Uterine rupture is a life-threatening complication in pregnancy with an incidence of 0.07%, out of which 80% are spontaneous rupture. Placenta percreta is the rarest form of placental implantation abnormalities, with an incidence 1 in 2500 pregnant women.1,2 Spontaneous uterine rupture due to placenta percreta is very rare, with an incidence of 1 in 4,366 pregnant women.3 It often occurs in patients with a history of scar in the uterus.4 Placenta percreta-induced spontaneous uterine rupture at term with previous lower segment cesarean section (LSCS) is difficult to diagnose. A 25-year-old pregnant woman, with history of one incomplete abortion treated by dilatation and curettage followed by a vaginal delivery with stillbirth and one LSCS again with stillbirth at term, was admitted in the emergency ward with history of approx 9 months amenorrhea, breathlessness, pain in abdomen (unable to lie down or even sit), vomiting and loss of fetal movements for last 24 hours. O/E: GC fair, afebrile, Pallor +++, pedal edema +, pulse 100/minutes regular, resp. rate; 40/minutes, thoracic, BP 110/70 mm Hg, lung fields clear with no abnormality detected in heart. On P/A: skin was stretched and a Pfannensteil scar healed by primary intention was present Abdomen tense, tender therefore fundal height could not be assessed. Fetal parts were not palpable and lie/presentation could not be made out. FHS were absent. On P/V; os closed with uneffaced cervix, presenting part could not be made out and was high. No bleeding or leaking per-vaginum was present. Hb 6.7 gm%, TLC 15600, DLC P90, L8, E2, M0. Ultrasound done on 27.5.12 (one month back) outside revealed 32.3 weeks gestation with normal scar thickness, placenta located in upper segment, grade I. No comment was made on the interface between placenta and myometrium in ultrasound report.
Patient was subjected to emergency laparotomy, massive hemoperitoneum was found. Examination of uterus revealed an intact previous scar. A full term male stillborn baby was delivered by uterine scar (LSCS) on 21.6.2012, at 10.30 pm The placenta could not be delivered as there was no plain of cleavage between placenta and myometrium. Uterus was exteriorized and to surprise there was a rent of about 3 × 2 cm at left cornua, placental tissue peeping out on removing the clots. Subtotal hysterectomy was performed. Three units blood were transfused. Postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged in satisfactory condition on 9th day. Histopathological examination of the uterine specimen revealed placenta percreta. To conclude uterine rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis in pregnant women who present with acute abdomen with or without shock.
How to cite this article
Neerja, Varma M, Thakral RK, Varshney A. Placenta Percreta: An Unusual Etiology for Spontaneous Rupture of Uterus Near Term. J South Asian Feder Obst Gynae 2014;6(3):180-182.