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Abstract

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a pivot upon which students’ achievement turns. We explain how feedback is inherent in and a prime determiner of processes that constitute SRL, and review areas of research that elaborate contemporary models of how feedback functions in learning. Specifically, we begin by synthesizing a model of self-regulation based on contemporary educational and psychological literatures. Then we use that model as a structure for analyzing the cognitive processes involved in self-regulation, and for interpreting and integrating findings from disparate research traditions. We propose an elaborated model of SRL that can embrace these research findings and that spotlights the cognitive operation of monitoring as the hub of self-regulated cognitive engagement. The model is then used to reexamine (a) recent research on how feedback affects cognitive engagement with tasks and (b) the relation among forms of engagement and achievement. We conclude with a proposal that research on feedback and research on self-regulated learning should be tightly coupled, and that the facets of our model should be explicitly addressed in future research in both areas.
... One key element is whether gamification can provide feedback and scaffolding for students and, if so, by which means. Providing feedback for learning activities has long been identified as an important component allowing students to identify gaps and to assess their learning progress [43]. Some experiments [44] have shown that gamified environments where the digital environment itself produces the scaffolds necessary so that students' acquisition of CT skills can be implemented. ...
Article
Computational thinking (CT) skills are becoming increasingly relevant for future professionals across all domains, beyond computer science (CS). As such, an increasing number of bachelor and masters programs outside of the computer science discipline integrate CT courses within their study program. At the same time, tools such as notebooks and interactive apps designed to support the teaching of programming concepts are becoming ever more popular. However, in non-CS majors, CT might not be perceived as essential, and students might lack the motivation to engage with such tools in order to acquire solid CT skills. This paper presents a field study conducted with 115 students during a full semester on a novel computational notebook environment. It evaluates computational notebooks and CT skills in an introductory course on information technology for first-year undergraduates in business and economics. A multidimensional evaluation approach makes use of pre- and post-test surveys, lectures, and self-directed lab sessions tracking analytics. Our findings suggest that, in the process of learning CT for non-CS students, engagement in active learning activities can be a stronger determinant of learning outcomes than initial knowledge. Furthermore, gamifying computational notebooks can serve as a strong driver of active learning engagement, even more so than initial motivational factors.
... Eksperimentalno delo je temelj napredka naravoslovnih znanosti in razvoja deklarativnega znanja, ki zajema deskriptivne informacije, kot so dejstva, pojmi, sistemi, sheme trditve, mnenja, razlage (npr. študent razume, kaj je elektroforeza in za kaj se uporablja) … (Butler in Winne, 1995). Podobno lahko z ustnim vrednotenjem znanja učinkovito preverimo ter ocenimo znanje in uporabo ustreznega naravoslovnega izrazoslovja, saj je naravoslovni jezik specifičen in njegova precizna uporaba v opisovanju naravoslovnih procesov zelo pomembna. ...
... All in all, self-regulation is a kind of learning which is guided by metacognition (thinking about thinking), strategic action (planning, monitoring, and evaluating personal progress against a standard), and motivation to learn (e.g., Butler & Winne, 1995;Perry, Phillips, & Hutchinson, 2006). Based on this definition, an interrelated network of factors scaffolds the motif of self-regulation; ...
Conference Paper
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We live in an era that communication is very important. Perhaps it is the most salient skills in our life. Through communication people can pass information to others and also can understand what is said to them. This communication can happen through speaking. Afshar and Asakereh (2016) stated that experts assume that the oral communication ability is equal to knowing the given language since speaking is the main means of human communication (Lazarton, 2001). The purpose of this paper is to help EFL learners enhance their speaking abilities through shared leadership which is one of the most important skills of 21st century. Glickman. (2002) stated that leadership for the improvement of classroom teaching and learning is the essential force for making dreams come true. The researchers used the experimental method so as to show and measure the role of shared leadership in improving speaking abilities encountered by intermediate EFL learners at College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. The researchers chose two different groups (experimental and control) of EFL learners who participated as the sample of this study. The results of t-test showed that shared leadership as one of the 21st century skills enhanced the EFL learners’ speaking abilities of experimental group. Then EFL learners can use this skill for enhancing their speaking abilities.
... Although there is some disagreement in the literature, immediate feedback appears to be more effective than delayed feedback (Van der Kleij et al., 2015). Whether feedback should be immediate or delayed seems to depend on individual ability and the task at hand (Butler & Winne, 1995;Mathan & Koedinger, 2002): for higher-order outcomes and low-ability learners, feedback should be given immediately. ...
Article
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E-learning opportunities have become an increasingly important component of university education. Various laboratory studies have shown that e-learning environments can meaningfully enhance learning by incorporating various interventions and design choices (e.g., providing feedback and scaffolds). However, many computer-based interventions have not yet been applied in authentic university courses, raising questions about whether and how the provision of certain forms of feedback works and scales in an applied context. In this paper, we addressed this research gap. Specifically, we investigated whether including an elaborative component (hints) in multiple-try feedback increases student learning in e-learning exercises in an undergraduate statistics course. In one exercise, after completing a statistical problem, one group received feedback that conveyed knowledge about the correct response, while the other group additionally received elaborative feedback in the form of hints. We conducted an experimental comparison of these two types of feedback with third-semester sociology students in the tutorial component of an introductory statistics course. The results show that additional feedback helps students perform better during the session and on a delayed test one week later. Implications for further research and the application of such e-learning environments in university settings are discussed. Keywords Computer-based learning environment · Within-person randomization · Learning outcome · Delayed testing · Panel regression · Statistics in higher education J. Schwerter et al.
... Metacognitive knowledge is essential for effective learning strategies (Wenden, 1998) and is influential to learning outcomes (Choyet al., 2019). Butler and Winne (1995) and Baker andBrown (1984, as cited in Wenden, 1998) argue that metacognitive knowledge is a prerequisite to self-regulation. This is probably because accurate self-assessment is the principal to effective self-regulation (Schoenfeld, 1987). ...
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Call for Papers and Special Issue Proposals Aims and Scope Journal of Language Teaching and Research (JLTR) is a scholarly peer-reviewed international scientific journal published bimonthly, focusing on theories, methods, and materials in language teaching, study and research. It provides a high profile, leading edge forum for academics, professionals, consultants, educators, practitioners and students in the field to contribute and disseminate innovative new work on language teaching and research. JLTR invites original, previously unpublished, research and survey articles, plus research-in-progress reports and short research notes, on both practical and theoretical aspects of language teaching, learning, and research. These areas include, but are not limited to, the following topics: • Language teaching methodologies • Pedagogical techniques • Teaching and curricular practices • Curriculum development and teaching methods • Programme, syllabus, and materials design • Second and foreign language teaching and learning • Classroom-centered research • Literacy • Language education • Teacher education and professional development • Teacher training • Cross-cultural studies • Child, second, and foreign language acquisition • Bilingual and multilingual education • Translation • Teaching of specific skills • Language teaching for specific purposes • New technologies in language teaching • Testing and evaluation • Language representation • Language planning • Literature, language, and linguistics • Applied linguistics • Phonetics, phonology, and morphology • Syntax and semantics • Sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, and neurolinguistics • Discourse analysis • Stylistics • Language and culture, cognition, and pragmatics • Language teaching and psychology, anthropology, sociology • Theories and practice in related fields Special Issue Guidelines Special issues feature specifically aimed and targeted topics of interest contributed by authors responding to a particular Call for Papers or by invitation, edited by guest editor(s). We encourage you to submit proposals for creating special issues in areas that are of interest to the Journal. Preference will be given to proposals that cover some unique aspect of the technology and ones that include subjects that are timely and useful to the readers of the Journal. A Special Issue is typically made of 15 to 30 papers, with each paper 8 to 12 pages of length. A special issue can also be proposed for selected top papers of a conference/workshop. In this case, the special issue is usually released in association with the committee members of the conference/workshop like general chairs and/or program chairs who are appointed as the Guest Editors of the Special Issue. The following information should be included as part of the proposal: • Proposed title for the Special Issue • Description of the topic area to be focused upon and justification • Review process for the selection and rejection of papers • Name, contact, position, affiliation, and biography of the Guest Editor(s) • List of potential reviewers if available • Potential authors to the issue if available • Estimated number of papers to accept to the special issue • Tentative time-table for the call for papers and reviews, including o Submission of extended version o Notification of acceptance o Final submission due o Time to deliver final package to the publisher If the proposal is for selected papers of a conference/workshop, the following information should be included as part of the proposal as well: • The name of the conference/workshop, and the URL of the event. • A brief description of the technical issues that the conference/workshop addresses, highlighting the relevance for the journal. • A brief description of the event, including: number of submitted and accepted papers, and number of attendees. If these numbers are not yet available, please refer to previous events. First time conference/workshops, please report the estimated figures. • Publisher and indexing of the conference proceedings. If a proposal is accepted, the guest editor will be responsible for: • Preparing the “Call for Papers” to be included on the Journal’s Web site. • Distribution of the Call for Papers broadly to various mailing lists and sites. • Getting submissions, arranging review process, making decisions, and carrying out all correspondence with the authors. Authors should be informed the Author Guide. • Providing us the completed and approved final versions of the papers formatted in the Journal’s style, together with all authors’ contact information. • Writing a one- or two-page introductory editorial to be published in the Special Issue.
... Peer assessment is understood as more than only a grading procedure, but it is also envisaged as a teaching strategy since engaging in the process develops both the assessor and assessor's skills and knowledge (Li, Liu, & Steckelberg, 2010). Feedback that students are asked to provide can confirm existing information, identify or correct errors, provide feedback on process, problem solutions or clarity of communication (Butler & Winne, 1995). ...
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The study sought to find out teachers' perception of authentic assessment techniques practiced in Social Studies lessons in Senior High Schools (SHSs) in Ghana. The study used a descriptive case study design. A sample of twenty (20) teachers and ten (10) senior high schools were selected for the study. A semi-structured interview was the main instrument used for data collection. The results indicated that authentic assessment, as a classroom assessment strategy, does have a place in SHSs in the Central Region of Ghana. The teachers in this study perceived that the form of authentic assessment used in their classrooms was limited by policies, time, resources, and assessment methods employed by their schools. These policies affect their use of this assessment method because the subject is a core in the SHS. Regular in-service training and capacity-building workshops on classroom assessment should be organized for these SHS teachers to improve their use of assessment as a tool to enhance teaching and learning.
... Additionally, instructors could provide opportunities for students to reflect on their coursework by focusing on the learning process rather than exclusively on the content or outcomes themselves, thereby engaging students in reflexive and adaptive thinking. Instructors may also provide direct and immediate feedback, a core mechanism of self-regulated learning that positively impacts academic achievement (Butler & Winne, 1995). In other words, feedback has the power to help guide students' learning by providing explanations and rationales as to whether they were correct, which allows students to know what they know or what they do not know. ...
Article
Metacognition refers to the critical awareness of or ability to monitor, regulate, control, and sequence of one's thoughts and performance. There is limited research that examines the relationship between metacognition and (a) academic performance and (b) general cognition among undergraduates. Moreover, there is an even greater paucity of literature that focuses more specifically on undergraduate biology students’ neural activity in relation to their metacognition. This study aimed to examine the relationship between undergraduate life sciences students' metacognitive calibration, i.e., their capacity to self-evaluate their own performance, and their behavioral performance and brain activity during a biological error reasoning task. Thirty-four undergraduate students (Mage= 19.47, 85% female) from a Midwestern university completed a model reasoning task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Two distinct groups of students with individual differences— Calibrated and Non-Calibrated—emerged based on the match of their task accuracy to their self-reported confidence in their accuracy. General patterns indicated that participants tended to overestimate their performance. Findings indicated that task accuracy was associated with stronger activation in the left middle frontal gyrus when evaluating correct models. Additionally, students in the Calibrated group showed higher levels of activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus on trials they were confident on in the model evaluation task than students in the Non-Calibrated group. These results suggest that students in the Calibrated group are better at recognizing the need for effortful and strategic reasoning during trials that demand error detection and that they, therefore, deploy PFC during these trials. These findings also highlight metacognition, and specifically students' self-monitoring, as a core target for STEM educators to promote effective reasoning, as well as a need to nurture and foster metacognition and self-awareness in the classroom. Advisor: Caron A.C. Clark
Method
Students’ steps during recursive problem solving of standard computer science problems (including the computation of the factorial of natural numbers, as well as the computation of the Fibonacci sequence) were recorded in a professional usability lab in form of both audio and video data (among them screencasts). A self-developed feedback prototype and the freely available online tool CodingBat were utilized for the investigation. The data on students’ steps includes their task processing time, interactions, feedback demands and use, so that students' steps in the problem solving process can be qualitatively traced.
Thesis
Being an autonomous learner has been of great interest to researchers. Recently, there has been an increased interest to understand how students as agents of their learning process can develop autonomy in social settings. The Social-Cultural Theory has some answers because particular attention is given to the learner's active role and the social context where learning occurs. Thus, autonomy from this social approach is conceived as a result of the social learning process that contributes to developing it. Therefore, this qualitative study is guided by the Socio-Cultural theoretical approach, and it focuses on how students develop autonomy in social contexts like the Self- Access Centre. By this means, it can be that there is a complex interaction, a non-linear non directional interaction between various social processes that lead students to create and shape different learning networks using elements such as agency, interaction, scaffolding, activities, and the learning environment that contribute to the development of their language learning autonomy. Questionnaires were distributed amongst SAC students to investigate these processes. The respondents were from all the undergraduate university programs. These students attended the facility to improve or to practice their English communicative language skills. Additional research instruments such as videos, recordings, interviews, and observations were used. During a period of five months, the participants were observed working at the SAC. Their actions were video recorded to gain some insight while carrying out the activities in the SAC. Counsellors, part-time teachers, English assistants also responded to questionnaires, interviews explicitly designed for them. Data was analysed using the NVivo 12 and Gephi software. The study results show that, to a certain extent, the learning networks emerge from learners’ interactions that contribute to the development of learning autonomy through a dialogical process of meaning construction with others. The findings corroborated that several elements as agency, scaffolding, interaction, and others are intertwined to build up a structure that acts out as a framework within the activities they carry out exercising their agency. The activities facilitate the interaction between learners enabling them to adapt their learning themselves. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to disclose how learning networks emerge in the interaction process that enables learner autonomy to take place.
Article
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This study analyzes the use of metacognitive knowledge in performing a speaking task between high-proficient and low-proficient university students. The data was collected by employing stimulated recall interviews from 34-first year students. The data was coded deductively by using metacognitive knowledge frameworks. The results showed that the students employed all types of metacognitive knowledge in their speaking. Both high-proficient and low-proficient students prominently manifested strategy knowledge such as vocabulary strategies, planning strategies and problem-solving strategies. However, the high-proficient students were found to use some strategies differently from the low-proficient students. The high-proficient students showed the highest percentage of task knowledge, while the low-proficient students displayed the lowest percentage. The former group clearly showed understanding of the purpose, nature and difficulty of the task, which could influence the task management. Both groups exhibited person knowledge at a low percentage. While the high-proficient students were found to depict knowledge that facilitated their learning and speaking, the low-proficient students were concerned about variables such as limited vocabulary knowledge and grammatical deficiency that inhibited their learning and speaking. The finding implies the importance of raising metacognitive knowledge to accomplish learning tasks.
Chapter
Research and development of instructional computing systems (ICSs) are exploring the frontiers of knowledge in both computing and instructional sciences. While these efforts are slowly advancing knowledge, they have not yet produced practical ICSs that can be readily used in educational settings. I propose a retreat to regions where knowledge is relatively more firmly established, regions I call “merely” state-of-the-art. Specifically, a state-of-the-art ICS would be built on knowledge of computing systems and instruction that is available now rather than on knowledge in the process of being found by research at the frontier. I propose developing a state-of-the-art ICS that teaches learners how to read so that their comprehension exceeds that gained by reading a superior textbook. I sketch a theory of instruction that underlies the instructional features of a state-of-the-art ICS focussed on this objective. Then, I illustrate in “paperware” form what this ICS might look like. I conclude by describing how work at the frontier of ICSs can be advanced by using a state-of-the-art ICS to bootstrap knowledge needed.
Article
In two experiments Canadian university students read challenging passages, each of which was followed by a short-answer or multiple-choice question covering some content in the passage. In the first experiment, each student was asked to read a passage and answer the accompanying question, and then to make a decision whether to move forward (if he or she thought the answer was probably correct) or to look back in the text and try the question again (if he or she believed the response was probably incorrect). As found in previous research, students' monitoring of their reading and rereading was slightly better in the short-answer than in the multiple-choice condition. More striking, however, was the finding that students rarely chose to look back for general, thematic questions (as contrasted with detail questions), even when their answers were incorrect. In Experiment 2, students were asked directly to rate their confidence in their answers to short-answer and multiple-choice questions. As in the first study, students had great confidence that their answers to thematic questions in both short-answer and multiple-choice formats were correct, even when they were wrong. Importantly, students' overconfidence in answers to thematic questions was not related to their verbal ability. The authors conclude that when adults read challenging, inconsiderate texts, they may often be unaware of gross comprehension problems. Future research is necessary to determine how common such serious misperceptions are among adults. /// [French] Au cours de deux expériences, des étudiants de niveau universitaire devaient lire de courtes textes présentant un certain niveau de difficulté, chacun étant suivi de deux types de questions: (a) questions à court développement; (b) questions à choix multiples. Au cours de la première expérience, chaque étudiant lisait d'abord un des textes puis était invité a répondre aux questions qui suivaient; il devait ensuite décidé s'il poursuivait sa lecture ou s'il relisait le texte selon qu'il avait le sentiment d'avoir compris ou non. Conformément à des résultats obtenus antérieurement, les décisions des étudiants étaient meilleures aux questions à courts développements qu'aux questions à choix multiples. De façon surprenante, les étudiants décidèrent rarement de relire le texte pour vérifier leur réponse aux questions thématiques par opposition aux questions portant sur des détails, même lorsque leurs réponses étaient fausses. Dans la seconde expérience, les étudiants devaient coter leurs réponses selon une échelle de confiance. Conformément à ce qui a été trouvé dans la première expérience, les cotes aux questions thématiques furent plus élevées que les cotes aux questions de détails même lorsqu'elles étaient fausses. Des corrélations établies entre le niveau de confiance dans les réponses aux questions thématiques et le niveau d'habileté verbale ne furent pas significatives. En conclusions, les auteurs font ressortir le fait que lorsqu'ils sont confrontés à des textes difficiles et plus ou moins bien construits, les adultes ne réalisent pas toujours qu'ils ont des problèmes importants de compréhension. Des études plus poussées seraient nécessaires pour vérifier s'il s'agit là d'un phénomène géneralisé chez les adultes. /// [Spanish] En dos experimentos llevados a cabo entre estudiantes universitarios, se pidió a estos que leyeran pasajes difíciles, seguidos inmediatamente por una pregunta de respuesta corta o una pregunta de opción múltiple que cubría cierto contenido del pasaje. En el primer experimento, se le pidió a cada estudiante que leyera primero un pasaje y contestara la pregunta correspondiente. Al terminar, se le pedía que tomara la decisión de continuar (si creía que su respuesta era correcta), o regresar en el texto e intentar contestar la misma pregunta otra vez (si pensaba que la respuesta estaba incorrecta). Como se había encontrado en investigaciones previas, los estudiantes monitoreaban su lectura mejor en la condición de respuesta corta que en la de opción múltiple. Sorprendentemente, sin embargo, los estudiantes apenas sí elegían regresar al texto para revisar en las preguntas de tema general (en contraste con preguntas detalladas), aún en los casos en que las respuestas eran incorrectas. En el experimento 2, se les pidió directamente a los estudiantes que evaluaran la confianza que sentían en sus respuestas a preguntas de respuesta corta y de opción múltiple. Como en la primera investigación, los estudiantes demostraron gran confianza en que estaban correctas sus respuestas a las preguntas temáticas, tanto para respuesta corta como de opción múltiple, aún cuando, en realidad, estuvieran incorrectas. El exceso de confianza por parte de los estudiantes en sus respuestas a las preguntas temáticas no estaba relacionado con su habilidad verbal. Los autores llegaron a la conclusión que cuando los adultos leen textos difíciles, pueden con frecuencia, dejar pasar desapercibidos problemas graves de comprensión. Se necesita más investigación que determine si tales errores en percepción son comunes entre adultos. /// [German] In zwei experimenten lasen Studenten schwierige Textabschnitte und beantworteten anschließend jeweils eine Kurzantwort-oder Multiple-Choice-Frage, die sich mit einem Teil des Lesestücks befaßte. Im ersten Experiment wurde jeder Student gebeten, zuerst einen Abschnitt zu lesen und die begleitende Frage zu beantworten und erst danach zu entscheiden, ob er/sie weiterlesen soll (wenn er/sie glaubt, daß die Antwort richtig ist) oder im Text zurückgehen und die Beantwortung der Frage noch einmal versuchen soll (wenn er/sie glaubt, daß die Antwort wahrscheinlich falsch ist). In früheren Forschungen war bereits festgestellt worden, daß Studenten das Lesen und Nachlesen bei den Kurzantwort-Fragen etwas besser kontrollierten als bei den Multiple-Choice-Fragen. Überraschenderweise schauten Studenten jedoch kaum noch einmal nach, wenn es sich um allgemeine, thematische Fragen (im Gegensatz zu Detailfragen) handelte-auch dann, wenn die Antworten falsch waren. Im zweiten Experiment wurden Studenten gebeten, das Vertrauen in ihre Antworten zu Kurzantwort- und Multiple-Choice-Fragen unmittelbar einzustufen. Wie bereits in der ersten Studie, so zeigten Studenten auch hier ein großes Vertrauen, daß ihre Antworten zu thematischen Fragen des Kurzantwort- und Multiple-Choice-Formats richtig waren, selbst wenn sie falsch waren. Wichtig dabei ist, daß das übermäßige Vertrauen in Antworten zu thematischen Fragen nicht in bezug zu der verbalen Fähigkeit der Studenten stand. Die Verfasser schließen daraus, daß Erwachsene sich oft nicht über wesentliche Verständnisprobleme im klaren sein dürften, wenn sie schwierige, unbesonnene Texte lesen. Weitere Forschungen sind erforderlich, um festzustellen, ob solche ernsthaften Fehleinschätzungen bei Erwachsenen allgemein üblich sind.
Article
The main purpose of this study was to test the general hypothesis that ongoing computerized procedural facilitation with strategies and writing-related metacognitions during writing improves learners' writing while being helped, as well as leaves a cognitive residue in the form of subsequently improved writing, once that help is removed. Three groups of 20 ninth to eleventh graders participated in the study. One group wrote five essays while being guided by unsolicited continuous metacognitive-like guides presented by a specially designed computer tool (the Writing Partner); a second group received the same guidance but only upon the writer's voluntary solicitation; and the third group received no guidance and wrote with only a word processor (control group). The study's main hypothesis was confirmed with respect to the unsolicited-guidance group which wrote better training essays, showed evidence of having internalized the explicitly provided guidance, and demonstrated significant subsequent improvement in writing when no computerized tool was available anymore. The solicited-guidance group and the control group showed virtually no improvement, and unlike in the unsolicited-guidance group, initially poorer writers continued to lag behind initially better writers.
Article
This article examines unifying factors among diverse problems of understanding in several fields. Certain misunderstandings in science, mathematics, and computer programming display strong structural analogies with one another. Even within one of these domains, however, not all misunderstandings are structurally similar. To explain the commonality and variety, four levels of knowledge are posited: (a) content, (b) problem-solving, (c) epistemic, and (d) inquiry. Through analysis of several examples, it is argued that misunderstandings have causes at multiple levels, with highly domain-specific causes predominant at the “content” level and somewhat more general causes at the other levels. The authors note that education characteristically neglects all but the content level, describe successful interventions at all levels, and urge more attention in education to integration across the levels.