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The role of communication and visual identity in modern organisations

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Purpose This paper attempts to shed light on a further understanding of the notion of corporate identity especially in relation to communication and visual identity, and its relevance for the organisation. Design/methodology/approach The paper presents a main theoretical background reviewing and discussing the literature in corporate identity in particular, addressing the following dimensions: communications and visual identity. The paper also resorts to examples that illustrate how organisations change or shape their corporate identity to face (new) market and environmental conditions. Findings The paper shows that corporate identity is an issue of growing importance to all companies. Its development and management has become a key dimension within an organisation's strategy. The paper highlights that corporate identity extends beyond the company's logo and name. It covers all forms of internal and external communications of the company. It further discusses the implications for corporate identity change or adaptation in the context of market and other environmental alterations and how it leads to attaining competitive advantage. Practical implications The paper describes how practitioners applied (and may apply) corporate identity as a strategic resource. Originality/value This paper contributes to a further understanding of the magnitude of corporate identity, its strategic relevance and managerial dynamics. Moreover, by stressing communication and visual identity dimensions, it underlines how “parts” of identity need and should be managed in a company's setting.
The role of communication and
visual identity in modern
organisations
T.C. Melewar
Brunel Business School, Brunel University, Middlesex, UK
Kara Bassett
EMI Music, London, UK, and
Cla
´
udia Simo
˜
es
Minho University, Portugal, UK
Abstract
Purpose This paper attempts to shed light on a further understanding of the notion of corporate
identity especially in relation to communication and visual identity, and its relevance for the
organisation.
Design/methodology/approach The paper presents a main theoretical background reviewing
and discussing the literature in corporate identity in particular, addressing the following dimensions:
communications and visual identity. The paper also resorts to examples that illustrate how
organisations change or shape their corporate identity to face (new) market and environmental
conditions.
Findings The paper shows that corporate identity is an issue of growing importance to all
companies. Its development and management has become a key dimension within an organisation’s
strategy. The paper highlights that corporate identity extends beyond the company’s logo and name. It
covers all forms of internal and external communications of the company. It further discusses the
implications for corporate identity change or adaptation in the context of market and other
environmental alterations and how it leads to attaining competitive advantage.
Practical implications The paper describes how practitioners applied (and may apply) corporate
identity as a strategic resource.
Originality/value This paper contributes to a further understanding of the magnitude of corporate
identity, its strategic relevance and managerial dynamics. Moreover, by stressing communication and
visual identity dimensions, it underlines how “parts” of identity need and should be managed in a
company’s setting.
Keywords Corporate identity, Corporate communications, Corporate branding, Corporate strategy
Paper type Research paper
Introduction
Corporate identity has attracted increasing interest from scholars and practitioners
during the last decades. Environmental mutations such as growing
internationalisation, mergers and acquisitions, deregulation and privatisation of
markets (Ind, 1992; Markwick and Fill, 1997; Balmer and Soenen, 1999) and multiple
audiences demand new tools to face such dynamics. Corporate identity arises as a
potential strategic resource. Balmer (1998) highlights that the once narrow definition of
corporate identity has been broadened to include three distinguishing features. First,
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
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11,2
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Corporate Communications: An
International Journal
Vol. 11 No. 2, 2006
pp. 138-147
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
1356-3289
DOI 10.1108/13563280610661679
corporate identity is fundamentally concerned with reality and what an organisation is,
that is, its strategy, philosophy, history, business scope, the range and type of products
and services offered, and its formal and informal communication. Secondly, corporate
identity is a multidisciplinary field relying on the roots of multiple disciplines. Thirdly,
corporate identity is based on the corporate personality of the organisation.
This paper attempts to shed light on a further understanding of the notion of
corporate identity especially in relation to communication and visual identity, and its
relevance for the organisation. This paper also discusses, through some of examples,
how organisations change or shape their corporate identity to face new market
conditions.
The notion and importance of corporate identity
Research over the past 30 years has shown a wide variety of definitions of corporate
identity. Originally, research was directed towards definitions that mainly looked at
the logo and other forms of symbolism used by an organisation. In Selame and Selame
(1975, p. 4) defined it as:
... the firm’s visual statement to the world of who and what the company is of how the
company views itself and therefore has a great deal to do with how the world views the
company.
Carter (1982, p. 5) defined the concept as “the logo or brand image of a company and all
other visual manifestations of the identity of a company”. The more research written,
the more comprehensive and broad the concept has become. Growing research into
corporate identity has shown that it is far more than just a logo or livery. The concept
is described as a strategic issue for management in a modern organisation which
includes an awareness of all an organisation’s stakeholders. This is supported by Olins
(1995, p. 3) who, from a practitioner’s view defines the concept as:
... the explicit management of all the ways in which the organisation presents itself through
experience and perceptions to all its audiences.
As such, definitions and work on corporate identity have evolved from partial views of
the concept into multidisciplinary perspectives (e.g. marketing, visual identity) (Hatch
and Schultz, 1997; Van Riel and Balmer, 1997). In this line of thought, several interested
parties have developed the Strathclyde Statement suggesting a holistic definition of
corporate identity (Van Riel and Balmer, 1997, p. 355):
Every organisation has an identity. It articulates the corporate ethos, aims and values and
presents the sense of individuality that can help to differentiate the organisation within its
competitive environment.
By effectively managing its corporate identity an organisation can build
understanding and commitment among its diverse stakeholders. This can be
manifested in an ability to attract and retain customers and employees, achieve
strategic alliances, gain the support of financial markets and generate a sense of
direction and purpose. Corporate identity is a strategic issue (for a more detailed view
of the notion of corporate identity and related concepts, see Simoes and Dibb, 2001;
Melewar and Jenkins, 2002).
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Firms are becoming increasingly aware of the relevance of maintaining a strong
corporate identity. As Van Riel (1995, p. 29) explains, there are a number of ways in
which a strong corporate identity can be effective:
... raising motivation among employees, inspiring confidence among the company’s external
target groups, acknowledging the vital role of customers and acknowledging the vital role of
financial target groups.
Indeed, a strong corporate identity creates a “we-feeling” (Van Riel, 1995). Employees
will feel more motivated if they identify with the company they work for and if this
same company promotes a strong image and has a good reputation. A highly
motivated workforce is essential as it can lead to increased productivity and
profitability. External target groups are equally as important as internal groups. It is
essential to provide consistent signals and communication with them so as to develop a
clear picture of the company. Companies often see customers as the most important
target group and thus acknowledgment of their role is clearly important. Like
employees, a well-defined corporate identity inspires confidence in customers. Forming
a relationship with the company is vital for the continuing success and future of the
company. Financial target groups also need considerable acknowledgment. The
financial group must have confidence in the company, as often there is an element of
risk involved in supplying large amounts of money. Strong corporate identity ensures
that all internal and external communication directed at the company’s stakeholders is
coherent and consistent.
There are further reasons why importance is placed on corporate identity. A strong
corporate identity can be seen as a source of competitive advantage. A company which
can create a distinct image and stand apart from its competitors allows it to be
differentiated within its competitive environment. This emphasis on the search for a
competitive advantage is highlighted when we look at the amount of money spent by
companies on re-branding and updating their image in search for distinctiveness. An
example of this is the post office. Following the de-regulation of the mail delivery
service, the post office wanted to improve their image. From being known as the Royal
Mail, it became Consignia. Their justification was there’s this lovely dictionary
definition of consign which is “to entrust to the care of” (BBC News, 2002b). Their
branding consultants claimed it was “modern, meaningful and entirely appropriate”.
However, this name change led to universal condemnation which has resulted in the
return of the Royal Mail from 2004.
Similarly, British Airways attempt at changing its image by repainting its tail fins
was doomed a disaster when Mrs Thatcher expressed her disapproval at the change.
British Airways changed their designs from a distinctive and well-known logo to a
diverse set of designs trying to appeal to the global market but failed. It will be
interesting to see the reactions to PriceWaterhouseCoopers decision of a complete name
change to Monday!
The corporate identity model
As we have seen the more recent definitions of corporate identity are very broad and
suggest that there are many components of the concept. This paper will now look at the
corporate identity model developed by Melewar and Jenkins (2002) (Figure 1). As can
be seen from the diagram, the model breaks down corporate identity into the following
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areas: communication and visual identity, behaviour, corporate culture and market
conditions. These four areas are then further broken down into components. In light of
the differing and often complicated definitions, this model provides a clear but holistic
breakdown of the concept. However, it is evident through the use of its many
components that it too provides scope for detailed discussion. For the purposes of this
paper, we will focus on the examination of the first section, vis-a
´
-vis, communication
and visual identity (Figure 2).
Figure 1.
Corporate communications
Architecture and location
Corporate visual identity
Corporate behaviour
Management behaviour
Employee behaviour
Nationality
Nature of industry
Corporate/Marketing strategies
Source: Melewar and Jenkins (2002). Corporate Identity Model
Market conditions
Corporate culture
Behaviour
Corporate
identity
Communication and visual
identity
Organizational imagery and history
Goals, philosophies and principles
Uncontrollable communication
Figure 2.
Communication and
corporate identity
Corporate
communications
Uncontrollable
communication
Communication and
visual identity
Architecture and
location
Corporate visual identity
Communication
and visual
identity
141
Communication and visual identity
Corporate communications
Many definitions have been put forward for corporate communication as it is such a
complex topic. Van Riel (1995. p. 26) argues that a definition that includes and
emphasises the target groups of the company is the most relevant. He states that:
... corporate communication is an instrument of management by means of which all
consciously used forms of internal and external communication are harmonised as effectively
and efficiently as possible, so as to create a favourable basis for relationships with groups
upon which the company is dependent.
It is further suggested that corporate communication is made up of three types namely,
management, marketing and organisational.
Management communication. Management communication refers to how managers
convey to their employees different information whether it is about their aims and
aspirations of the company or more basic administration issues. All levels of
management are involved in this communication. Pincus et al. (1991) believe that the
desired outcome of communication is:
.
developing a shared vision of the company within the organisation;
.
establishing and maintaining trust in the organisational leadership;
.
initiating and managing the change process; and
.
empowering and motivating employees.
The role of management communication should, thus, be highlighted. Chief executive
officers (CEOs) must be good communicators, especially externally when the vision of
the company has to be communicated to external stakeholders. In the case of celebrities
CEOs, they gain additional press coverage and are closely scrutinised by the media.
Richard Branson, CEO of the Virgin group, for example, is an excellent communicator
who conveys success and failure frankly and has achieved a very positive image for
the Virgin group. With an opposite effect, one CEO who has recently come under fire is
Phil Watts, the Chairman of Shell. Leading investors and shareholders have been
quoted as saying that Mr Watts is “one of the poorest communicators running a FTSE
100 company” (BBC News, 2002a). It is very unusual for leading shareholders to
publicly criticise one of their senior executives. However, they believe that unless he
improves his communication skills, things will get worse. Already the company’s share
price has fallen and Shell is lagging behind its rivals. Part of the problem is that BP,
one of Shell’s biggest rivals is so good at communicating. In response to these
criticisms, Mr Watts has said that he would redouble their effort to get his message
across to shareholders.
The importance of a good management communication is also highlighted in the
example of Peugeot, the French car company. Peugeot is the second largest car
manufacturer in Europe and boasts very good internal communication. It places great
emphasis on interaction between management and the internal stakeholders of the
company.
Research into the company showed that twice a month Peugeot holds a meeting
with all employees from the main functions of the company with a member of the
Peugeot family (www.peugeot.com). During these meetings, a number of issues are
raised: employees are informed about the company’s performance and market share,
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new members of the company are introduced and welcomed. Workers believe that
these meetings not only create a strong family atmosphere throughout the company
but also gives employees a sense of empowerment. This constitutes an achievement
considering the size of the company (165,000 employees worldwide) (www.peugeot.
com).
Additionally, the existence of weekly meetings emphasises their wish to maintain
good communications. Furthermore, new employees are required to spend a
compulsory period in one of Peugeot’s production plants to gain an understanding
of the true meaning and goals of the company. This highlights the importance that
management place on sharing their vision of the company.
Marketing communication. Marketing communication is where a company spends
the highest proportion of its communication budget. According to Van Riel (1995, p. 10):
... marketing communication consists primarily of those forms of communication that
support sales of particular goods or services.
This includes all forms of advertising communication, financial data, information on
target groups and data on the advertising agencies. These communications ought to be
integrated and strategically co-ordinated (Duncan and Everett, 1993).
For example, being a multinational company, Peugeot has to sell its cars in many
countries. The company presents the same product with specific values in different
ways to meet the demands of different markets. Their advertising must always reflect
the strength of the Peugeot brand but also take into consideration the cultural
differences of the countries. We, therefore, see different strategies being used for the
same product. For instance, in France, advertisements emphasise the car as a natural
leader and bring in humour which appeals greatly to the French audience. In Germany,
where Peugeot is less well known, the advertisements mainly focus on informing the
audience of the features of the car (www.peugeot.com). These differences reflect
distinct consumer buying behaviour in both countries.
Organisational communication. Organisational communication, although initially
thought of as public relations is currently subdivided into a variety of activities: public
affairs, environmental communications, investor relations, labour market
communications and internal communications. All these forms of communication
are directed at specific target groups.
The importance of a clear communication strategy is highlighted when we look at
Peugeot Citroen. Its communication division promote the group’s and the marques’
image both internally and externally. They believe that having a positive internal and
external image is a vital part of PSA Peugeot Citroen’s long term strategy. They state
that:
... this necessitates communicating effectively with many different groups of people,
including employees, the media, young people and the “opinion formers” in general (Peugeot
Citroen, 2003).
Uncontrollable communication
According to Markwick and Fill (1997, p. 402), uncontrollable communication is any
“unintended or emergent messages through third party reports and informal
communication on the part of employees with outsiders”. Frequently there is
information in the media reflecting badly on the company. There are numerous
Communication
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examples of reports that have brought companies into disrepute. Nike was highly
criticised for their employment of children in their factories in third world countries.
They were accused of exploiting their workers which led to their reputation being
questioned. Despite attempts to justify their actions, the company image was
tarnished. In an extreme case, the accountancy firm Arthur Andersen’s involvement in
the Enron scandal has resulted in the fragmentation of the company. Both parts want
to drop the Andersen denomination due to its association with fraudulent accounting
and cover up.
Architecture/location and corpor ate visual identity
Olins (1995) claims that an organisation’s physical location is an important part of
corporate identity. It is suggested that having a good location is essential for a
successful organisation and firms spend a significant amount of money to achieve key
sites to project the appropriate image. For example, Peugeot’s headquarters are to be
found just off the Champs Elysees in Paris, one of the most prestigious and expensive
streets in the world. This key location provides the company constant exposure to the
general public.
Attention is also being placed on a firm’s architecture and the influence it can have
on how their identity is perceived. In Peugeot, like in many other modern
organisations, the offices are all open plan offices. In the Peugeot headquarters in Paris,
there are no barriers and all doors are glass. It is designed to encourage interaction and
communication between members of staff at all different levels.
Related to the physical and graphic dimension of corporate identity, emerges the
notion of corporate visual identity. According to Melewar and Saunders (1998, p. 291)
“corporate visual identity consists of the corporate name, logotype and/or symbol,
typography and colour”. Companies spend a lot of money developing their logo, which
will become a symbol of their company. The golden arches or “M” of McDonalds are
recognised all over the world. The company’s policy relies on the fact that customers
can expect to eat a meal of similar quality wherever they are in the world. This leads us
to agree with Melewar et al. (2001, p. 420) who state that “it is not the symbol itself but
what the symbol represents that has value”.
When we look at the consumer goods market, there is a bewildering variety of
choice. A product’s logo that a consumer can recognise and trusts will influence buying
behaviour and ultimately the final choice. As such, companies carefully design,
develop and communicate their symbols and logos. In fact, visual dimensions are
thoroughly re-arranged and communicated to audiences in particular when
organisations change their visual identity either to gain a higher market profile or
to express new organisational forms (e.g. mergers and acquisitions).
For example, Peugeot’s logo is an outline of a lion, which is easily recognisable. It
can be likened to the idea of being the king of the jungle, the leader in its field and also
it is associated with strength. Even when Peugeot and Citroen merged in 1976, the two
companies retained their individual logos and identities. This is not always the case. In
1991, HSBC took over Midland Bank but they continued to use Midland’s symbol of the
griffin until 1997 when it was replaced by the red and white hexagon. Few people had
heard of HSBC, yet by retaining the griffin symbol, audiences would transfer their trust
in the Midland Bank to the new corporation. Similarly, BP is gradually introducing a
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new logo following the merger with Amoco. The company took a great care in the
choice of the new visual identity (Melewar and Wooldridge, 2001).
The adaptation of corporate identity
As mentioned earlier, a strong corporate identity is essential to create a distinct image
for an organisation in its competitive environment. However, in the light of changing
market conditions as well as political, economic, social and technological environment,
an organisation needs to adapt to these changes to maintain its competitive advantage.
As Melewar and Navalekar (2002, p. 96) highlight, in order to face environmental
changes:
... corporate identity and corporate image are still some of the core building blocks of an
organisation’s strategy. Competing in the new economy will not only involve rationalising the
business processes but also evaluating the attributes of the corporate identity and the
consumer perception.
For example, the bank industry that has experienced many changes during the last two
decades. This industry has deeply depended on tradition and established methods of
operation. Nonetheless environmental mutations such as government deregulation,
which has allowed building societies to compete with banks, and changes in
technology, demanded financial institutions to modernise their practices.
New features of supply emerged. For example, with the growing use of the internet,
online banking has revolutionised banking by offering additional convenience and
speed for consumers. Traditional banks have responded in different ways. Some, like
Barclays, treated online banking as an extension of their traditional activities. Others,
such as Abbey National, set-up a separate identity for such service (e.g. Cahoot.com).
In fact it is getting increasingly difficult for banks to create a distinctive corporate
identity. Cooperative Bank attempted to face this fact by developing a unique identity
underpinned on clearly articulated ethical standards. The Cooperative Bank was
founded in the nineteenth century and was a bank that carried out traditional activities.
In 1990, they decided to engage in a consultation exercise with their customers and, as
a result, in 1992, they started their ethical policy. This policy was a “public
commitment on who the bank would and would not do business with” (www.
cooperativebank.co.uk). This meant that the bank would not invest in unethical
industries such as those involved in the production of nuclear or biological weapons.
They believed that their policy “should reflect the concerns of customers”. Customer
consultation exercises were repeated in 1994, 1998 and 2001. As concerns have
changed so too have the ethical policies been updated with environmental issues being
an important part.
In 2001, the bank adopted the phrase “customer led, ethically guided” as its slogan
which appears on all its literature. As Mervyn Pedelty, the CEO said, the ethical policy
was designed to:
... give the bank a distinct and cooperative difference within a crowded financial services
marketplace, where genuine differentiation of an individual organisation is difficult to
achieve and sustain (www.cooperativebank.co.uk, the CEO statement).
In fact, many customers say that their main reason for joining the bank is its ethical
policy. This adaptation of the corporate identity proved to be very successful. Profits
increased from £55m in 1997 to $107.5m in 2001 (www.cooperativebank.co.uk).
Communication
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This success is further reflected through customer satisfaction with the MORI poll in
2001 reporting 71 per cent of the customers very satisfied with the banks performance.
This case also depicts the relevance of corporate communications and specifically
management communication as a part of the identity concept (Melewar and Jenkins,
2002). The CEO of the Cooperative Bank placed an emphasis on his staff and people
policies. He is a very good communicator with staff, who are well aware of the policies
of the company and show enthusiasm and commitment to the company’s aims. This
indicates that there is good internal communication. In his address to shareholders, he
communicates profits and people policies. His commitment to communication and his
positive relationship with stakeholders has been much praised.
Their corporate visual identity reflects the values and goals of the organisation with
its slogan “consumer led, ethically guided”. All correspondence and literature from the
bank is printed on “100 per cent recycled paper from post consumer waste using a
totally chlorine-free process”. Although the ethical policy was met by scepticism in the
press, after ten years the bank has won many awards. These range from “Best
company to work for” from the Sunday Times to the 2001 award for “Business
commitment to the environment” (www.cooperativebank.co.uk). It has given
Cooperative Bank, a strong and distinctive corporate identity. From this case, we
may conclude that it is possible to re-shape a corporate identity and to achieve a
competitive advantage in the light of changing market conditions.
Conclusion
This paper has examined the concept of corporate identity and its relevance and
importance within organisations. With the recent financial scandals that have occurred
over the past few years, namely Enron and Arthur Andersen, corporate identity is an
issue of growing importance to all companies. Its development and management has
become a key dimension within an organisation’s strategy.
This paper has highlighted in particular that corporate identity extends beyond the
company’s logo and name. It covers all forms of internal and external communications
of the company. Any company wishing to improve its position not only in the market
but also with its stakeholders must ensure that it gives prominence to its corporate
identity.
We have further highlighted the implications for corporate identity change or
adaptation in the context of market and other environmental alterations. By referring
to several examples, we illustrated how corporate identity has assisted management in
dealing with adversity. We have also described how practitioners applied (and may
apply) corporate identity as a strategic resource. Indeed, as previously emphasised,
corporate identity may constitute a relevant dimension to generate and maintain
competitive advantage.
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Corresponding author
T.C. Melewar can be contacted at: t.c.melewar@brunel.ac.uk
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This article aims to discuss Mojok.co’s style of political satire as an alternative to political discussion. Mojok.co packages political messages that are easy to understand. This article presents Mojok.co's sophisticated style in packaging political messages in a “naughty” style but evokes political awareness. This study employs a qualitative content analysis which enables to collect data in the form of words, meanings, symbols, ideas, themes and other forms of communication messages. Qualitative content analysis allows the communication media content to be recorded and further analyzed. The content analyzed in this study is political content on Mojok.co's Instagram account related to the 2019 election. The results of this study show that the content on Mojok.co demonstrates satire, joking, and ridicule discussion on politics. Moreover, Mojok.co's satire content functions as supporting elements of the image display so that the audience can easily understand the messages. Mojok.co's infographic content design combines the elements of colour, illustration, and typography to represent the signs. Mojok.co's satirical style also offers joyful political discussions. The meaning of politics can be interpreted in a simple, light, and entertaining discussion. Therefore, political satire can be an alternative style of discussion.
... Visual identity on social media Despite the paramount importance of consistency in IMC, there has been very limited research, which has examined how consistent visual identity affects consumer perceptions toward a company. Prior research indicates a lack of systematic study on consistent identity and its effects on consumer perceptions ( Van den Bosch et al., 2005;Melewar, 2006;Foroudi et al., 2017). Moreover, the visual identity is one of the most visible tangible assets in the armory of tools used by organizations to interact with the outer world; its role has been under-researched in the social media environment. ...
... Further, visual identity is a powerful means to demonstrate the distinctive image of a company, which helps consumers to distinguish it from its competitors (Bernstein, 1986). Hence, it is important for companies to provide its identity consistently across all communication channels to ensure distinctiveness, judgment, credibility of the company in the minds of consumers (Brønn et al., 2006;Melewar et al., 2006). Thus, the following research hypothesis is put forward: JIBR H1. ...
Article
Purpose Although the prominence of social media for companies is widely acknowledged, a close examination of the literature reveals a lack of empirical research pertaining to the effect of consistency specifically on social media. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to fill the gap in social media communication concerning the effect of consistent visual identity on social media users. Design/methodology/approach The study executed an experiment 2 (corporate visual identity condition) × 2 (organization type) between subjects design to map the effects of consistent visual identity on social media users appreciation of the visual identity, attitude toward the company, reputation and intention to commit to a company on social media. Findings The results of the study indicated the significant effects of consistent visual identity on social media users over the inconsistent conditions of visual identity on all dependent variables. Furthermore, there were insignificant main effects of organization type on general judgment, credibility, distinctiveness and reputation of the company. Practical implications This study presents the effects of consistent visual identity on social media platforms. The research will help marketing academicians, graphic designers and social media practitioners in online marketing by using its practical implications to strategically positioning their corporate brand in a social media environment. Originality/value This study provides novel insights on the impact of consistency on social media users. This is the first study to determine the role of consistent visual identity in the social media environment. It thereby adds to the literature of visual identity by developing the sphere of influence of consistency and its effects toward the user’s attitude.
... [110][111][112] 5. Organizational understanding capability has been improved. [113,114] 6. R&D management capability has been improved. ...
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This study clarified the effect of knowledge services (KSs) on organizational performances by introducing the concept of balanced scorecards (BSCs) for the sustainable growth of firms. Data were obtained from 246 firms by online survey and PLS-SEM was used as a data analysis method. Enhancement of knowledge absorptive capacity had a significantly positive effect on the improvement in decision-making quality. The improvement in decision-making quality was significantly relevant to organizational performances. Organizational performances were composed of non-financial and financial performances based on the framework of BSCs. A causal relationship between non-financial and financial performances was developed and suggested regarding non-financial performance as a leading indicator of financial performance. The perspectives of learning and growth and customers showed a statistical significance for the financial performance of firms. The customer aspect was more important than that of learning and growth when considering a relationship with financial performance. It was found that firms need to make an effort to improve their capabilities related to the perspectives of customers and learning and growth for their sustainable growth when they introduce external KSs as an open innovation strategy.
... Level 1 includes economic factors, innovation, creativity, human capital, and interdependence between real and virtual transportation and communication; Level 2 includes socio-political factors, economic diversification, quality of life, and decision-making; level 3 quality of premises, infrastructure factors such as housing as well as parks and green spaces. v. Achieving communication and promotion: Kavaratzis (2004) proposed a framework for communication between city brands that distinguishes between intended and unintended communication [22]. Unintended communication relates to the communicative effects of city and marketing procedures when communication is not the primary objective. ...
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Cities pass through growth stages of distinction and deterioration. Many cities that have emerged distinctly in terms of their urban and economic characteristics may witness stages of deterioration and the loss of their competitiveness. This research clarifies the issues involved in the treatment of cities as brands used to gain competitive advantage and thus sustainable growth, unlike traditional development strategies that have proven no longer as productive as before. The research raises a question about the components of city branding and the most important sustainable strategies for branding a contemporary city as well as their impact on its competitiveness. To answer this question, it develops a comprehensive theoretical framework for the concept of city branding as sustainable development approach, and determines the most important strategies to achieve it. Four strategies are presented; differentiation, creative city, experience city and tourism city. Finally, indicators have been extracted that can be applied to make Baghdad a competitive city through the sustainability of its cultural branding.
... Level 1 includes economic factors, innovation, creativity, human capital, and interdependence between real and virtual transportation and communication; Level 2 includes socio-political factors, economic diversification, quality of life, and decision-making; level 3 quality of premises, infrastructure factors such as housing as well as parks and green spaces. v. Achieving communication and promotion: Kavaratzis (2004) proposed a framework for communication between city brands that distinguishes between intended and unintended communication [22]. Unintended communication relates to the communicative effects of city and marketing procedures when communication is not the primary objective. ...
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Cities pass through growth stages of distinction and deterioration. Many cities that have emerged distinctly in terms of their urban and economic characteristics may witness stages of deterioration and the loss of their competitiveness. This research clarifies the issues involved in the treatment of cities as brands used to gain competitive advantage and thus sustainable growth, unlike traditional development strategies that have proven no longer as productive as before. The research raises a question about the components of city branding and the most important sustainable strategies for branding a contemporary city as well as their impact on its competitiveness. To answer this question, it develops a comprehensive theoretical framework for the concept of city branding as sustainable development approach, and determines the most important strategies to achieve it. Four strategies are presented; differentiation, creative city, experience city and tourism city. Finally, indicators have been extracted that can be applied to make Baghdad a competitive city through the sustainability of its cultural branding.
... 979-980). Even more, corporate identity does not only relate to the logo or the name of a company, but it encompasses many elements including the communication activities that the company carries out internally and externally [47]. ...
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In order to be successful in today’s competitive environment, universities must have well-established identities. This study focused on the construction and communication of the visual identity of Transilvania University of Brasov. The purpose of this study was to assess if the change produced the effects expected by the initiators. Interviews with students and teachers were conducted. We found that the current visual identity does not maintain a connection with the old one, and our research supported the idea that identity is dynamic and subject to change. The change took place from top to bottom. The current identity is linked to the university’s geographical position in the country. The change produced the desired outcomes, but there were some issues in regards to the meaning of the logo and students and teachers having difficulties in understanding it, and thus the university should better communicate how it wants to be perceived through it.
... R. G. Edmunds un M. T. J. Balmers 1998. gadā iepazīstina ar pragmatisku darbības modeli, kur līdztekus korporatīvajai reputācijai un tēlam, uzsvērta korporatīvā identitāte un korporatīvā komunikācija, kā arī šo komponentu savstarpējās attiecības (Edmund, Balmer, 1998), autori un pētnieki kā E. Dženkinsa un T. C. Melevars plašos pētījumos apraksta korporatīvās identitātes konceptu, struktūru un dimensijas (Melewar, Jenkins, 2002), T. C. Melevars rakstā ar K. Bassetti un C. Simoess uzsver komunikācijas un vizuālās identitātes lomu moderna uzņēmuma darbībā (Melewar, Bassett, Simoes, 2006), savukārt, pētījumā ar līdzautoriem L. Deverukss, K. Dinniju un T. Langi, tiek apskatīta pilnīgi jauna teorijakorporatīvās identitātes orientācija un disorientācija (Devereux, Melewar, Dinnie, Lange, 2019), autors B. Bergstrems grāmatā "Vizuālā komunikācija" atspoguļo termina struktūras sadalījumu elementos (Bergstrems, 2008), savukārt C. Simoess un R. Sebastijani, pētījumos apraksta korporatīvās identitātes jēdzienu un tā lomas organizācijā (Simoes, Sebastiani, 2017). ...
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The term corporate identity describes the essence of a company, a set of all the characteristics that make up the company. The company SIA “Nature Line” mentioned in the article, which started its operation as a start-up in the food production industry through the Rēzekne Business Incubator start-up programme, put forward as one of the company’s principal aims to promote the recognition of the company and its products to ensure broad opportunities for product export. One of the objectives for reaching the aim is to create a corporate identity design. A corporate identity design will help the company to start advertising and positioning itself to customers, thus promoting successful company operation. Considering the changing trends, technological opportunities, popularity of the start-up field, and rapid development of visual communication in the modern day, in the article the authors justify the relevance of the chosen topic. The research problem is the lack of understanding on the part of start-ups about the importance of designing a corporate identity for ensuring successful operation of the company as well as insufficient support. The research aim is to explore modern corporate identity development trends in the context of design policy and to analyse expert interviews in order to find out the opinion of experts about the importance of creating a corporate design for ensuring successful operation of a star-up company, about the trends in the graphic design of corporate identity, about the most important elements and their successful positioning. The research results are obtained using the theoretical research methods: the study of scientific and journalistic literature and internet resources, analysis and evaluation, which discover the essence of the problem, as well as expert interviews, which are empirical research methods.
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Purpose This study examined Instagram content shared by public relations (PR) agencies, through the sensitizing framework of organizational identity theory, to determine what messages related to organizational identity, culture and image were communicated to external audiences. This study highlights the various ways that Instagram can be used for strategic organizational communication. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative, thematic analysis of Instagram content was conducted. The constant comparative analysis was guided by organizational identity theory, which provided an individual-level perspective for interpreting organizational messages within the posts. Findings PR agencies use hashtags, employee sharing and communicating about agency outreach efforts and accolades to communicate organizational identity. PR agencies communicate aspects of its culture through employee engagement and development, employee cohesiveness and through communicating a commitment to diversity, philanthropy and community service. PR agencies influenced its organizational image by communicating content related to promotion and support of creative efforts, having a public Instagram account and retelling the history of the agency. Originality/value This study extends our understanding of corporate self-presentation strategies on social media.
Chapter
Brand identity is one of the most exciting components of brand management, and it presents physical elements that consumers can recognise as they engage with a brand. This component moves beyond the brand philosophy, values and positioning, which can be deemed as abstract. The identity is real, and it has become an integral part of brand management. Brands spend a considerable amount of money to develop an identity for their brand to appeal to a diverse audience and make them stand out. Brand must maintain a positive identity. This investment by brands and consumers’ interest further highlight the value of brand identities. The brand owners know consumers want to identify a brand; the brand recognises the need to be different and still be recognisable. It is, however, essential to note that brand identity is more than just a logo, though the logo usually grabs the attention. This chapter presents a holistic insight into brand identity, presenting it as elements that can be experienced through five human senses.
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This article introduces a new approach to corporate identity scholarship and practice entitled "The ACID Test of Corporate Identity Management."™ The researchers undertook empirical research within a major corporate identity consultancy with the objective of evaluating and contrasting the techniques used by the consultancy with the latest developments in corporate identity scholarship. An analysis of the documentary material produced by the UK's top 20 corporate identity consultancies and of the conceptual models of corporate image/corporate identity produced by academics was undertaken. A qualitative research design was adopted, based on in-depth interviews, desk research and content analysis. The research revealed that most corporate identity projects adopted a "vision driven approach." In other words corporate identity strategies were being built around the corporate vision as articulated by an organisation's chief executive and/or board of management. Furthermore, visual identification was used as the...
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This paper places corporate identity studies in a historical context with the writer arguing that there have been four distinct phases in the area's evolution. Currently, there is increasing international and interdisciplinary contact between scholars engaged in identity research. Recent developments have led the writer to postulate that the literature on corporate identity, organisational identity and corporate communication may be regarded as forming the basic building blocks of a new, cognate area of management which in time may be known as Corporate Marketing. However, the marketing mix as applied to organisations in their totality will need to be rethought. In this paper the 4Ps are extended to 10Ps with philosophy, personality, people, performance, perception and positioning complementing the existing 4Ps. In addition, the author identifies nine key interfaces, which need to be examined by managers and consultants when reviewing an organisation's identity. Such interfaces represent 'moments of truth' for an organisation's senior management when evaluating their organisation's identity.
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Articulates the main trends in the literature on corporate identity; defines corporate identity; explains the rationale for corporate identity management and describes the main methods used to reveal the desired and the actual corporate identity. Particular reference will be made to two recently developed models used to reveal an organization's identity: Balmer's Affinity Audit (BAA) and The Rotterdam Organizational Identification Test (ROIT). Concludes that while empirical research on the area will increasingly be multidisciplinary marketing will, nonetheless, play a pivotal role in an understanding of corporate identity.
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Addresses the relationship between organizational culture, identity and image. Argues that contemporary organizations need to define their corporate identity as a bridge between the external position of the organization in its marketplace and other relevant environments, and internal meanings formed within the organizational culture. Offers an analytical framework using the concepts of organizational culture, identity and image and suggests implications, including the need for symbolic management in and of the organization and the need to combine knowledge from the disciplines of marketing and organization studies.
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This paper seeks to understand the founding of the five main constructs of corporate identity proposed by Schmidt. Wider literature review has revealed some elements that need further consideration regarding their inclusion in the corporate identity model. Subsequently, a model is proposed. The BP Amoco company is used as an illustrative case to illuminate the proposed model’s intended explanatory power and value.
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Recent academic work has introduced a series of innovative concepts to the branding debate. In particular, the concept of brands that are embedded throughout the organisation has come to the fore. This paper uses a literature review and three mini-case studies to explore the issues in the branding debate and to illustrate how brand management is changing in response to market and environmental changes.
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The emergence of the Internet has completely revolutionised industries and has restructured their value chains. Traditional “bricks and mortar” businesses are facing the prospects of losing their competitive advantage owing to the emergence of new competitors in the “new economy”. The regulatory changes in the financial services industry and the explosion in the use of the Internet for e-commerce have given rise to unforeseen competitors in the banking industry – the “non-bank” financial services providers and the “pure” Internet banks. These competitors are not restrained by the high costs of the branch infrastructure and as a result are able to differentiate on the basis of offering high interest rates. These players are fast and flexible. In spite of being newcomers, they have the potential to grow and recast the rules of the banking industry. Yet, incumbent banks still have the strongest sustainable competitive advantage: their corporate identity. Managers in the “new and old economy” must realise that corporate identity is an important strategic element that should be considered in the need to differentiate.
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Notes how the value of developing corporate identity (CI), as a means of encouraging an organization's key stakeholders to perceive the corporate entity in a clear and positive way, has been receiving increased attention in the last decade. To date much of the practitioner and academic attention has been focused on the communication function between an organization and its customers (primarily). In order that managers and academics are able to realize more of the potential that CI offers organizations, it is necessary to consider the role and impact CI can have on strategic management. Reviews the literature and considers the concepts of corporate identity, image, reputation and personality. Determines the linkages between these concepts and argues that image research studies should not just be oriented to improving images and communications but that this information can also have a central role to play in the strategic development of an organization. To do this presents a framework, referred to as a corporate identity management process (CIMP). Provides an illustration which shows how an understanding of stakeholder images can be used, via the CIMP, to reveal opportunities for developing sustainable competitve advantage.