Bovine herpesvirus type 1 infection of bovine bronchial epithelial cells increases neutrophil adhesion and activation
Respiratory infection of cattle with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) predisposes cattle to secondary pneumonia with Mannheimia haemolytica as part of the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD). One cell type that has received limited investigation for its role in the inflammation that accompanies BRD is the respiratory epithelial cell. In the present study we investigated mechanisms by which BHV-1 infection of respiratory epithelial cells contributes to the recruitment and activation of bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in vitro. Primary cultures of bovine bronchial epithelial (BBE) cells were infected with BHV-1 and assessed for cytokine expression by real-time PCR. We found that BHV-1 infection elicits a rapid IL-1, IL-8 and TNF-alpha mRNA response by BBE cells. Bovine PMNs exhibited greater adherence to BHV-1 infected BBE cells than uninfected cells. The increased adherence was significantly reduced by the addition of an anti-IL-1beta antibody or human soluble TNF-alpha receptor (sTNF-alphaR). Pre-incubation of bovine PMNs with conditioned media from BHV-1 infected BBE cells increased PMN migration, which was inhibited by addition of an anti-IL-1beta antibody, sTNF-alphaR, or an IL-8 peptide inhibitor. Conditioned media from BHV-1 infected BBE cells activated bovine PMNs in vitro as demonstrated by PMN shape change, production of reactive oxygen species and degranulation. PMNs also exhibited increased LFA-1 expression and susceptibility to M. haemolytica LKT following incubation with BHV-1 infected BBE cell conditioned media. Our results suggest that BHV-1 infection of BBE cells triggers cytokine expression that contributes to the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, and amplifies the detrimental effects of M. haemolytica LKT.
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