Article

The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View From Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology

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... The evaluation of Music Passion was based on human development theory, including emotional, social, and cognitive development in relation to young adults with a disability. Daniel Stern (19), who focused on the relational aspect of human emotional development, emphasized the importance of intersubjective communication, namely the sharing of subjective experience between two or more people, for the development of the self. The Music Passion training program made such communication with others possible, thus strengthening the self and promoting health. ...
... A secure, emotional attachment is a prerequisite for a person to be able to build trust in other people and develop optimally, based on their innate resources (31). It is also important for building a so-called self and developing positive self-esteem and self-confidence (19). In Music Passion, the participants became attached to the staff and fellow participants, while staff members became attached to the participants, making them feel safe, accepted, valuable, and appreciated. ...
... Stern describes self-development in different phases and at about 2-6 months one develops the core self, while the subjective self develops at 7-15 months (19). He considered that the self can only be built in the relationship with another person. ...
Article
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In Sweden as in many other countries, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of health, social participation, and active leisure time for people with disabilities. Against this background, a three-year music education was started for a group of young adults with disabilities in order to enhance their wellbeing, learning, and emotional and social development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of a 3-year education program with set goals for young adults with disabilities using a qualitative method. The study was conducted from autumn 2014 to 2018. Four semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants, the first at the beginning of the education, after the first year, second, and third year respectively. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The teachers and care staff made process notes about the development of each participant. The transcribed interviews and process notes were analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis. The education achieved its purpose and goals as evidenced by participants, teachers, and staff. It showed that music education training may revitalize people with disabilities. Furthermore, it demonstrated that persons with disabilities can learn, develop, and even change on a personal level, if they are given the right conditions.
... I denne teksten vil jeg først gjøre rede for fenomenet «øyeblikk» i et tidsperspektiv. En slik forståelse er inspirert av en fenomenologisk dreining filosofisk sett, samt et underliggende teorigrunnlag som primaert er hentet fra nyere utviklingspsykologi og dynamisk systemteori (Stern, 1985(Stern, /2000(Stern, , 2004Trevarthen & Malloch, 2000;Tronick, 1998). Det gis eksempler på publiserte beskrivelser av 'øyeblikk' i musikkterapi, før fenomenet konkretiseres gjennom to varianter av musikkterapeutisk praksis. ...
... I denne teksten vil jeg først gjøre rede for fenomenet «øyeblikk» i et tidsperspektiv. En slik forståelse er inspirert av en fenomenologisk dreining filosofisk sett, samt et underliggende teorigrunnlag som primaert er hentet fra nyere utviklingspsykologi og dynamisk systemteori (Stern, 1985(Stern, /2000(Stern, , 2004Trevarthen & Malloch, 2000;Tronick, 1998). Det gis eksempler på publiserte beskrivelser av 'øyeblikk' i musikkterapi, før fenomenet konkretiseres gjennom to varianter av musikkterapeutisk praksis. ...
... Det ser ut til at Simen selv tilpasser og regulerer sin indre spenning og intensitet (jf. vitalitetsaffekter Stern, 1985Stern, /2000. Dette blir synlig for eksempel gjennom én-tone motivene, han introduserer, og måten han lar polyrytmiske melodier og klusterklanger alternere i et musikalsk samspill med terapeuten. ...
Article
Denne teksten setter fokus på gylne øyeblikk i musikkterapeutisk teori og praksis. Et gyllent øyeblikk forstås som et endringsøyeblikk, en endringspotent erfaring der det intersubjektive bekreftes, opplevd i et subjektivt tidsperspektiv (kairos). En slik forståelse er inspirert av fenomenologisk filosofi, nyere utviklingspsykologi og dynamisk systemteori. Fenomenet øyeblikk eksemplifiseres gjennom ekspressiv musikkterapi med en ung mann med anoreksi, samt en reseptiv tilnærming (The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music) med en kvinne som arbeider mot større selvforståelse gjennom temaet «egne grenser». På bakgrunn av eksemplene fokuseres musikken, hvilken mening denne kan ha, samt en mulig effekt av øyeblikkserfaringene i det terapeutiske forløpet. I drøftingen fremheves kroppsperspektivet, instrumenters flertydighet, samt klientens egen deltakelse gjennom følelsesutveksling og regulering i møte med musikk og terapeut. En slik deltakelse legger til rette for kontakt med ikke-verbale selvopplevelser under den verbale bearbeidingen i etterkant av samspillet, noe som kan bidra til verbal- og narrativ selvutvikling.
... He describes this in his work on the vitality affects. Stern (1985) speaks not only about how the child experiences the categorical affects of the parent, their anger, their distress, their fear, their joy, their happiness. He speaks, too, of how the child experiences the tempo, the intensity and the speed at which these categorical affects are expressed. ...
... He may feel happiness as a flow or as a burst of joy. This quickness, slowness, explosiveness and flow constitute the vitality affects (Stern: 1985). ...
... He also speaks of how we begin to privilege certain sense modalities, such as vision, above all others. Stern (1985) indicates that as children we process information across all our sense modalities or amodally. This changes however as we get older. ...
Article
Perhaps one of the most profound relationships we have is to war and peace. Yet until war is upon us we give it little thought. Once it is upon us we often slip into feelings of impotence and lethargy. Yet our capacity to sustain peace in the external world is crucially dependent on the ebb and flow of our capacities, both as individuals and as a collective, to sustain a particular mind state. Through case material, this paper explores the difficulties in sustaining a peace mentality in a time of war. It looks at the importance of connection to 'the music, not the words', when therapist and client may speak different languages (not only metaphorically but literally). Within this, the paper stresses the importance of dreams as expressed in the analyst's reverie and the analysand's visions.
... COMSI ® [26,27] is an eclectic psychological treatment based on theories about the importance of nature and animals in psychotherapeutic and pedagogical contexts [35,42,51,[58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65], as well as theories about development in neurotypical young children [66][67][68][69][70] and children with autism [3,4,6,7,18,71]. COMSI ® therapists work from a common point of view and approach, which includes being available, encouraging children's own initiatives to engage in curious exploration, to play, and to be physically active [26,27]. ...
... However, they step back to let the child take over again when they seem to be able to cope with the situation. We suggest that this nuanced and more well-toned social experience from being with therapist in nature, could have an effect on inner representations to emerge more easily, with Stern's terminology so called RIGS (Representation of an Interaction that has become Generalized) [70]. Stern's concept of RIGS refers to the way in which young children's real experiences of interaction are organized in their psyche. ...
... For thousands of years, humans have been adapted to interpret the behavior of animals and events in nature [70,[108][109][110]. This could perhaps in the future also be a part of a new avenue of treatment to instill psychological development and wellbeing for people with autism. ...
Article
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This case study shows how an 8-year-old boy with autism and mild intellectual disability underwent positive psychological development in terms of play, social communication, and mentalization during a year and a half of group-based therapy using COMSI®-(COMmunication and Social Interaction). This eclectic treatment has a relational approach and is based on developmental psychology, knowledge of autism, and the impact of nature and animals on human health. The change in the child was been studied using both quantitative and qualitative methods. His general intellectual capacity was measured using the Wechler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and his Mentalization Ability/Theory of Mind was assessed using three tests: Eva and Anna, Hiding the fruit and Kiki and the cat. Throughout the study period, change was documented with the help of the therapists’ process notes and the parents’ descriptions. The results show that support for the child comes from three different sources: nature, animals, and the therapists. Animals and nature form the basis for episodes of coordinated attention in conversation and play with therapists. The therapists’ approach used sensitivity and compliance with the child’s needs and focus of interest.
... Instead it experiences abstract quality-changes such as rhythm, tempo, duration (Spitz, 1965), intensity, and shape (Lewkovicz and Turkewitz, 1980;Meltzoff, 1981). This experience of various abstract quality changes is an amodal perception (Stern, 1985): instead of distinguishing between different sensory modalities it functions as a "common sense, " enabling the comparison between different modalities of sensory stimulation (cf. the notion of imagination, as discussed by Johnson, 1987). ...
... Most notably, the child will increasingly experience the difference between events that it may enact itself and those that are beyond the limits of its own immediate volition. While the experience of being the agent of certain coherent events but not of others gives the child a first sense of self versus other, the regulation of the infant's affective state by another's ministrations leads the child to a second level, a sense of self with other (Stern, 1985). ...
... Subsequently, language and narrative itself provide unifying themes that further extend the affective contour. Along with the acquisition of language, the sense of a subjective self will help to shape the child's beliefs about its personal history and character, eventually enabling a sense of a verbal self (Stern, 1985). As Stern says, the role of language for the verbal self "is not primarily another means for individuation, nor is it primarily another means for creating togetherness" (p. ...
... V pojetí disociace těla a mysli u psychóz navazuje na Tauska (1933) omnipotenci v anihilační úzkosti, důležitou roli má funkce reverie (Bion, 1962 K funkci symetrického přenosu je zapotřebí ještě zmínit význam amodální percepce (Edkins, 1998), neboli schopnost přesouvat percepční zkušenost z jednoho smyslového orgánu na jiný. Amodální percepce má na základě nálezů pozorovacích studií důležité místo v novorozeneckém životě (Stern, 1985). Novorozenec zaměňuje mezi hlasem a dotykem, mezi pozorováním prsu a sáním z něho. ...
... Podobnou roli mohou mít i další fenomény z novorozeneckého světa jako afekty vitality neboli tzv. aktivační kontury (Stern, 1985). Jinými slovy pro novorozence a zde i pro pacienta není ani tak důležitý obsah nějaké percepční zkušenosti jako je vzorec excitace, který tato zkušenost přináší, a intenzita zkušenosti v určitém čase. ...
... Dynamic forms of vitality [22] is a younger, overarching term for the established term "vitality affects" (p. 7, footnote 1). Being capable of interpreting nonverbal behaviour is part of the implicit relational knowing that we acquire as toddlers [24], [25], [26]. Stern [22] avoided labelling vitality affects as emotions (using the terms "events" and "states" instead) but proposes that the dynamic forms of our vitality -how we move -are the source of emotional relating. ...
... This publication is representative of the texts in which no body-related keywords were used in the meta-data, but the term "affect regulation" [9] was. The latter is to be understood as a profoundly body-related process [26]. In a thematically related paper [11], which was found by hand search, the keywords include "Developmental psychology", "AQR-Tool" and "Videoanalysis" (p. ...
Article
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Introduction: Bodily expression is an essential part of nonverbal communication. In music therapy, nonverbal action and interaction usually
... For example, verbal emotion validation might be (said in an accepting way): "It looks like you are very angry"; "You seem to feel guilty" (Ginott, 1965). The caregiver could nonverbally match the child's facial expression (but it is important this is done in a "marked" or exaggerated way, as Fonagy et al. (2002) point out, so the child knows it is their own emotion, and not the caregiver's emotion, that is being referred to); or the caregiver could "copy" the behavioral manifestation of the child's feeling state without directly copying the child's actions (e.g., the caregiver nodding his head up and down or blowing his cheeks out with a timing and intensity that matches the child enjoying banging their hand on the table; Stern, 1985). The flipside of this is emotional invalidation, in which the child's emotion is rejected in some way or incorrectly labeled-"Don't be angry"; "You're not really sad"-or there is a failure to attune to, or accept, the child's feelings. ...
... For example, interventions exist that specifically aim to increase parents' mental discourse with their children with HL during daily routines (e.g., meals, shared book reading), which in turn should promote these children's ToM development (Ziv et al., 2013). In addition, nonverbal techniques for emotion validation exist (Fonagy et al., 2002;Stern, 1985) and can be taught (Lambie & Lindberg, 2016). Furthermore, psychoeducation may be applied to teach parents that they should validate their children's negative feelings rather than trying to "fix" them (Faber & Mazlish, 2002). ...
Article
Hearing loss can have a significant impact on children’s development. It can diminish children’s ability to perceive and produce spoken language, which has been studied extensively. However, hearing loss can also negatively affect children’s socioemotional development because it limits access to the social environment. Interestingly, there is little research on this. In this chapter, the authors begin by discussing the development of four aspects of emotional competence (emotion awareness, empathy, Theory of Mind, and the ability to express moral emotions) and their link to young children’s hearing loss. Parents are a huge part of young children’s social environment and therefore play an important role in the development of emotional competence in their children. The second part of the chapter discusses challenges that parents of children with hearing loss may encounter, for example with regard to parent–child interaction and parenting stress. The chapter ends with a discussion of clinical implications.
... C'est à travers un apprentissage intersubjectif que la cognition sociale, la communication intentionnelle, l'attachement, l'empathie et l'expression verbale et symbolique se développent durant les deux premières années de vie (Papoušek, 2007). L'intersubjectivité semble être une capacité qui se développe et devient plus précise au cours des premiers mois de vie à l'aide de l'interaction avec l'environnement (Loots & Devisé, 2003 ;Stern, 1985 ;Trevarthen, 1979). ...
... Nous nous demandons également si le raccourcissement de la durée moyenne des touchers GTS lors de la deuxième prise de mesures, correspondant à ce moment à la durée moyenne des moments présents, pourrait refléter l'idée que la capacité d'intersubjectivité semble être une capacité croissante qui se développe avec le temps (Loots & Devisé, 2003 ;Stern, 1985Stern, , 2012Trevarthen, 1979). Nous proposons ainsi que le développement de la capacité d'intersubjectivité pourrait aller de pair avec et être renforcé par une meilleure capacité d'autorégulation parasympathique du nourrisson, lui permettant d'être plus capable et disponible pour interagir socialement. ...
... 1966) definerer fellesnevneren for teaterformer som faller under dette begrepet slik: "[P]roduktet ville blitt sterkt fragmentert uten publikums avgjørelser" (2003, s. x, min oversettelse). Kuhn formulerer tilsvarende: "Med sine egne 4) Den US-amerikanske psykologen og psykiateren utviklet inntoningskategoriene for å analysere interpersonlig relatering mellom mor og barn i spedbarnsalderen (Stern 1985). handlinger er [tilskuerne, S.B.] i vesentlig grad med på å bestemme hendelsesforløpet" (2008, s. 28, min oversettelse). ...
... I den situasjonen reagerer aktøren med en ny adhoc-strategi. Hun går fra en inntoning til det som Stern (1985) kaller tuning. Tuning ligner en samlende inntoning, men med en viss grad av intendert disharmoni som sikter på å forandre atferden det relateres til. ...
Article
Starting from the distinction between performative postdramatic poetics on the one hand, and poetics based on the traditional divide between stage and auditory on the other, Böhnisch examines the possibility of a third poetics between these two apparently opposing positions in drama and theatre aesthetics. Through an analysis of the performance Dråpene (eng.: The Drops, Lund & Ousland 2000) she shows how the scenic actions create performative openings and closings in relation to the child audience.
... By offering value to non-discursive and discursive levels of music (Langer, /1974Stern, 2000), the ethical basis of music expands to recognizing experiences in a person's wholeness as the unique creation s/he is (Lévinas, 1961(Lévinas, /2012. From an ethical point of view, opening oneself to a relating experience through music involves an act of trust (Løgstrup, 1956(Løgstrup, /1997. ...
Book
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... The other important reason for using narratives is that they play regulatory functions at a cognitive, social, and emotional level. When telling their experience, children integrate affect, cognition, and action related to the event (Favez, 2003), which in turn can change the very perception of the stated experience (Stern, 1985). Autobiographical narration within a social and interactive context contributes to constituting the self and promotes the acquisition of social meanings of the event (Favez, 2003). ...
Article
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COVID-19 lockdown-imposed restrictions emerged as a risk to children’s well-being. However, the extant literature often ignored children’s experiences, emotions, struggles, hopes, and expectations. Based on a large sample of Italian students (N = 906; mean age = 9.4 years, 48.8% female), we drew data from a post-lockdown school re-entry program where students completed narrative activities in 2020. These narratives underwent quantitative content analysis according to gender and school level. Overall, children reported mixed feelings about the lockdown; they felt safe at home but also experienced fear and missed their friends, school, and freedom. Screen-time, technology and friendships helped, but children struggled to make sense of the events. Our findings show how children attempted to make sense of the lockdown experience and may provide key information for the development of community coping programs to help children facing crises in the future.
... The conceptual anchor of agency is theory and research that demonstrate how children construct knowledge through their own efforts and actions in the world, 425 how children are equal partners in human interaction from birth, 426 how they actively reach out to people to create relationships that meet their own social and emotional needs, 427 and the child-to-child developmental template. 428 "Agency" in this article refers to social processes or situations in which the infant or child is an initiating or willful force who drives experience and his/her further learning and development. ...
Book
Just as it takes a whole village to raise a child in Africa, we believe that it takes the whole of the African continent to help us understand African Childhoods. We have only just begun the journey travelled by African children as they move towards adulthood via adolescence, a stage they cannot bypass but which they may skip, or which may be unconventionally accelerated by factors and forces in their environments. As the foundation of human growth and development, childhood has been studied and written about extensively. As such, this book makes no claim to have exhaustively explored all the issues affecting children of African ancestry and descent. Rather, it sets the tone for the engagement of various players in the lives of African children. This is the first book in our African Childhood series, and we hope that as we continue to network, we will be able to involve not only scholars and academics, but also African children themselves, to magnify and amplify their voices. Navigating the Contours of African Childhood: Multidisciplinary Perspectives is also an arena for multidisciplinarity, which covers a wide range of viewpoints and contexts. It is our fervent hope that it will provide a platform for dialogue between the basic sciences, social sciences, humanities, arts and clinical experiences about the most significant challenges and opportunities of 21st century scholarship and research on African Childhoods.
... I have appealed to my experience as a musicianm bringing awareness to the transmodal link between sound and movement. But all people have primary transmodal experiences (from early childhood, such as the experience of affective attunement, according to the concept of Stern (1985)) which serve as basis for this conscious realization. Thus, finding and using them can effectively contribute to the communication of the least verbalizable aspects of learning the dance technique. ...
Article
Tanto na música como na dança os aspectos expressivos tendem a ser reconhecidos como inefáveis e a sua compreensão como dependente da experiência cinestésica do performer. Este trabalho explora os processos psicológicos, através dos quais a experiência da performance musical pode ser transferida para a aprendizagem dos aspectos expressivos do movimento na dança através da prática metacognitiva aplicada à performance musical e kinetica em paralelo. Para este fim, a investigação é abordada a partir de uma metodologia auto etnográfica colaborativa pela qual se estuda a experiência pessoal de um dos autores que constrói uma narrativa que permite tornar visível e analisar determinados aspectos cruciais ao nível da construção do conhecimento na sua experiência.
... This in-person workshop introduces participants to the core aspects of Benenzon's approach, through a series of experiential modules suitable for music therapists from all clinical backgrounds. Instruments or other materials are not required, as we will work on ourselves as our most precious instrument, through a holistic -or using Stern's term "a-modal" (Stern, 2000) -improvisation exercise, coming from the unconventional -and by now potentially disruptive -voice of one of the first generation music therapy pioneers who has been active from the 1960s until today. Andreas Wölfl Freies Musikzentrum München, Germany DrumPower is a music therapy program for violence prevention, social integration and personal empowerment developed in a clinical context and elaborated for preventive work in schools and social institutions. ...
... These areas may be explored further in future studies. For instance, as much as there are some limitations to many aspects of psychoanalytic thought, I am aware that there are some resonances between the writings of Stern (1985) and Winnicott (1971) that could prove insightful in future works. Similarly, future research may consider French theorist Gilbert Simondon's (2020) early texts on individuation, who is recognised as a major source of inspiration for Deleuze. ...
Thesis
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Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of the West of Scotland for the award of Doctor of Philosophy in collaboration with Early Years Scotland. April 2022. i Declaration I declare that this thesis is entirely my own and has not been previously submitted for another PhD or comparable award. Word count (excluding ancillary data, reference lists, appendices)-73,025 Shaddai Tembo April 2022 ii Abstract This doctoral thesis examines the formation of children's subjectivities, related to the metaphysical conditions of being and becoming a subject, within fully outdoor early childhood provision in Scotland. The role of outdoor play provision has been made central in recent years by the Scottish Government as part of the broader expansion of Early Learning and Childcare (Scottish Government, 2017a; Scottish Government, 2017b; Education Scotland, 2019c; Scottish Government, 2020a). This enhanced focus raises questions around how children form their subjectivities in such spaces and how this may differ from what is known about subjectivity within conventional indoor provision. Further, while the existing knowledge base on subjectivity in childhood is derived mainly from the intellectual progress made through the fields of social constructionism (Foucault, 1978), performativity theory (Butler, 2004; 2006; 2011) and developmental psychology (Piaget, 1948; 1957), concerns have been raised regarding the extent to which such frameworks may give primacy to the human, and the logics of humanism, over and above the non-human world (Barad, 2007; Dolphijn and Tuin, 2012; Braidotti, 2013). Such concerns warrant special attention in relation to entirely outdoor environments, where these approaches may underplay the significance of ontological and ontogenetic matters that contribute toward the formation of subjectivity. This study applies a sociomaterial metaphysical framework to propose an alternative way of understanding how subjectivities come to form in early childhood environments, bringing together Spinozist (2002) monism and insights from process philosophy (Massumi, 2002) in relation to Deleuze and Guattari's (1987) concepts of the assemblage and affect. Methodologically, a ethnographic approach, inspired partly from the postqualitative field of scholarship, is employed to gather data on children's subjectivities at Wood Fire, a fully outdoor early childhood setting. The findings of this study reveal the novel materiality and relationality of fully outdoor early childhood provision through which subjectivities are informed , and also point toward the ways that social and cultural determinacies continue to affectively orientate children's desires in the absence of clearly demarcated material spaces. Thus, these findings a demonstrate more expanded understanding of how we, humans, are produced as individuals in specific encounters through processes of 'affective sociomaterialisation'. Through the presentation of data in textual, visual and cinematic modes, practitioners are encouraged to re-evaluate the role of outdoor provision through a sociomaterial metaphysics that challenges conventional knowledges about how children's subjectivities are formed. Practically, this carries implications for how the materiality of outdoor environments is understood to contribute to the child's sense of self on more expansive terms. iii
... st experiences and social constructions to negotiate ambiguity-before subjectification, which is seeing the other as having their own unique experience. Subjectification is integral to recognizing one's own subjectivity or experience-an understanding based on existential (e.g., Buber, 1958;Hegel, 1807Hegel, /1979, developmental (e.g., Mahler, 1975;D. N. Stern, 1985), feminist, and analytic (e.g., Aron, 1996;Benjamin, 1990;Mitchell, 1993) observations. Ruptures invariably involve some form of objectification (experienced as negation by another). ...
... The farmers-herders conflict appears quite natural; however, the context of its manifestation suggests that it is a by-product of a failed interaction process and a clash of interests of the involved parties (Stern, 1998;Akorede, 2005). This position demonstrates that the expectations and interests of farmers and herders in Nigeria are no doubt at variance and are responsible for the increasing rate of conflict situation in the country. ...
Article
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This paper examines strategies implemented by the President Muhammadu Buhari’s administration in order to resolve frequent clashes between herders and farmers, bearing in mind the economic implications of this violent conflict for the economy of Nigeria. The paper adopted the Human Needs Theory as its framework of analysis. The data were sourced from academic journals, internet materials, newspapers, and textbooks. The herders–farmers conflict pre-dated the Muhammadu Buhari presidency but in terms of scale and intensity of killings and wanton destruction of properties, it gained momentum during his administration. The non-verbal language of the Presidency’s description of the conflict situation at the time Nigerians needed a strong comment became worrisome to the affected victims who concluded the pro-herder’s sympathy stance of the President. Not until the Presidency began to take bold actions by introducing the grazing bill allowing a cattle colony of about 5,000 hectares in the states of the Federation, deployment of military personnel to the concerned states and holding stakeholders meeting across the states, Nigerians decided to unanimously join their forces with the government to tackle the herders–farmers impasse headlong. The conflict situation is no better even in the face of strategic policies implemented, however, the nation-state is trying to minimize the negative effects of the imbroglio on the agricultural sector of the country which is a huge resource to Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
... • Physiological milestones and developmental lines: timing and reactions (Freud, 1956 (Kris, 1956;Meers, 1973) • Traumata (Becker, 1974;Blum, 2005;Volkan, 2009;) • Nature of attachment (Ainsworth, 1978;Bowlby, 1958) and detachment (Akhtar, 2020) • Self-development and parental releasing factors (Kohut, 1971;Stern, 1985) • Defensive operations and compromise formations (symptoms) (Blackman, 2003;Brenner, 2006) DOI: 10.4324/9781003257110-1 ...
... The internal working model is basically cognitive representations that guide the individual about the expectations of others and further educate them on how to respond appropriately to those expectations (Bowlby, 1982;Shaver & Mikulincer, 2014). This internal working model operates both consciously and unconsciously and monitors previous and future social interactions in a non-visible fashion (Stern, 2018) . So the way of communicating and interacting with others is primarily shaped by the internal working models of the self and others (Hazan & Shaver, 1994). ...
Article
Purpose: It has been widely debated over the past two decades that workplace bullying harms both victims and organizations equally. However, the perpetrator’s perspective on bullying is an inadequately researched area that has been highlighted by many researchers. This study aims to explore the predictive effect of an insecure attachment (avoidant attachment style and anxious attachment style) on the bullying behavior of perpetrators in the workplace. Methodology: Data is collected from different organizations in Pakistan for this cross-sectional study. The sample size is 203. For the analysis of hypotheses, the SEM model of SmartPLS is used. Findings: The results indicate that an avoidant attachment style positively affects bullying behavior in the workplace. Unlike the anxiety attachment style which has no significant relationship with workplace bullying behavior. Practical implications: These findings highlight the importance of secure attachment for healthy interpersonal relationships and the role of insecure attachment in emerging bullying behaviors in the workplace.
... Citatet illustrerer en socialitet, hvori der eksisterer faste normer, og hvor vi holdes på plads ved at vaere forbundet i et "vi", der haenger til skue langt oppe over os. Men som det sidenhen vil blive illustreret, er dette "vi" blevet tiltagende sløret og fragmenteret gennem globalisering (Sommer, 2017, p. 81) og sociale medier (Gentzler, Oberhauser, Westerman & Nadorff, 2011;Franzen, 2011), samtidig med at vi stadig er ubetinget og alment menneskeligt forankret i det sociale (Højgaard, 2020, p. 13;Stern, 1985;Stern, 2000). De utallige sociale forbindelser er med andre ord lige så afgørende som hidtil, men det skaber et spøjst modsaetningsforhold: For mens senmoderniteten har bredt verden ud til et menukort, bliver de sociale mekanismer, som tilhører alle, fortsat oplevet af den enkelte (Skovlund, 2015, pp. ...
Article
Vores forståelse af moderne psykoterapi og forskning er langsomt blevet så forbundet med et moderne evidensbegreb, at de to har låst hinanden i en binding, der ikke umiddelbart ser ud til at blive opløst. I denne artikel, der primært finder sit afsæt i det psykoterapeutiske arbejde med børn, unge og deres familier, skitseres først udviklingen mod en øget essentialisme, der historisk set har vundet indpas i danske behandlingstilbud.Derefter inddrages den systemiske terapi og tænkning som en udfordrende understrøm, artiklens hovedanliggende, der på en gang tilbyder en ny og gammel måde at anskue mennesket og dets forandringspotentialer på. Ved hjælp af dette greb sættes jagten ind på et bredere evidensbegreb, der i højere grad rækker ud over den enkelte og ind i det relationelle. Afslutningsvis diskuteres artiklens tråde i relation til hinanden, og der peges på nye områder inden for psykoterapeutisk forskning.
... I psykologien har interessen vaeret rettet mod at undersøge, hvordan bevidsthedspraktikker virker og indgår i menneskers udvikling af personlighed, identitet, intelligens, grundlaeggende forholdemåder og muligheder for laering og motivation samt den måde, disse bevidsthedspraktikker forbinder individets bevidsthed med samfundspolitiske og ideologiske bevaegelser (fx Allport, 1956, Erikson, 1968, Gardner, 1985, Leontjev, 1983, 2009Stern, 1998;Vygotsky, 1978Vygotsky, , 1994. En sprogvidenskabelig funderet empirisk illustration af den naere sammenhaeng mellem politisk begrundet officiel sprogbrug og udvikling af kollektiv samfundsmaessig bevidsthed, der fungerer som ramme for udvikling af saerlige -voldelige -mellemmenneskelige adfaerdsformer, er fremlagt af Klemperer (2013). ...
Article
De senere år har der været en kraftig stigning i praksisformer, der har fokus på bevidsthed og opmærksomhed og på deres regulering. Mængden af kursusaktiviteter i yoga, meditation, mindfulness og lignende aktiviteter er stadig stigende, ligesom anvendelsen af sådanne praksisser inden for psykologisk behandling, arbejdsliv og uddannelse er i vækst, og forskningen i virkningerne af disse praksisformer øges. Der udvikles og anvendes også teknologiske hjælpemidler til regulering af opmærksomhedsfunktioner. Det er fx til ADHD-behandling i interface mellem hjerne og computer. Det er til opmærksomhedpå fx søvnmønstre ved brug af bærbar biofeedback-teknologii form af smartphone-forbundne armbånd til registrering. Det er også teknologiske hjælpemidler til regulering af bevidst afspænding og andre bevidsthedstilstande via apps med guidninger af meditation, mindfulness, yogaøvelser etc. Tilsvarende ser vi en voksende interesse for, hvordan teknologier, praksisformer og mediebårne symboliseringsformer indgår i menneskers forestillinger om sig selv, og om, hvordan livet skal være og blive.
... Det gaelder f.eks. begrebet afstemning, som Stern (1985) benytter om den proces, hvor den voksne rytmisk tilpasser sine handlinger til barnets udspil for derved at øge barnets opmaerksomhed og optagethed. Den proces, hvorved et samspil afstemmes er tydelig hos børn med medfødt døvblindhed. ...
Article
Spædbarnspsykologien og forskning omkring mennesker med medfødt døvblindhed har mange berøringsflader. Den seneste årrække har arbejdet med børn med medfødt døvblindhed været inspireret af spædbarnspsykologien. Etablering og udvikling af det sociale samspil som forudsætning for kommunikation og sprog er af væsentlig betydning for denne gruppe mennesker. Det gælder temaerne etablering og regulering af kontakt, rytme og tempo, turtagning, fælles opmærksomhed mv., der illustreres med eksempler. Forskning omkring børn med medfødt døvblindhed kan være et bidrag til viden om almene spædbarnspsykologiske temaer, som f.eks. taktil opmærksomhed og motoriske mønstre i det tidlige samspil. Til sidst i artiklen vil forskning omkring børn med autisme blive præsenteret som et eksempel på en anden gruppe af børn, hvor spædbarnspsykologien har haft stor betydning. Denne artikel er relevant for klinikeren, der arbejder med personer med alvorlige sociale, sproglige og kognitive funktionsnedsættelser, og for forskeren, som interesserer sig for spædbarnspsykologi.
... In this paper, we chose to focus on the qualities of interaction during feeding since in early childhood this activity contributes to the construction of reciprocity in exchanges between parents and children [18]. During breastfeeding, for example, there is mutual involvement between mother and child. ...
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Current research has confirmed that the quality of the caregiver-child relationship influences the child’s emotional and behavioral development. Play and feeding contexts, for example, are the best contexts to observe mother-child or father-child interaction. The observation of feeding interaction establishes involvement on the part of both parties and identifies relationship characteristics. The purpose of this study is to select and describe the most frequently used observational methods during feeding interactions in the first three years of a child’s life. Instruments that employ video recordings of mealtimes will be detailed to highlight the relevance that specific tools have nowadays. Finally, the SVIA (Scala di Valutazione delle Interazioni Alimentari), a technique for analyzing food interactions by observation that has also been utilized remotely, will be offered. This is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with an overview of tools while also taking into consideration the present scenario in which digital tools are increasingly being employed in health and clinical settings. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper is to review the various observational methods of the parent-child relationship to assist future practitioners and researchers in the field in making an accurate assessment of caregiver-child interaction and selecting a valid tool for the early recognition of problematic relationships and identifying the most appropriate treatment modalities.
... This study therefore challenges this assumption, as well as emphasising the interactional or relational aspect of psychoanalytic psychotherapy (highlighted by e.g. Stern, 1985). In the sessions studied, the therapists' use of questions showed them to be very active participants in the conversation. ...
Thesis
Background Questions are an integral part of therapeutic exchanges, but little empirical work has been done on how questions are used within psychoanalytic psychotherapy sessions. Aim This study explores how therapists use questions in short term psychoanalytic psychotherapy (STPP) sessions with depressed adolescents. Method Three STPP cases were selected and questions asked by the therapist were identified, transcribed, and analysed in terms of type and function. A specific type of question (considered as ‘performative’) was noted as being of interest. These questions and the responses were analysed using Conversation Analysis (CA). Results A high number of questions was asked across all cases, with type and function generally comparable to findings from non-therapeutic conversational settings. The specific questions identified as ‘performative’ were used by the therapist to verbalise the patient’s unspoken negative thoughts and feelings towards the therapist. A high proportion of avoidant responses to these questions was found. Conclusion These results have consequences for refining clinical technique and the training of psychotherapists doing short term psychoanalytic psychotherapy with depressed adolescents, with particular reference to addressing the negative transference.
... A crucial aspect of maintain rhythm in any co-produced process of making is what developmental psychologists (Bateson, 1979;Stern, 1985;Malloch and Trevarthen, 2009) describe as turn-taking: the rhythmic shift of responses between two or more participants. This kind of rhythmic dance or musicality between two persons is a means of joining together. ...
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Historically, research and practice of psychotherapy have been conducted within conceptual frameworks defined in terms of theoretical models. These models are in turn guided by meta-theories about the purpose of psychotherapy and its place in society. An image of psychotherapy that underpins much contemporary practice is the idea that therapy operates as an intervention that involves the implementation and application of a pre-existing theoretical model or set of empirically validated procedures. The present paper introduces the idea that it may be valuable to regard psychotherapy not as an intervention but instead as a process of making, in the sense of offering a cultural space for the co-construction of meaningful and satisfying ways of living that draw on shared cultural resources. We offer an overview of what a therapy of making might look like, followed by an account of theoretical perspectives, both within the psychotherapy literature and derived from wider philosophical and social science sources, that we have found valuable in terms of making sense of this way of thinking about practice. Our conclusion is that we need something in addition to theory-specific and protocol-driven therapies, in order to be able to incorporate the unexpected, the not-before-met perspective, event or practice of living, and to be open towards the radically new, the given, and the unknown.
... Hän näkee tällaisella viestinnällä olevan paljon yhtymäkohtia esimerkiksi siihen kuinka opimme ja käytämme kieltä. Bjerstedt (2014, 205-346) Tarinallista lähestymistapaa ja narratiivista ajattelua on varhaislapsuudesta alkaen pidetty luontevana tapana hahmottaa ja luoda järjestystä ympäröivään maailmaan (Stern 1985). Bruner (1991,1996) korostaa koulun vastuuta oppilaan identiteetin kehittämisessä ja narratiivien käyttämistä sen välineenä. ...
Chapter
You are reading this book. You can therefore engage in communicative practices. Chances are you are proficient in many of them: discourse, writing, art, social media, and so on. If you are, then you know how to communicate. You could probably even explain what sort of communicative abilities are required to engage in the communicative practices in which you are more proficient. But what is it that makes those practices, communicative practices? What is communication? This is the question the theory of communication tries to answer and is the topic of the first part of this book.
Article
I cite various examples of Spiritual teachers and writers who claim that before birth we were whole, were part of the Oneness, and were truly present without distortions of any kind. A review of the psychological evidence on infant development shows that this I lo man tic view is a serious and persistent error that indicates conservatism among the nondualists.
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This paper examines the work of Dr. Michael Fordham, Child Psychiatrist and Jungian Analyst, and his theories of human development. Starting with a brief overview of Jung’s concept of the self the paper considers how Fordham recognised that the processes of individuation occur from birth and describes how he introduced the idea of a primary self which fuels development through processes of deintegration and reintegration. This paper considers these processes in detail and how they can lead, in optimal circumstances, to ego development, the development of mind in relation to self and individuation. A brief example is given of the dynamics of deintegration and reintegration between an infant and their mother/caregiver. Links between Fordham’s ideas and the development of feeling toned complexes are explored and a brief overview is given of how neglect, abuse and trauma can impede the processes of deintegration and reintegration and lead to splitting and defences of the self. A clinical example is provided to illustrate the impact of neglect on infant development and how therapy can enable further processes of deintegration, reintegration and individuation. Overall this paper considers Fordham’s concept of the primary self and the processes of deintegration and reintegration and examines how these dynamics enable the gradual expression and integration of aspects of the self, the development of mind in relation to self and others, and individuation.
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Tanto en la música como en la danza los aspectos expresivos suelen ser reconocidos como inefables y su comprensión como dependiente de la experiencia kinestésica del performer. Este trabajo indaga en los procesos psicológicos a través de los cuales la experiencia de la performance musical puede ser transferida al aprendizaje de los aspectos expresivos del movimiento en la danza a través de la práctica metacognitiva aplicada a la performance musical y kinetica en paralelo. Para ello, la investigación se aborda desde una metodología autoetnográfica colaborativa por la cual se indaga en la experiencia personal de uno de los autores y se construye una narrativa que permite visibilizar y analizar ciertos aspectos cruciales a nivel de la construcción de conocimiento en ella.
Article
Introduction Music therapy practice and research in the field of autism has often followed medical narratives that reinforce neurotypical normalcy by locating the difficulties of social interaction in the autistic person. By exploring the relational phenomenon of attunement, this paper focuses on the social and material ecology of interactions. The authors try to unpack circumstances that can support or hinder attunement dynamics between autistic and non-autistic people. Method A video-vignette from music therapy with an autistic boy, who explores the sound of building blocks formed the point of departure for this research. The vignette was self-identified by the music therapist as an apparently failed attunement experience. Based on this vignette, we conducted an interview with the therapist and focus groups with parents of autistic children and colleagues from different professions, one of whom is autistic. We used an interpretative hermeneutical methodology for crystallisation of perspectives. Results We uncovered four spaces that impacted on the mutuality and co-creation of attunement dynamics. The room (physical space), the school context (professional space), and the material (sensory space) afford the interaction (relational space) between the child and the therapist in enabling and disabling ways. Listening to the child's sound making with the building blocks bricks was identified as the autistic child’s way of knowing and sounding that needs to be listened to carefully, rather than being questioned or disregarded. Discussion Findings of this research might encourage therapists to foster an understanding of social interaction that is mutually co-constituted and enactive, and that contradicts the mainstream pathologisation of autism.
Chapter
Sound space is never neutral, if such a thing exists at all. Each layer of every sound carries cultural, historical, personal, and aesthetic meanings (parasounds), which invite a wide array of occasionally conflicting evaluations, associations, and responses. Auscultators, the characters listening within a work of fiction, and auditeurs, the implied audience of a fictional work, may find themselves on the same wavelength of a certain space or in complete dissonance. These ‘colourings’ of sound through listening are what this study terms ‘tunements’. Tunement makes audible acts of listening; it allows to listen to listening. These acts are influenced, regulated, and produced by a number of parameters, from historical and cultural contexts to personal preferences and prejudices, to artistic conventions and aesthetic choices, so that listening is understood to be inherently biased, subjective, tuned. To listen critically means always listening for sound’s different layers and tunements. This chapter focuses on listening to layers of agency and parasound within cultural artefacts such as Walter Mosley’s Devil in a Blue Dress (1990), the film The Informer (1935), and the Raymond Chandler inspired radio drama series The Adventures of Philip Marlowe to expose stereotyping, discrimination, and clichés through sound.
Book
Dieses Buch ist im Rahmen des BMBF-geförderten Projekts Schule inklusiv gestalten (SING) entstanden. Das Projekt zielte auf die Entwicklung eines inklusionssensiblen Unterrichts in Zusammenarbeit zwischen Universität und Schule. Hierzu arbeitete ein Team aus unterschiedlichen Fachdidaktiken, der Berufspädagogik und der Sonderpädagogik über drei Jahre intensiv zusammen. Die Veränderungsprozesse in den Kooperationsschulen wurden überdies durch eine schulorganisatorische Analyse und eine professionsanalytische Erhebung begleitet. Die Ergebnisse des gemeinsamen Gestaltungsprozesses von Wissenschaft, Praxis und Lehrer:innenbildung finden sich in diesem Sammelband wieder. Ziel des Buches ist es, Lehramtsstudierenden, Lehrer:innen und auch Dozent:innen in der Lehrer:innenbildung zentrale Charakteristika für die Gestaltung eines gelingenden inklusionssensiblen Unterrichts aufzuzeigen.
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The development of empathy at an early age (12-36 months) is gaining more and more attention due to the growing understanding of its importance in motivating care and prosocial behavior. The authors present the results of testing the standardized experimental procedure “simulated adult distress,” which is most often used in foreign psychology to study empathy in young children: the experimenter and the mother in the presence of the child take turns showing signs of pain/discomfort of low intensity for a short time. The study involved 12 girls aged 19-32 months. The children’s behavior was recorded by categories: hypothesis testing, empathic personal distress, empathic concern (care), and prosocial behavior. The study presents descriptions of behavioral manifestations in all the categories as well as a description of the identified phenomenon of repetition of adult behavior in the children aged 22-28 months. The results of the study allow to conclude that the use of the “simulated adult distress” procedure is promising for identifying empathy phenomena characteristic of an early age.
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I denne artikel præsenterer vi resultater af en kvalitativ undersøgelse af en længerevarende indsats med kontemplativ undervisning i en dansk skoleklasse. Til forskel fra de fleste andre undersøgelser på området, som vedrører kortvarige indsatser (typisk omkring 8 uger), kan denne undersøgelse vise virkninger i forbindelse med indsatser gennem et helt skoleår. Artiklen vedrører undersøgelsens kvalitative del, der er baseret på deltagerobservation og interview med elever og lærere. I analyser af materialet anvender vi fænomenologisk og kulturpsykologisk teori for at belyse både enkelte deltageres oplevelser og de kontekstuelle situerede betingelser, muligheder og samspil, der har betydning for indsatsernes virkninger og deltagernes muligheder for handling og læring. I diskussionen af undersøgelsens resultater indgår blandt andet, hvorvidt kontemplativ undervisning bør betragtes som en særlig interventionsmetode eller en gennemgående opmærksomhedskultur, der tilrettelægges af lærere og præger samspil og læringsmuligheder for elever og lærere.
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Crime, resocialization and totalinstitutions define three research fields. Some discoursesabout social integration common to these research fields also constitute the field of socialpsychology. These discourses are presented and discussed in the article. Based on thediscussion, a common field of research is outlined. This common field is the study ofzones of contrasting laws, rules and/or codes of conduct in marginal positions, where participantsare in transition from one community to another, and needs to negotiate and/orchange motives, intentions, values and attitudes in order to behave according to the laws/rules/codes of conduct in the future community (for example, a prison can be the futurecommunity for the sentenced time). This research field is labeled zones of contrastingmargins. Some of the challenges that may rise due to the outlined characteristics of zonesof contrasting margins are discussed. Finally, some questions are posed considering theimplications of this approach to future research in the field.
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Denne artikel omhandler spædbarnets erkendelse af objekters numeriske identitet. Første del af artiklen er en fremstilling og dernæst en kritisk evaluering af Meltzoff & Moores identitetsteori. Anden del er en præsentation og diskussion af nogle af de seneste undersøgelser inden for feltet. Det drejer sig om forsøg af Wynn (1992), Simon, Hespos & Rochat (1995) og Wilcox & Baillargeon (i tryk, a; b). Sidst i artiklen forsøger forfatteren kort at sammenfatte den forhåndenværende viden vedrørende spædbørns evner til at individuere objekter
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A large number of named psychotherapies provides clinicians with a broad catalogue from which to pick and choose intervention techniques. Today, many psychotherapists claim to work eclectically, referring to the use of varying intervention techniques both within and betweenthe different psychotherapeutic traditions. The availability of many psychotherapeutic techniques can indeed be beneficial, but the question remains as to how the psychotherapist chooses one technique over another depending on the circumstances. In this paper, we willpresent an analytic framework aimed at providing psychotherapists with a navigation tool with which to qualify the choice and coordination of psychotherapeutic techniques. The foundation for this tool is the concept of qualified self-determination, which points to some of the basic competencies necessary for humans to navigate within the technical, social, and personal domains of life. On this basis, we outline how different psychotherapies are differentially aimed at developing these competencies. Finally, we present specific examples onwhere and how this framework can be used, including how it can guide the client case formulation, and how it can facilitate productive collaboration at network meetings.
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The Bio Psychosocial Model (BPM), proposed by George Engel (1977), according to some critics, has failed in both philosophical and scientific terms. Others think that "While the BPS may not have generated a scientific revolution in a Kuhnian sense, it has been hugely successful in advancing a holistic approach to science and medicine in the 21 st century and beyond" [1]. In our opinion, the main success of the biopsychosocial model is to have fuelled the construction of the PNEI paradigm, which studies, within a systemic philosophical framework, the molecular dimensions of the human organism, integrating biology and psychology. We believe that Psychoneuroendocrineimmunology (PNEI) and Epigenetics, the recent molecular revolution, are powerful integrative system models that allow the production of psychological theory suitable for comparison with biomedical and neuroscientific research and clinic. In this paper we will try to apply these paradigms to interpret the current state of neuroscience and psychology, advancing a proposal for a profound renewal of psychological sciences and practices.
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There is a lack of research on the use of the still-face procedure to assess infants’ comfort and reengagement in stressful situations. As previous studies have already investigated the transitional phenomenon based on Winnicott’s theory, this study decided to use “stuffed toy” and “song and musical play” with the still-face procedure. It aimed to examine the transition phenomenon of infants in “song and musical play” and provide a new perspective on psychological support for infants. Infant responses and maternal availabilities were also analyzed. The study participants were 32 infants ( M = 17.97 months, SD = 1.43) and their mothers ( M = 32.28 years, SD = 2.96). The results showed that infants were receptive to the “stuffed toy” and displayed positive responses. Additionally, the appearance ratios of “song and musical play” imitations increased. This suggests that the infants used “song and musical play” to manage and control their affect in stressful situations. Furthermore, when the mothers exhibited maternal availability as an emotional rhythm, the infants’ responses became positive. Therefore, the infants demonstrated the transitional phenomenon to symbolize inner objects for social participation using “song and musical play” as the transitional object.
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In 1965, Mulrey theorized an objectifying “male gaze” as always in the back of one’s mind as something that can be taken on or taken in. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity, I posit an “intersubjective gaze” which offers for the male mutual recognition in the place of mastery. In an an autobiographical sketch, I examine my development as a heterosexual male, focusing on the ways I both submitted to, and pressed against, the pull of “the male gaze,” when considered in oppositon to the “intersubjective gaze.”
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What counts as too close for comfort? How can an entire room suddenly feel restless at the imminence of a yet unknown occurrence? And who decides whether or not we are already in an age of unliveable extremes? The anthropology of intensity studies how humans encounter and communicate the continuous and gradable features of social and environmental phenomena in everyday interactions. Focusing on the last twenty years of life in a Mayan village in the cloud forests of Guatemala, this book provides a natural history of intensity in exceedingly tense times, through a careful analysis of ethnographic and linguistic evidence. It uses intensity as a way to reframe Anthropology in the age of the Anthropocene, and rethinks classic work in the formal linguistic tradition from a culture-specific and context-sensitive stance. It is essential reading not only for anthropologists and linguists, but also for ecologically oriented readers, critical theorists, and environmental scientists.
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Background: Nursing students express fears and anxieties about caring for people with intellectual learning disabilities (ILDs). Educational storytelling interventions may help overcome these concerns and improve nursing care. Method: StoryAid was used and developed in the Heritage-2Health (H2H) Virtual Art and Drama Project. Eight online sessions followed a story about differences and connections. Two trained facilitators and three academic educators supported nursing students (n = 15), adolescents with ILDs (n = 7), their parents (n = 7), and a specialist teacher to deconstruct, reconnect, and rediscover understandings using rights-based ethnographic evaluation and thematic analysis. Results: Themes included relating to the story and characters, participating in the storytelling process, relating to other participants in the storytelling, and relating learning to clinical contexts and professionalism. Conclusion: The partnership of StoryAid and H2H created safe spaces for nursing students to engage, challenge assumptions, and develop relational skills. [J Nurs Educ. 2022;61(X):XXX-XXX.].
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The author offers a critique of Berne’s concept of autonomy and its egocentric, Western-centric, and potentially oppressive ideals. She advocates for homonomy as an addition to autonomy but prefers the terminology of “connection” for its wider meanings, its link to our human hungers, and its simple and accessible language. She suggests transactional analysts from all fields pay attention to our interdependence and aim for greater connection with self, other, the environment, and the transpersonal, for which autonomy does not fully account. Examining the concept of connection from a relational approach and linking it with contemporary interpersonal neurobiology, the author highlights the importance of connection in relationship and with the environment for the development of the brain and a cohesive self. Using psychotherapy client vignettes, she illustrates how a relational approach to all modes of time structuring can be a pathway into deeper connection and transformation for the client, the practitioner, and the wider world.
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A total of 100 3–4 mo old infants in 2 experiments were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: one group was first presented with temporally synchronous auditory and visual signals during habituation trials and then nonsynchronous signals during recovery; the other groups received the opposite sequence. The auditory and visual signals were spatially congruous in Exp I, but were separated in Exp II. Since the pulse rate of the visual stimuli was changed for the nonsynchronous trials, a control group was tested that received only the light during habituation and recovery trials. The groups initially presented synchronous signals showed habituation and recovery. Neither group presented nonsynchronous stimuli showed recovery. The group with the spatially separated sources habituated, while the group with the spatially congruous signals did not. Results suggest that infants coordinate the temporal relations. (French abstract) (12 ref)
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40 3-year-olds participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing the relationship between peer competence and 2 antecedent variables, the security of the attachment relationship with the mother and the amount of experience with peers. Security of attachment was assessed through a home visit, the laboratory-based "strange situation," and a standardized maternal-attitude scale. The mother's report was used to estimate amount of experience with peers. Peer competence was assessed from the subjects' behavior in a familiar laboratory playroom with an unfamiliar same-age, same-sex playmate. Security of attachment as assessed at home was highly positively correlated with peer experience. Partial correlations showed that security of attachment was correlated only with nonverbal measures of peer competence, whereas peer experience was correlated only with verbal measures. It was concluded that security of attachment and peer experience were related to different aspects of peer competence. A separate analysis showed that maternal attitudes toward the child's expression of aggression and freedom to explore were significantly correlated with the measures of peer competence.