injection drug use and HIV services.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · The International journal on drug policy
Show more