Vaccination strategies to enhance local immunity and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Center for Pulmonary and Infectious Disease Control, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708, United States.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.62). 04/2009; 27(12):1816-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.01.119
Source: PubMed


To determine the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis 10 kD culture filtrate protein (CFP10), and to evaluate strategies that enhance local immunity, we used C57Bl/6 DR4 mice that were transgenic for human HLA DRB1 0401, because CFP10 contains epitopes for DRB1 0401 but not for C57Bl/6 mice. Intramuscular immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding CFP10 elicited production of IFN-gamma by systemic CD4+ T cells, and one intravenous dose of the CFP10-based DNA vaccine coated with polyethylenimine (PEI) stimulated IFN-gamma production by lung CD4+ cells and reduced the pulmonary bacillary burden. We conclude that CFP10 is a potential vaccine candidate and that coating vaccines with PEI enhances local protective immunity to tuberculosis

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Available from: Homayoun Shams, Mar 31, 2014
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    • "PEI has been actively studied as an efficient and inexpensive agent for plasmid DNA delivery [8] [9]. PEI reportedly enhanced the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein 120 antigen [10], Fasciola gigantica fatty acid binding protein [11], and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate protein [12] in mice. The higher immunogenicity of PEI-complexed DNA vaccines could be attributed to increased cellular delivery of the antigen-encoding plasmid DNA and subsequently enhanced expression of the antigen proteins. "
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    ABSTRACT: To improve vaccine delivery, we herein designed a co-delivery system using a protein antigen and its encoding plasmid linked in nanocomplexes via maltosylated PEI (mPEI). Cationic mPEI was electrostatically complexed to a plasmid encoding the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16L1 protein (pHPV16L1), and further complexed to a maltose binding protein (MBP)-fused human papillomavirus type 16L1 fusion protein (HPV16L1-MBP). The HPV16L1-MBP/mPEI/pHPV16L1 complexes were characterized by gel-retardation properties, zeta potentials and sizes. The intracellular co-delivery of protein and plasmid DNA vaccines was significantly higher for mPEI-based triple nanocomplexes than for a simple physical mixture of the proteins and DNA. Moreover, the cellular delivery of plasmid DNA using mPEI-based triple nanocomplexes resulted in higher expression levels comparable to those obtained using dual complexes of mPEI and the plasmid DNA. In vivo, co-immunization of mice with HPV16L1-MBP/mPEI/pHPV16L1 nanocomplexes triggered the highest levels of humoral immune responses among various vaccination groups. Moreover, the mPEI-based nanocomplexes significantly enhanced the number of interferon-γ producing CD8(+) T cells compared with the use of mixed proteins and plasmid DNA. These results suggest that the effective cellular co-delivery of MBP-fused antigen proteins and plasmid DNA using maltosylated PEI-based triple nanocomplexes could enhance the immunogenicity of HPV16L1 vaccines.
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    ABSTRACT: Development of an effective vaccine against tuberculosis hinges on an improved understanding of the human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Work in this area at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler has led to advances in four areas: (1) natural killer cells contribute to innate immunity by lysing M. tuberculosis-infected mononuclear phagocytes, and to adaptive immunity by enhancing the CD8+ T-cell effector function and inhibiting expansion of T regulatory cells; (2) Interferon-gamma plays a central role in resistance to many intracellular pathogens, including M. tuberculosis, and we have identified three transcription factors that bind to the Interferon-gamma proximal promoter and increase Interferon-gamma transcription in live T-cells that are activated by M. tuberculosis antigens; (3) A DNA vaccine that encodes the M. tuberculosis 10fts;kDa culture filtrate protein and the lysosomal integral membrane protein-2 was produced to direct vaccine antigens to the MHC class II processing and presentation pathway. When this vaccine was coated with polyethylenimine and administered to mice, it yielded a remarkably potent pulmonary immune response that reduced the bacillary burden by 90% after M. tuberculosis challenge; (4) The early secreted antigenic target of 6fts;kDa (ESAT-6) is a putative vaccine antigen. We found that high concentrations of this antigen markedly inhibit Interferon-gamma production by T-cells and are working to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Developing methods to enhance NK cell functions that favor protective immunity, increase interferon-gamma transcription, elicit protective pulmonary immune responses and prevent ESAT-6 from inhibiting T-cell function will contribute significantly to development of antituberculosis vaccines.
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