TAK1 activation for cytokine synthesis and proliferation of endometriotic cells
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tottori University Faculty of Medicine, Yonago, Japan. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
(Impact Factor: 4.41).
06/2009; 307(1-2):196-204. DOI: 10.1016/j.mce.2009.04.012
Endometriosis causes pelvic pain and infertility in women of reproductive age. We explored TNFalpha-induced specific signaling pathways and gene expressions in endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs). Based on the data of the pathway specific cDNA array, we analyzed the role of TAK1, which is believed to work as a common mediator for NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways. Using the NF-kappaB pathway array, we found that TNFalpha upregulated ICAM-3, IL-6, IL-8, TAK1, JNK2, RelA, and TLR4 expressions. TNFalpha augmented the phosphorylation of TAK1. By transfection of TAK1 siRNA, TNFalpha-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, as well as IL-6 or IL-8 expression, were repressed. TAK1 silencing in TNFalpha-pretreated ESCs caused a decrease in the proportion of cells in S-phase, and reduced TNFalpha-promoted BrdU incorporation. We provide the first evidence that TNFalpha and its downstream TAK1, which are key mediators for NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways, may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Available from: Gabriella Sarmay
- "BCR and TLR9 costimulation may enhance IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα secretion . The role of TAK1 on cytokine synthesis was demonstrated in TAK1 deficient mice and by TAK1 gene silencing experiments , . We addressed the question whether the combined suboptimal anti-Ig, CpG and BAFF stimuli induce a synergistic cytokine production by B cells. "
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ABSTRACT: B cell development and activation are regulated by combined signals mediated by the B cell receptor (BCR), receptors for the B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF-R) and the innate receptor, Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). However, the underlying mechanisms by which these signals cooperate in human B cells remain unclear. Our aim was to elucidate the key signaling molecules at the crossroads of BCR, BAFF-R and TLR9 mediated pathways and to follow the functional consequences of costimulation.Therefore we stimulated purified human B cells by combinations of anti-Ig, B-cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and the TLR9 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide. Phosphorylation status of various signaling molecules, B cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, plasma blast generation and the frequency of IgG producing cells were investigated. We have found that BCR induced signals cooperate with BAFF-R- and TLR9-mediated signals at different levels of cell activation. BCR and BAFF- as well as TLR9 and BAFF-mediated signals cooperate at NFκB activation, while BCR and TLR9 synergistically costimulate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), ERK, JNK and p38. We show here for the first time that the MAP3K7 (TGF beta activated kinase, TAK1) is responsible for the synergistic costimulation of B cells by BCR and TLR9, resulting in an enhanced cell proliferation, plasma blast generation, cytokine and antibody production. Specific inhibitor of TAK1 as well as knocking down TAK1 by siRNA abrogates the synergistic signals. We conclude that TAK1 is a key regulator of receptor crosstalk between BCR and TLR9, thus plays a critical role in B cell development and activation.
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ABSTRACT: Due to the variable of the tasks' attributes, the behavior of soft real-time systems is becoming increasingly unpredictable. Under this circumstance, the scheduling algorithms, which depend on the tasks' static attributes, can't provide usable and efficient resource allocation for those soft real-time systems. In this paper, we present an elastic scheduling algorithm for flexible workload firstly. Based on logging system resource utilization and the number of task instances executing and lost in a sampling period, this algorithm adjusts the number of task instances executing in the next sampling period to guarantee the tasks' basic QoS and improve the system resource utilization. Based on the above algorithm, we establish feedback control model for controlled system and controller, and use feedback control algorithm to improve the efficiency and stability for resource allocation. In this paper, we analyze the algorithms, and simulate them on NS2, and evaluate their performance.
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is constitutively and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-dependently activated in endometriotic cells, whether trichostatin A (TSA) can suppress NF-kappaB activation and suppress TRAF2/6 and TAK1, and whether TSA and caffeic acid phenyl ester can suppress constitutive and H(2)O(2)-stimulated proliferation of endometriotic cells.
Two endometriotic cell lines and an endometrial stromal cell line were used as an in vitro model. Electrophoretic mobility shift analysis was used to determine NF-kappaB activation and possible suppression by TSA. Western blot analysis was used to determine whether TSA suppresses phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, phosphorylation of p65 in the cytoplasm and nuclear translocation, and the expression of TRAF2/6 and TAK1.
NF-kappaB was constitutively activated in endometriotic cells, but only minimally in endometrial cells. TNFalpha stimulation activated NF-kappaB through induction of IkappaB phosphorylation, but the activation can be suppressed by TSA. TSA also attenuated constitutive and TNF-dependent p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in endometriotic cells. TRAF2, TRAF6 and TAK1 were constitutively activated and were unaffected by TSA treatment.
NF-kappaB activation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis in endometriosis. Targeting NF-kappaB with histone deacetylase inhibitors or other compounds might hold promise as novel therapeutics for endometriosis.
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