Conization Using Electrosurgical Conization and Cold Coagulation for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IA(1) Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Uterine Cervix
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Konkuk University Hospital, Konkuk University, Republic of Korea. International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
(Impact Factor: 1.95).
05/2009; 19(3):407-11. DOI: 10.1111/IGC.0b013e3181a1a297
This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of electrosurgical conization and cold coagulation as definitive treatments for patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and a resection margin free from (micro)invasive carcinoma after conization.
Patients with stage IA1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma without lymphovascular space invasion who had been treated by electrosurgical conization and cold coagulation and who wanted to preserve fertility (or only undertake conservative treatment) were followed up without further surgical intervention. Patients with invasive or microinvasive carcinoma at resection margins or positive endocervical resection margins were excluded from the study. Cervicovaginal smears and colposcopic examination were performed at regular intervals. Disease recurrence was defined as a histologic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or higher-grade lesions.
A total of 85 patients enrolled were deemed eligible to be involved in the study. The median follow-up period was 81.0 months (range, 13-127 months). Nineteen of the 85 patients had exocervical resection margins. There was one case of recurrence, which was node-positive invasive cancer recurrence (1.2%, 1/85), in patients with negative resection margins.
These results suggest that electrosurgical conization with cold coagulation is a feasible treatment and could be used as a definitive therapy for patients with stage IA1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma without lymphovascular space invasion. In addition, patients having cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 2 and 3 at exocervical resection margins could be followed up carefully without further treatment after conization and cold coagulation.
Available from: Thomas J Herzog
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ABSTRACT: To estimate the safety of fertility-conserving surgery for stage IA1 cervical cancer and to analyze predictors of access to conization.
We analyzed women with stage IA1 cervical cancer aged 40 years or younger who were diagnosed between 1988 and 2005 and recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The outcomes of hysterectomy were compared with fertility-conserving conization. Clinical and demographic characteristics were compared using chi2. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine predictors of conization. Survival was examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and the Kaplan-Meier method.
A total of 1,409 patients were identified, including 841 (60%) who underwent hysterectomy and 568 (40%) who underwent conization. In a multivariable logistic regression of factors associated with conization, Asian patients, single women, those diagnosed in the later years of the study, and those residing in the eastern United States were more likely to have fertility-conserving surgery. Compared with women younger than 30 years, those older than 35 years were 78% (odds ratio 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.30) less likely to undergo conization. In a Cox proportional hazards model accounting for other prognostic variables, there was no difference in survival (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.23-1.47) between conization and hysterectomy. Five-year survival for women who underwent conization was 98% (95% CI 96-99%), compared with 99% (95% CI 97-99%) for those treated with hysterectomy.
Fertility-conserving surgery is safe for young women with stage IA1 squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Young women with microinvasive cervical tumors should weigh the risks and benefits of conization in the context of individual preferences and tumor characteristics.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of cold knife conization with electrocauterization and the feasibility of conservative management in patients with stage IA1 carcinoma of the cervix according to margin status after conization.
Medical and histopathological records of 108 patients with stage IA1 cervical carcinoma were reviewed retrospectively. Patients underwent cold knife conization with electrocauterization or conization followed by hysterectomy. Disease recurrence was defined as a histologic diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or higher grade lesion.
Forty patients underwent conization followed by hysterectomy; of 27 women with positive margins, 14 (35%) had a residual lesion. Sixty-eight patients underwent conization without further surgical intervention. Forty patients had a negative resection margin without recurrence, while 28 had a positive resection margin: positive exocervical (n=11), positive endocervical (n=17). Among these, there were 7 cases of recurrence: positive exocervical (n=1); positive endocervical (n=6).
Cold knife conization with electrocauterization appears to be a safe treatment option for patients with stage IA1 cervical carcinoma if careful follow-up is guaranteed for patients with CIN 3 exocervical resection margins. However, patients with CIN 3 endocervical resection margins should be managed surgically with repeat conization or hysterectomy.
Available from: Jong-Hwa Kim
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes after electrosurgical conization.
We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 56 singleton pregnancies after electrosurgical conization of the uterine cervix. Of the 56 cases, 25 women underwent prophylactic cerclage with McDonald procedure (cerclage group), and 31 were managed expectantly (expectant group). Pregnancy outcomes including rate of preterm delivery were compared, and the effect of potential risk factors such as depth of cone, interval between conization and pregnancy, and cervical length on the risk of preterm delivery was assessed.
The rate of preterm delivery was significantly higher in women with a history of electrosurgical conization than those without (32.1% vs. 15.2%, p<0.001). However, preterm delivery rate was not different between the two groups (expectant group vs. cerclage group; <28 week, 6.5% vs. 8.0%, p=1.000; <34 week, 19.4% vs. 20.0%, p=1.000; <37 week, 29.0% vs. 36.0%, p=0.579). All obstetric and neonatal outcomes were similar in the two groups. Even when we confined the study subjects to 19 women (19/56, 33.9%) with cervical length less than 25 mm, the preterm delivery rate also was not significantly different between the expectant (n=7) and cerclage group (n=12). Finally, the potential risk factors for preterm delivery were not associated with risk of preterm delivery in patients with a history of electrosurgical conization.
The rate of preterm delivery was significantly higher in women with a history of electrosurgical conization before pregnancy. However, prophylactic cervical cerclage did not prevent preterm delivery in these patients.
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