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Animation and the Role of Map Design in Scientific Visualization

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Abstract

Scientists visualize data for a range of purposes, from exploring unfamiliar data sets to communicating insights revealed by visual analyses. As the supply of numerical environmental data has increased, so has the need for effective visual methods, especially for exploratory data analysis. Map animation is particularly attractive to earth system scientists who typically study large spatio-temporal data sets. In addition to the "visual variables" of static maps, animated maps are composed of three basic design elements or "dynamic variables"–scene duration, rate of change between scenes, and scene order. The dynamic variables can be used to emphasize the location of a phenomenon, emphasize its attributes, or visualize change in its spatial, temporal, and attribute dimensions. In combination with static maps, graphs, diagrams, images, and sound, animation enhances analysts' ability to express data in a variety of complementary forms.
... At present, passengers' demand for real-time information visualization is also increasing [34,35]. With the popularization of intelligent bus stop boards at this stage, high-resolution interactive screens are widely used in many travel scenarios. ...
... With the addition of dynamic real-time information of buses, passengers often make targeted adjustments and use sequence searching to prioritize the number of buses to enter the stop [40]. Obviously, on the one hand, the dynamic presentation of real-time information makes information prompts and information comprehension more intuitive, and makes it easier to attract the attention of passengers so that they can understand the current state of the bus [34,[41][42][43]. On the other hand, it increases the visual complexity of the information interface, which in turn leads to an increase in task completion time, and results in some negative emotional evaluations [44]. ...
... The impacts of the two methods on search performance and cognitive load need to be studied. The highlight flashing method was used for reminding, and the parameters such as the flashing frequency were reasonably optimized according to the large-screen animation design [34,43]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of different design methods of bus route maps and dynamic real-time information on the bus route map search efficiency and cognitive load. A total of 32 participants were tested through an experiment of destination bus route searching, and the NASA-TLX scale was used to measure their cognitive load. Two route map schemes were designed according to the research purposes and application status. One was a collinear bus route map with geographic location information based on a realistic map, the other was a highly symmetric straight-line collinear bus route map without map information, and two different types of dynamic real-time information reminder methods were designed (the dynamic flashing of the number of the bus entering the stop, and the dynamic animated flash of the route of the bus entering the stop). Then, four different combinations of the bus route maps were used for testing through the search task of bus routes available for bus destinations. The results indicated no significant difference in the search efficiency between the map-based bus route map and the linear bus route map, but the cognitive load of the map-based bus route map was higher than that of the linear route map. In the presentation of dynamic real-time information, neither the search performance nor the cognitive load of the dynamic flashing of the route of the bus entering the stop was as good as those of the flashing of the number only of the bus entering the stop. In addition, it was found that, compared with men, the cognitive load for women was more affected by geographic information. The optimization strategies of the bus route map information design were proposed by the comprehensive consideration of the feedback of route maps and real-time information.
... It is supposed to provide a better visualisation and understanding of process as compared to static maps (Peterson 1994, Block et al. 1999). The change can be a time evolution or not (Armenakis 1991, Dibiase et al. 1992, Dorling 1992, Omerling 1995et Kraak 1999. Changes which are not related to time can be modification of scale, modification of projection, 3-D animation etc. (Gersmehl 1990, Peterson 1993, Moellering 1980). ...
... With interactive maps, it is offered a network of possibilities (possibly infinite) where the reader has to make pro-active choices and decisions. The possibility to modify the current map (Dibiase et al. 1992) give to the user a freedom but also a responsability in the building of the map. This is crucial as we have noticed through the ESPON survey that policy makers are generally less able to control the production of maps than researchers and are generally in a passive situation. ...
... In addition, to taking cartographic aspects into account, the basic graphic factors should also be observed, as the map is a graphic end product, either in printed or interactive form. Therefore, a properly constructed map brings the user (both in cartographic and graphic terms) closer to understanding the depicted phenomenon, so the processes can be easy to understand (DiBiase et al., 1992). ...
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The 8th edition of the International Conference on Cartography and GIS (8ICC&GIS) will take place in Nessebar, Bulgaria. It was postponed twice due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The conference is organized by Bulgarian Cartographic Association and University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG) in Sofia. The event is organized with the support of the Bulgarian Science Fund and Military Geographic Service. The 8ICC&GIS is dedicated to the 80th Anniversary of the University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy and 10thAnniversary of the Bulgarian Cartographic Association The conference was planned for 2020 and the pandemic was a serious obstacle for its realization. Nevertheless, the organizing committee decided Proceedings Vol. 1 to be published in 2020 and Vol. 2 in 2022. For the second time of the Conference’s history, the ancient seaside town of Nessebar will host the Conference from June 20th until June 25th, 2022. It is one of the major seaside cities on the southern Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Due to the city’s abundance of historic buildings, UNESCO included Nessebar in its list of World Heritage Sites in 1983. The organizers aim is to share knowledge and experience regarding the latest achievements in Cartography and GIS with a special focus on the Balkan Peninsula, Europe and global affairs. In Volume 2, you could find various topics such as development of cartography as a science and practice: from special use of historical maps to sustainable development, from BIM to GNSS and Lidar technologies, from geoscientific communications and geodiversity to velocity and dynamic maps. You will find more topics related to the web-based maps and information systems, digital atlases, mapping for natural disasters, earth observation, GIS, Covid-19, 3D cartography, and smart cities.
... Notably, this proposed set of variables was based on Bertin's reasoning and intuition as a cartographer, as opposed to being "evidence-based" but have found hold as a core concept not only as a tool for mapmaking, and recently also captured the interest of information visualization [Car03]. 4 They have since been extended to include dynamic [DiB+92] and three-dimensional variables [Rau+15], bringing that set closer to alignment with Munzner's visual channels and even the preattentive visual features [HE12] from research in visual perception. 4 It is also interesting to note that in information visualization expert Tamara Munzner's work [Mun14] these are called visual channels, rather than variables, even when referencing Bertin's work, and her list of these channels is not quite the same: compare Figure 2.2 in the above section on visual perception. ...
Thesis
Geospatial urban data encompasses a plethora of thematic layers, and spans geometric scales reaching from individual architectural elements to inter-regional transportation networks. This thesis examines how immersive environments can be utilized to effectively aid in visualizing this multilayered data simultaneously at various scales. For this, two distinct software prototypes were developed to implement the concepts of multiple coordinated views and focus+context, specifically taking full advantage of the affordances granted by modern virtual reality hardware,while also being suitable for augmented reality. Of the two novel methods introduced here, one — an optimized, vertical arrangement of map layers — was formally evaluated in a con- trolled user study, and the other — a geometric projection approach to create panoramic focus+context views — informally through feedback from domain experts who tested it. Both showed promising results, and especially the formal study yielded valuable insights into how user characteristics can influence the perceived usability of such visualization systems and their performance.
... La cartographie de CK-Cartography est entièrement basée sur des variables statiques. Cependant, dans le contexte des MOOCs, les variables ne sont plus statiques vu qu'un apprenant, par exemple peut alterner entre les trois classes de décision, il peut de même changer son emplacement, etc. Pour cela, nous envisageons proposer une cartographie basée sur CK-Cartography mais qui soit dynamique en fonction de plusieurs variables (Saulnier et al., 2006 ;DiBiase et al., 1992). Un autre défi que nous allons rencontrer dans ce cas, est la taille de la cartographie. ...
Thesis
La thèse aborde la problématique de transfert de connaissances dans les environnements médiatisés à l'ère de la massification de données. Nous proposons une méthode d'aide à la décision multicritère MAI2P (Multicriteria Approach for the Incremental Periodic Prediction) pour la prédiction périodique et incrémentale de la classe de décision à laquelle une action est susceptible d'appartenir. La méthode MAI2P repose sur trois phases. La première phase est composée de trois étapes : la construction d'une famille de critères pour la caractérisation des actions ; la construction d'un ensemble des “Actions de référence” représentatif pour chacune des classes de décision ; et la construction d'une table de décision. La deuxième phase s'appuie sur l'algorithme DRSA-Incremental que nous proposons pour l'inférence et la mise à jour de l'ensemble de règles de décision suite à l'incrémentation séquentielle de l'ensemble des “actions de référence”. La troisième phase permet de classer les “Actions potentielles” dans l'une des classes de décision en utilisant l'ensemble de règles de décision inféré. La méthode MAI2P est validée sur un contexte des MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) qui sont des formations en ligne caractérisées par une masse importante de données échangées entre un nombre massif d’apprenants. Elle a permis la prédiction hebdomadaire des trois classes de décision : Cl1 des “Apprenants en risque” d'abandonner le MOOC; Cl2 des “Apprenants en difficulté” mais n'ayant pas l'intention d'abandon ; et Cl3 des “Apprenants leaders” susceptibles de soutenir les deux autres classes d'apprenants en leur transmettant l'information dont ils ont besoin. La prédiction est basée sur les données de toutes les semaines précédentes du MOOC afin de prédire le profil de l'apprenant pour la semaine suivante. Un système de recommandation KTI-MOOC (Recommender system for the Knowledge Transfer Improvement within a MOOC) est développé pour recommander à chaque “Apprenant en risque” ou “Apprenant en difficulté” une liste personnalisée des “Apprenants leaders”. Le système KTI-MOOC est basé sur la technique de filtrage démographique et a l'objectif de favoriser l'appropriation individuelle, des informations échangées, auprès de chaque apprenant
... Spatio-temporal data include data classifications according to changes occurring over time [39,40]. One can distinguish existential changes (disappearance/appearance), spatial property changes (visual variables), or thematic property changes (increase/decrease). ...
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Animated cartographic visualization incorporates the concept of geomedia presented in this Special Issue. The presented study aims to examine the effectiveness of spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on animated choropleth maps. In a controlled laboratory experiment with participants and eye tracking, fifteen animated maps were used to show a different spatial patterns and temporal trends. The participants’ task was to correctly detect the patterns and trends on a choropleth map. The study results show that effective spatial pattern and temporal trend recognition on a choropleth map is related to participants’ visual behavior. Visual attention clustered in the central part of the choropleth map supports effective spatio-temporal relationship recognition. The larger the area covered by the fixation cluster, the higher the probability of correct temporal trend and spatial pattern recognition. However, animated choropleth maps are more suitable for presenting temporal trends than spatial patterns. Understanding the difficulty in the correct recognition of spatio-temporal relationships might be a reason for implementing techniques that support effective visual searches such as highlighting, cartographic redundancy, or interactive tools. For end-users, the presented study reveals the necessity of the application of a specific visual strategy. Focusing on the central part of the map is the most effective strategy for the recognition of spatio-temporal relationships.
... Indeed, data visualization has three main goals: provide insights into a complex situation for the researcher, help verify insight validity and communicate the discoveries to a larger public (C. Chen, 2010), (DiBiase et al., 1992). Data visualization and the quite similar field of information visualization dedicated to abstract data both make use of computer capabilities to propose systematic ways to visualize data and information (Card, 1999). ...
Thesis
Diabetes as a chronic disease requires continuous medical care and constant patient self-management which involve several stakeholders to improve health outcome. This manuscript makes use of World Wide Web network analysis to highlight how stakeholders, providing information about online diabetes communities, link to each other. Thanks to combined state-of-art tools to crawl and visualize topic-sensitive networks, we created DiaMap which includes 430 diabetes-related websites. Then we apply a community detection algorithm of DiaMap. In the end, a color map is associated to the 5 discovered communities class are presented. For better understanding the common interest shared by the same clusters, each website in DiaMap has been annotated using semantic tags. After we employing the machine learning to study which combinations of tags can predict or explain the clusters, we found the community can have a tagging scheme occasionally but it is still hard to use semantical approach to predict accurately the clusters. Last but not least, DiaMap can enrich and complete information retrieval on diabetes based on the current serach engines. We evaluate this though comparing the results provided by querying DiaMap and 4 traditional Search Engines with 5 given questions. DiaMap presents the map-like information visualization of diabetes-related websites to show the picture of diabetes in a digital world. Different from traditional search engines, DiaMap presents the whole picture and uses tags to identify the relevant websites. It somehow changes the way of navigating online diabetes information and could be an alternative or complementary way to retrieve the information online.
... Isoline/surface maps were followed by choropleth maps (11; 27%) and dot maps (8; 20%), with choropleth maps more common for country/state scale mapping of country-based impacts and dot maps more common for county/city scale mapping of point-specific social/economic infrastructure and related impacts. Broadly, these pairings of visualization technique to data type largely follow cartographic conventions: isoline/surface maps evoke a metaphor of smooth and continuous phenomena and therefore are recommended for environmental and geophysical phenomena like air temperature or precipitation; choropleth maps evoke a metaphor of abrupt and discontinuous phenomena and therefore are recommended for governmental activities, policies, and regulations fixed to political jurisdictions such as country-based impacts; and dot maps evoke a metaphor of discrete and smooth phenomena and therefore are recommended for social phenomena such as economic impacts [54]. ...
Article
Interactive and web-based data visualizations are now widely adopted to make climate change information more accessible, actionable, and meaningful. Despite the rapid uptake of such climate visualization tools (CVTs), there is little research on the design considerations that underpin their efficacy in meeting needs for climate change science and communication. To address this gap, we present a framework and comparative analysis of 41 public facing CVTs, assessing their purpose, data content, visual representation, interactivity, and web technology. Our analysis reveals several trends, including a tendency to focus on meteorological datasets over climate impacts, the widespread use of interactive maps for displaying climate data and the growing use of interactive options to promote sharing of results and user configurations. We found that distinguishing CVTs as being either “exploratory” or “explanatory” in their goal was useful in characterizing their visual and interactive complexity. We archived the analysis framework and repository of 41 coded tools on GitHub (available at https://github.com/smlum/climate-vis) to support further analysis and improve the capacity of CVTs to reduce climate change and its impacts.
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