Treatment of Evans’ Syndrome With Human Intravenous Immunoglobulin and Leflunomide in a Diabetic Dog
An 11-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer with diabetes mellitus was presumptively diagnosed with Evans' syndrome (ES). Because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive doses of glucocorticoids in a diabetic dog, a single infusion of human intravenous immunoglobulin and oral leflunomide were used as first-line immunomodulatory therapy, after informed owner consent was received. This treatment resulted in complete remission of the ES, and leflunomide was discontinued after 10 months of therapy. Over a 19-month follow-up, the dog did not relapse and has remained a well-regulated diabetic.