ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Emotional labor is the display of expected emotions by service agents during service encounters. It is performed through surface acting, deep acting, or the expression of genuine emotion. Emotional labor may facilitate task effectiveness and self-expression, but it also may prime customer expectations that cannot be met and may trigger emotive dissonance and self-alienation. However, following social identity theory, we argue that some effects of emotional labor are moderated by one's social and personal identities and that emotional labor stimulates pressures for the person to identify with the service role. Research implications for the micro, meso, and macro levels of organizations are discussed.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity
Ashforth, Blake E; Humphrey, Ronald H
Academy of Management. The Academy of Management Review; Jan 1993; 18, 1; ABI/INFORM Global
pg. 88
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... Employees that perform emotional labour, sometimes referred to as emotional work, must express feelings that the organization wants to see (Ashforth & Hymphrey, 1995;Brinder, 1999). The idea of "emotional labour" is based on an act of expressing feelings that are deemed to be acceptable by society (Ashforth & Hymphrey, 1993). When people attempt to restrain their emotional outbursts from comporting themselves in a way that is consistent with the expectations of their employer, this is when employees are connected with mental work. ...
... Real actions taken by workers in response to their needs are also taken into account (Chua & Murrmann, 2006, p.1182, as are naturally arising emotions that follow the rules of expression. It takes little effort to experience naturally occurring feelings (Ashforth & Hymphrey, 1993). They also achieve an emotional balance of intended and real emotions (Zapt, 2002). ...
... Last but not least, sincere labour improves psychological well-being (Cheung & Lun, 2015;Hu et al., 2017;Zapt, 2002). Additionally, a large body of research (Ashforth & Hymphrey, 1993;Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002;Dall'Ora et al., 2016;Hochschild, 1983;Kinman & Leggetter, 2016, p. 2013Vermaak et al., 2017) demonstrated the effect of emotional labour on psychological well-being. For patients to take a more objective perspective in their efforts to change, doctors should constantly report on the objectives and results of their initiatives. ...
... Emotional labour is resource-consuming (i.e. "labour"; Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993;Hochschild, 1983). This implies that service employees need resources accessible to regulate their emotions when interacting with customers (Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2013). ...
Article
Service employees’ surface acting is exhausting, but it is unclear if exhaustion appears instantly after a single service episode. Moreover, evidence regarding the reversed causality in which exhaustion predicts surface acting is scarce and unequivocal. Our experience-sampling study investigates dynamic reciprocal relations between service employees’ exhaustion and surface acting, and additionally deep acting, across two service episodes, the first one of the day and the last one before lunchtime. Drawing on conservation of resources theory, we hypothesised that exhaustion is an antecedent of episode-specific surface acting and that episode-specific surface acting is an antecedent of exhaustion directly following the service episode. During five days, 120 service employees answered three daily surveys between morning and lunchtime. Multilevel path analysis showed that exhaustion before work was not related to first-episode surface acting. First-episode surface acting was positively related to subsequent exhaustion, which was positively related to subsequent surface acting, which was positively related to subsequent exhaustion. Exhaustion experienced after the first service episode was also positively related to subsequent deep acting. Findings highlight the importance of integrating reciprocal relations between exhaustion and surface acting into the emotional labour literature and studying the direct well-being costs of surface acting in single service episodes.
... In social professions, where emotional costs are not compensated by immediate customer satisfaction and appropriate salary, emotional work occurs in many areas of experience. It certainly exceeds only the management of one's expression, which is a mighty burden for the employee (Ashforth & Humprey, 1993). In the case of a teacher, the specificity of emotional work results from relations with students, the complexity of teaching, and the school's culture (Ogbona & Harris, 2004). ...
Article
This article reports on data gathered during research on teachers’ emotional work. The author developed the Teacher Emotional Labour Scale (TELS) based on the verified theoretical model. The model is twofold and consists of intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions of emotional labour. The research took place in public schools. The gathered data indicates that surveyed teachers developed different strategies for working with emotions. They use both deep and surface work. 1/3 of them declared not coping with work-related emotions, which has personal and interpersonal consequences.
... 情绪劳动是指员工根据组织要求,在工作情境中主动对自己的情绪进行管理,以表达出恰当的情绪 的过程 (Hochschild, 1983)。情绪劳动最初是作为服务行业的一种现象被研究者关注的,但是随着研究的 深入 (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993 ...
... Scholars with this approach suggest that emotional labor has both behavioral and psychological aspects, and its influencing variables can be divided into three dimensions: individual, contextual, and organizational. Individual factors refer to workers' preference and tendency to express emotions; contextual factors refer to specific events, scenes, and the environment in work; organizational factors include the organizational system and culture (Ashforth and Humphrey 1993;Grandey 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of emotional labor, originating from the institutional background of the Western social and cultural system, is committed to criticizing the emotional management and emotional alienation of service workers under capital discipline. This paper introduces the construction of social relations with acquaintances typical in Chinese rural society into the analytical framework. It presents a Chinese model of automatized emotional labor, different from the model of commercialized emotional labor, by analyzing the emotional model acquisition in the professional development process of domestic workers and the mechanisms of formation, maintenance, and reproduction of the model in the labor process. In the new model, consumers (customers) and workers are equal and mutually beneficial interactive subjects, and emotional labor is no longer the spear of capital but instead becomes a shield for workers against challenges in the labor process. Therefore, this paper puts forward a theoretical reflection on consumers–workers under the model of commercialized emotional labor.
Article
Employing conservation of resources (COR) theory, this research examined how emotional labor influences employees’ job performance by testing a serial mediation moderation model. We propose job anxiety and quality of work-life (QoWL) as explanatory mechanisms in the emotional labor–job performance relationship, and Islamic work ethic as a coping mechanism between job-related anxiety and quality of work-life. To test our proposed hypotheses, the data was collected from 211 service sector supervisor-subordinate dyads in a three waved time-lagged study. Results elaborate that service employees who suffer from resource depletion due to emotional labor and job-related anxiety can still enjoy a better quality of work-life and deliver well at their workplace when they possess a stronger Islamic work ethic.
Article
Purpose: The increasing diversity among workforces - as well as the increasing diversity among patient populations served - offers a variety of opportunities and potential pitfalls for healthcare organizations and leaders. To unravel this complexity, the authors aim to holistically understand how to maximize provider and patient experiences regardless of (1) the degree to which diversity is present or lacking, and (2) the type(s) of diversity under consideration. Design/methodology/approach: This conceptual paper develops a framework that combines three organizational behavior theories - emotional labor theory, similarity-attraction theory and climate theory - with evidence from the broader healthcare literature. Findings: Authentic interactions yield positive outcomes for providers (i.e. improved job attitudes and work-related well-being) and patients (i.e. patient satisfaction) and acts as a mediator between demographic diversity and positive outcomes. Demographic similarity facilitates authentic interactions, whereas demographic diversity creates an initial barrier to engaging authentically with others. However, the presence of a positive diversity climate eliminates this barrier. Originality/value: The authors offer a conceptual model to unlock positive outcomes - including reduced absenteeism, better morale and improved patient satisfaction - regardless of the level and types of diversity present within the workforce. In addition to deriving an agenda for future research, the authors offer practical applications regarding how diversity can be more effectively managed and promoted within healthcare organizations.
Article
The emotional dimensions of a coach’s activity have been few analyzed in sport psychology. However, an elite coach usually experiences intense emotions requiring real emotional labor, which can influence the daily activity. The notion of emotional labor, stemming from sociology, is increasingly used in a psychological setting to understand the impact of emotions on the coach’s activity. Based on a collaboration of three consecutive seasons during the Covid-19 pandemic with an elite handball coach, this article formulates recommendations for revaluing the place of emotional labor in the practice of sport psychology.
Chapter
The changeover from one type of economy to another is seldom perceptible at the time it occurs. In advanced societies, services activities represent up to two-thirds of national product (figure 1-1). They have supplanted industry in the role of engine of growth. But this phenomenon has almost gone unnoticed by economists or governments up to now, and it remains largely unexplained. In classical economic theory, services were considered to be unproductive.1 This point of view influenced the methods of analysis of production as well as statistical research, so that very few researchers were interested in the activities of services as sources of value, and the data available on these activities remained scant and fragmentary.2 The concepts devised to explain the production of goods cannot necessarily be applied to the nonmaterial production of services. Two questions arise which this book tries to answer: what is it that constitutes the essential element of a service as a product and how can one assess the value of the latter?
Article
Clients of service organizations have important roles to perform in creating services. Yet, comparatively little attention has been directed at the participation of clients in complex and demanding client performance domains. In this paper, clients are viewed as "partial" employees and (1) a model of client involvement stages is proposed, (2) role definition and control for clients in complex service creation are discussed, and (3) attention to issues that emerge from this discussion is encouraged.