Article

Category Interference in Translation and Picture Naming: Evidence for Asymmetric Connections Between Bilingual Memory Representations

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Abstract

Three experiments are reported in which picture naming and bilingual translation were performed in the context of semantically categorized or randomized lists. In Experiments 1 and 3 picture naming and bilingual translation were slower in the categorized than randomized conditions. In Experiment 2 this category interference effect in picture naming was eliminated when picture naming alternated with word naming. Taken together, the results of the three experiments suggest that in both picture naming and bilingual translation a conceptual representation of the word or picture is used to retrieve a lexical entry in one of the speaker's languages. When conceptual activity is sufficiently great to activate a multiple set of corresponding lexical representations, interference is produced in the process of retrieving a single best lexical candidate as the name or translation. The results of Experiment 3 showed further that category interference in bilingual translation occurred only when translation was performed from the first language to the second language, suggesting that the two directions of translation engage different interlanguage connections. A model to account for the asymmetric mappings of words to concepts in bilingual memory is described. (C) 1994 Academic Press, Inc.

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... Research on bilingual lexical processing has revealed that those retrieval processes are language nonselective, assuming a simultaneous coactivation of L1 and L2 (Kroll et al., 2014). This language nonselective view is also represented in two models that focus on lexical-semantic representations in bilinguals: Kroll and Stewart (1994) Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM), which illustrates language production in bilingual speakers, and the Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (BIA+) model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002), which depicts the bilingual word recognition system. ...
... Hence, L1 knowledge cannot facilitate processing as it does with cognates. With regard to the RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994), the retrieval of meaning of L2 words is mediated via the L1 translation equivalent. For cognate words, thus, access to meaning via the L1 would be facilitated due to the translation equivalents' form overlap. Noncognates, in contrast, would not experience such a form overlap boost (see also Casaponsa et al., 2015). ...
... Although the RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) is a word production model, its fundamental findings regarding language coactivation can be mapped to the current study's word comprehension performance to a certain extent. The RHM proposes that in early L2 learners' word production, the access of meaning proceeds via the L1 translation equivalent until learners have become sufficiently proficient in their L2 to directly access the conceptual mediation route. ...
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We investigated lexical retrieval processes in 4- to 6-year-old German–English bilinguals by exploring cross-language activation during second-language (L2) word recognition of cognates and noncognates in semantically related and unrelated contexts in young learners of English. Both button presses (reaction times and accuracies) and eye-tracking data (percentage looks to target) yielded a significant cognate facilitation effect, indicating that the children’s performance was boosted by cognate words. Nonetheless, the degree of phonological overlap of cognates did not modulate their performance. Moreover, a semantic interference effect was found in the children’s eye movement data. However, in these young L2 learners, cognate status exerted a comparatively stronger impact on L2 word recognition than semantic relatedness. Finally, correlational analyses on the cognate and noncognate performance and the children’s executive function yielded a significant positive correlation between noncognate performance and their inhibitory control, suggesting that noncognate processing depended to a greater extent on inhibitory control than cognate processing.
... The nature of the connections between these lexical and conceptual memory stores was still unclear and at the centre of much debate. Different authors suggested their own view of the interaction between different memory stores, which resulted in the creation of several models of the bilingual memory system (Chen & Leung, 1989;de Groot, 1992;Kroll & Stewart, 1994;Potter et al., 1984). Potter and colleagues (1984) contrasted two models that aimed to explain how people store and process words in their second language. ...
... Since the two above-described models tap into bilingual populations of different L2 proficiency, Kroll and Stewart (1994) merged the two into one larger theory, known as the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM). It has become one of the most important and frequently cited models of bilingual memory representation. ...
... It has become one of the most important and frequently cited models of bilingual memory representation. The Kroll and Stewart (1994) model is in its nature a developmental model focused on the interlanguage connections between the lexical and conceptual representations in the early stages of L2 acquisition (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). ...
Thesis
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The aim of the present thesis is to investigate the source of Stroop (interference) effects in weak bilinguals (Experiment 1) and in early language learning (Experiment 2-6). Participants performed a bilingual colour-word Stroop task with intermixed first language (L1) and second language (L2) words. The typical finding from the Stroop literature is slower and less accurate responding when the word and colour are incongruent (e.g., “red” in blue) relative to congruent (e.g., “red” in red). Interestingly, this congruency effect occurs for the colour words from both L1 and L2. What produces this congruency effect? That is, what is the source of the conflict produced by incongruent colour words? First, stimulus or semantic conflict is a conflict between the meaning of the word and ink colour. Second, response conflict occurs when different response alternatives are activated. Both types of conflict contribute to L1 congruency effects.According to some theoretical accounts on early language learning, only one of these two types of conflict should emerge for non-fluent L2. Stimulus and response conflict are separated with a 2-to-1 keypress dissociation procedure. Both stimulus and response conflict were evidenced for the weakly spoken L2 (Experiment 1; English in native French speakers). In series of L2 word learning studies, participants were trained with novel Croatian colour words associated with their L1 translations and corresponding semantic representations. Word trainings differed in their structure (types of training trials, number of response alternatives), length (from 32 to 576 trials) and to-be-learned word types (colour words, colour associates) across studies. The L2 word trainings were followed by the Stroop task. Stimulus conflict was observed in response times and response conflict in errors for recently learned L2 words (Experiment 4) when optimal training was administered (in contrast to Experiment 2 and 3, with considerably shorter training). However, this approach did not reveal the source of conflict with colour associates, because no substantial L2 Stroop effect was observed for these stimuli (Experiment 5 and 6). The present findings suggest that low proficient L2 words, when trained in adequate conditions, are potent enough to affect semantic identification and response selection.
... In the past, up until around 1998, it was generally though that bilinguals had a separate lexicon for each of their languages (cf. Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Both of these lexicons would contain phonetic, lexical-morphological, and syntactic information-where lexical-morphological information, in literate people, includes orthographic information-and both would be connected to a repository of conceptual representations. ...
... We will return to such cases in more detail shortly. Finally, Kroll and Stewart (1994) proposed that whereas translation from the first language (L1) to the second language (L2) is mediated by conceptual representations, translation from L2 to L1 involves only a direct lexical mapping of the L2 word onto its translation, at least for bilinguals whose L2 proficiency is anything other than very high. This appears not to be the case; ...
... Ultimately, its roots lie even further back in Morton's Logogen model (Morton, 1969). Above, I have already mentioned the RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994; see also Kroll et al., 2010); ...
Thesis
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MA Thesis in which I explore multiple mapping between orthography and semantics in Dutch–English bilinguals using the Multilink model for visual word processing simulation.
... 417). Kroll and Stewart's (1994) revised hierarchical model offers a similar prediction regarding the role of the L1 in the early stage of L2 acquisition, proposing that L2 users are likely to gain access to the L2 word concept Language Learning 00:0, xxxx 2022, pp. 1-37 4 through the lexical link from the L2 word to its L1 equivalents (rather than the direct link between the L2 word and concept) at earlier stages (see Kemp & McDonald, 2021, for a recent study broadly supporting this framework). ...
... In studies based on sociocultural theory (Lantolf, 2006;Vygotsky, 1978), the L1 is known to help lower level learners engage in interactions with others (e.g., peers, teachers), serving as an important medium for collaboration (e.g., DiCamilla & Antón, 2012). The aforementioned psycholinguistic models (Jiang, 2000(Jiang, , 2004Kroll & Stewart, 1994) have proposed that learners with lower L2 proficiency levels would strongly rely on L1 translation or equivalents of a L2 word to gain access to its concept, but that they would do so less with an increase in L2 proficiency level. In view of these studies, it can be hypothesized that a L1 explanation would benefit lower level learners more than their peers with higher level L2 proficiency. ...
... Within a limited timeframe of L2 lessons, L2 teachers often need to decide which language they should adopt for TVLE, and our findings favor the use of L1 input. These findings are in accord with predictions made by psycholinguistic models (Jiang, 2000(Jiang, , 2004Kroll & Stewart, 1994) that point to the "inevitable involvement of a learner's L1 semantic system in L2 [vocabulary] learning" (Jiang, 2018, p. 24). Thus, teachers' L1 input appears to "reduce the learners' cognitive load in noticing and registering the target lexical item" (J. ...
Article
This article reports a meta‐analysis of studies on the effects of teachers’ verbal lexical explanation (TVLE), as one type of lexical focus on form, on second language vocabulary learning. The dataset for this meta‐analysis included 14 studies, representing a total of 36 independent samples (N = 3,304). The results of this study reveal that TVLE resulted in more vocabulary gains than an absence of TVLE, at posttest and delayed posttest. In addition, explanation in the first language was more effective than explanation in the second language at posttest and delayed posttest. We further identified a range of potential moderators that may influence the effects of TVLE. In particular, we found that the overall effectiveness of TVLE was greater when the degree of vocabulary knowledge was measured through recall tests rather than through recognition tests in the long term.
... To design effective FL learning methods, it is first necessary to understand how novel and expert bilinguals manage linguistic processing across languages. According to the Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll & Stewart, 1994), words in the first language (L1 lexicon), the second language (L2 lexicon) and the semantic system of L2 learners are interconnected. However, the weight and use of these connections depends on the fluency of participants in their L2 (De Groot & Poot, 1997). ...
... With regard to the word-translation task, behavioral studies have shown that the performance on this task depends on the translation direction and the L2 fluency of the learners. In particular, less fluent bilinguals translate more rapidly in the backward direction (from L2 to L1) than in the forward direction (from L1 to L2 - Kroll & Stewart, 1994). The better performance in the backward translation is explained by the use of direct lexical connections between the L1 and L2 lexicons while the forward translation would involve additional semantic processing which would slow down the translation process. ...
... As indicated above, many behavioral studies have found that word retrieval is easier in backward translation than in forward translation due to the difficulty associated with semantic processing in L1-L2 translation (e.g., Cheung & Chen, 1998;Finkbeiner & Nicol, 2003;García-Gámez & Macizo, 2019Kroll & Stewart, 1994;Poarch et al., 2014;Sholl, Sankaranarayanan & Kroll, 1995; for a critical review of asymmetry dependent on the translation direction, see Kroll et al., 2010). In electrophysiological terms, an easy retrieval of lexical information would be associated with an attenuation of the N400 component. ...
Article
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An event-related potential (ERP) study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two learning methods for the acquisition of vocabulary in a foreign language (FL). In the semantic method, FL words were presented with pictures denoting their meaning and the learners practiced with a semantic categorization task (to indicate whether FL words were exemplars of a semantic category). In the lexical method, FL words were paired with their translation in the first language (L1) and the learners practiced with a letter-monitoring task (to indicate whether L1-FL words contained a grapheme). A translation task and a picture-naming task were used to evaluate FL acquisition. ERP modulations associated with semantic processing were more evident and broadly distributed in the semantic versus lexical learning group. The pattern of results suggests that a single session of semantic learning favors the establishment of connections between semantics and the words learned in a new language.
... In psycholinguistics and cognitive psychology, translation and its subskills have become the object of inquiry of two sets of studies: (i) experiments on bilingual memory organization, using paradigms such as word reading and word translation with nontranslators (Kroll and Stewart, 1994; for reviews, see French and Jacquet, 2004;Brysbaert and Duyck, 2010;Kroll et al., 2010); and (ii) investigations on the impact of translation expertise on both linguistic and non-linguistic functions (Fabbro et al., 1991;Bajo et al., 2000;Ibáñez et al., 2010;Yudes et al., 2012). Here, we pursue an intersection of both trends. ...
... Reading and translating words are part of everyday linguistic processing for bilinguals. Previous studies have shown that word reading is faster than word translation (Kroll and Stewart, 1994;La Heij et al., 1996). Also, in non-translators, lexical processes are usually faster in the native language (L1) than in the non-native language (L2), although such a difference is attenuated as L2 proficiency increases (Kroll and Stewart, 1994;Sholl et al., 1995;French and Jacquet, 2004). ...
... Previous studies have shown that word reading is faster than word translation (Kroll and Stewart, 1994;La Heij et al., 1996). Also, in non-translators, lexical processes are usually faster in the native language (L1) than in the non-native language (L2), although such a difference is attenuated as L2 proficiency increases (Kroll and Stewart, 1994;Sholl et al., 1995;French and Jacquet, 2004). ...
Article
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Studies on bilingual word reading and translation have examined the effects of lexical variables (e.g., concreteness, cognate status) by comparing groups of non-translators with varying levels of L2 proficiency. However, little attention has been paid to another relevant factor: translation expertise (TI). To explore this issue, we administered word reading and translation tasks to two groups of non-translators possessing different levels of informal TI (Experiment 1), and to three groups of bilinguals possessing different levels of translation training (Experiment 2). Reaction-time recordings showed that in all groups reading was faster than translation and unaffected by concreteness and cognate effects. Conversely, in both experiments, all groups translated concrete and cognate words faster than abstract and non-cognate words, respectively. Notably, an advantage of backward over forward translation was observed only for low-proficiency non-translators (in Experiment 1). Also, in Experiment 2, the modifications induced by translation expertise were more marked in the early than in the late stages of training and practice. The results suggest that TI contributes to modulating inter-equivalent connections in bilingual memory.
... Hierarchical model, Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Importantly, these models of bilingual processing presented below are adapted from pre-existing monolingual models, following the adage that "no model should be left behind" exposed by Kroll, van Hell, Tokowicz, and Green (2010). ...
... The Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM) (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) is a developmental model of word production and translation adapted to late foreign language learners, although it could also account for simultaneous L1 and L2 learning. The architecture of the RHM is presented in Figure 2. It was designed to account for production in both languages through backward, i.e., from foreign language to native language, and forward translations, i.e., from L1 to L2. ...
... The strength of the other links is dependent on the degree of language proficiency. Kroll & Stewart, 1994). ...
Thesis
The contribution of orthography has been reported for learning of low-frequency words in native language (L1; Rosenthal & Ehri, 2008) and of pseudowords (Ricketts, Bishop, & Nation, 2009) by using a paired-associate learning paradigm (PAL). These studies cannot fully account for foreign language (L2) word learning, for which both L2 spoken and written forms have to be linked into a pre-existing concept, which in turn, is already connected to phonological and (sometimes) to an orthographic representation in L1. Besides, L2 learning confronts children to different challenges, such as incongruent letter/sound mapping with L1, due to the larger overlap on written than on spoken modality between languages (Marian et al., 2012). Therefore, this doctoral work aimed to explore the benefit of orthography on L2 word learning in children and to determine whether this advantage was modulated by L1 reading skills. We also sought to determine the moderating effect of incongruent letter/sound mappings with L1 on L2 learning. Using a PAL, we conducted three main L2 vocabulary learning studies by contrasting two learning methods, both simultaneous presentation of spoken and written (orthographic method) vs spoken forms only (non-orthographic method). As for learning phase, we made two groups of children (third vs. fifth graders) learn 16 (Study 1a) or 24 German words (Study 1b, Study 2). As for testing, we assessed learning performance with three main experimental tasks: a forced-choice picture recognition task (choose the correct image corresponding to the spoken form), a go/no-go spoken recognition task (discrimination between spoken German words and close phonological distractors) and an orthographic judgment task (select the correct German written form among three written distractors). We reported a consistent benefit of orthography on all three experimental tasks in both groups, supporting that children relied on written information at early steps of L2 learning. Still, contradictory results were reported for phonological learning in fifth graders, given that the benefit of orthography was only retrieved when increasing the learning load (Study 1b). Interestingly, although fifth graders outperformed the third graders on all experimental tasks, we reported a comparable amplitude for the orthographic facilitation in both groups. Measures of L1 reading skills were not (consistently) correlated with L2 vocabulary learning, supporting that a minimal amount of orthographic knowledge was enough to trigger an orthographic facilitation. A moderating effect of incongruent letter/sound mappings with L1 was restricted to L2 phonological learning, with larger discriminative performance for congruent compared to incongruent L2 words immediately after learning (Study 2), but disappeared after a one-week delay, aiming for a differential time-course for the encoding of congruent and incongruent L2 words, an assumption that was discussed in regards to the ontogenetic model of L2 lexical representation (Bordag, Gor, & Opitz, 2021) and to the L2 lexical fuzziness (Kapnoula, 2021). Study 3 was conducted during an Indoc mobility and explored whether the bilingual advantage on L3 vocabulary learning might be extended to children attending a classroom-immersion to L2 and whether this advantage was reinforced by the cross-linguistic similarities conveyed by cognate words. We reported a generalized advantage and cognate facilitation was restricted to the learning of novel L3 written form. In light of these results, this doctoral work reinforced the need for developmental models of bilingualism to consider the lexical and sublexical processing at early steps of L2 acquisition.
... Extensive studies in psycholinguistics had explored how language learners acquire L2 vocabulary and access these L2 words subsequently, focusing on the dynamic relationship with L1. The Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM; Kroll & Stewart, 1994), an influential model of the bilingual lexicon, proposed that L2 words are linked to L1 words and concepts via between-language lexical connections and conceptual connections, respectively. Studies showed that language learners might preferentially access the L2-concept connections, depending on factors including the learners' L2 proficiency (e.g. ...
... So the critical question is whether the learned specialized vocabulary knowledge in L1 will transfer to L2 learning. One may assume that learning a new concept in L1 might facilitate learners' understanding of the concept in L2 since the concept is shared between L1 and L2 according to the RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). However, empirical evidence supporting such positive transfer is scarce given the limited literature thus far on the learning of specialized vocabulary among bilingual learners. ...
... Each participant was randomly assigned to learn either L1 Chinese or L2 English words on Day 1, and they all learned the same words (or their translation equivalents) again in L2 English on Day 2. They were referred to as the L1L2 group and the L2L2 group respectively. We hypothesized that positive transfer of content knowledge from L1 to L2 would occur due to shared concepts between L1 and L2 (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). The L1 advantage in academic learning (Gablasova, 2014(Gablasova, , 2015Roussel et al., 2017) and potential transfer from L1 to L2 would predict that the L1L2 group would outperform the L2L2 group on Day 2 (i.e. ...
Article
Learners entering higher education may learn specialized vocabulary of new disciplines in their second language (L2) with or without support from their first language (L1). However, these learners cannot rely on an established conceptual representation in L1 when learning L2 specialized vocabulary. The effects of learning a new concept in L1 prior to learning and testing the same concept in L2 are yet unclear. The present study compared the effectiveness of L1-mediation and L2-repetition word learning methods randomly assigned to 75 bilingual adults. Participants learned subject-specific specialized vocabulary through reading a series of definition sentences in two learning episodes a week apart. The L1L2 group ( N = 31) first learned L1 words on Day 1 and then their L2 translation equivalents on Day 2, while the L2L2 group ( N = 44) learned the words in L2 on both days. In each learning session, participants provided self-ratings on their confidence in acquiring word meaning after reading each sentence and completed a word meaning recognition test afterward. Results using linear mixed-effects modeling showed that L1-mediation learning may ease the start of L2 word learning as shown in higher confidence ratings and less reading time, leading to a faster establishment of high-quality conceptual representations. In contrast, L2-repetition learning may strengthen lexical representations and L2-concept connections through increased exposure to L2 words. However, the two learning methods produced comparable results on L2 meaning recognition, so flexible adoption of the learning methods according to the learning goal is suggested.
... According to the revised hierarchical model (Kroll and Stewart, 1994), L1-dominant bilinguals have weaker links between concepts and L2 words, which means that they rely on L1 mediation to access the concepts. However, as they become more proficient in L2, learners can retrieve conceptual information directly from the L2 lexicon. ...
... These children may have been proficient enough in Norwegian to learn new words in L2 and understand the story even after hearing it only twice in Norwegian. This finding is in line with the theory that suggests a shift or a milestone occurring around two years into the L2 learning process (Cummins, 1981b;Kroll and Stewart, 1994). Moreover, the picture books were written in simple language, which is why they may have been relatively easy to understand for the participants when read in L2, particularly for children more proficient in Norwegian. ...
Article
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Reading picture books in the first language (L1) before rereading them in the second language (L2) is assumed to be beneficial for young dual language learners (DLLs). This pilot study examined how sharing digital picture books in L1 or L2 at home before reading them in L2 in kindergarten affected L2 book-specific vocabulary learning and story comprehension. Participants were 14 three-and four-year-old children who spoke Polish at home and learned Norwegian as their second language. Even when DLLs were less advanced in L2, reading first in L1 was not advantageous for L2 vocabulary learning. Characteristics of caregiver-child interactions during the reading of digital picture books in L2 may explain why home reading in L2 was more beneficial than reading in L1 for less proficient young L2 learners.
... ird, semantic information and syntactic information are connected closely but the phonetic representation is relatively independent. e findings of previous study show that semantic information and phonetic information affects the lexical processing of language comprehension and production [15][16][17][18][19][20]. ...
... Some relevant studies have been conducted. For example, the lexical decision task is used to uncover word or conceptual representation [16]. e semantic categorization tasks are also used in second language lexical acquisition [27,28]. ...
Article
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Part of speech feature is the representation between syntactic morphology and semantic category. Priming effect experiment can test the correlation between the parts of speech feature and the lexical processing process. This article puts forward part of speech representation paradigmatic and syntagmatic effect hypotheses. The experiments applied the design pattern of 3 (part of speech: noun by predicate by nonword) ∗ 2 (interval time: 50 by 500 milliseconds) ∗ 3 (English level: elementary by intermediate by advanced). Subjects are requested to make options of the part of speech of the target words. This study shows that when Chinese English learners extract an individual word, their choices are still influenced by part of speech factor without the restrictions of constructive syntagmatic semantic conditions. Both the syntagmatic and paradigmatic effects are verified. Part of speech priming effect intensity is influenced by the English acquisition levels of the subjects.
... Lexical items from two languages are posited to be connected to shared semantic knowledge, with stronger connections between an early-acquired L1 and the semantic system than between a later-learned L2 and the semantic system (see for example, the Revised Hierarchical Model [RHM]; Kroll et al., 2010;Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Consequently, the name of any single target item in a highly proficient L1, with strong connectivity between the substrates subserving semantic-phonologic knowledge, is more likely to be activated, and therefore require less withinlanguage interference control, than target items in a less-proficient L2. ...
... A second theory suggests that as L2 proficiency increases, structures will merge (known as semantic convergence) resulting in shared mental representations (e.g., Alferink & Gullberg, 2014;van Gomel & Arai, 2018). Thus, models of bilingual language representation, such as the RHM (Kroll et al., 2010;Kroll & Stewart, 1994), can be extended from nouns to verbs since the evidence suggests that verbs, like nouns, are connected in the bilingual mental lexicon (e.g., Prior et al., 2013;Salamoura & Williams, 2007;Schoonbaert, Hartsuiker & Pickering, 2007;van Gompel & Arai, 2018) or even share stronger connections to other verbs and/or to related nouns than nouns do to other nouns (Faroqi-Shah, Kevas & Li, 2021). ...
Article
In multilingual people, semantic knowledge is predominantly shared across languages. Providing semantic-focused treatment to people with aphasia has been posited to strengthen connectivity within association cortices that subserve semantic knowledge. In multilingual people, such treatment should result in within- and cross-language generalisation to all languages, although not equally. We investigated treatment effects in two multilingual participants with aphasia who received verb-based semantic treatment in two pre-stroke highly proficient languages. We compared within- and cross-language generalisation patterns across languages, finding within- and cross-language generalisation after treatment in the less-impaired, pre-morbidly more-proficient first-acquired language (L1). This observation supports the theory that connectivity is greater between the lexicon of a pre-morbidly more-proficient L1 and the shared semantic system than the lexicon of a pre-morbidly less-proficient later-acquired language. Our findings of within- and cross-language generalisation patterns could also be explained by both the Competing Mechanisms Theory and the theory of lingering suppression.
... There is ample evidence that new words are incorporated into an integrated multilingual lexicon that contains all meanings as well as L1 and L2 form representations (Dijkstra, 2007;Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002; van Heuven & Dijkstra, 2010;Kroll & Tokowicz, 2005). There is also evidence that in learning new L2 words, like low frequency L1 words, a form is immediately attached to a meaning (see Stewart, 1994 andJiang, 2000; for contrasting views). Said differently, L2 learning is conceptually mediated (e.g., Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002;Dijkstra et al., 2019;Meade & Dijkstra, 2017). ...
... results, Experiment 2 does not provide any evidence for the second part of this prediction. A possible explanation for this result is that learning in our task was lexically, rather than conceptually, mediated, which would imply little influence from semantics (see Kroll & Stewart, 1994). In light of this view, learners would not have benefited from contrasting the semantically similar words because they predominantly used the form to differentiate them. ...
Article
When learners acquire new words in a second language (L2), their lexical representations and links are initially imprecise. As new, similar words are learned, these representations must become more specific to avoid errors. This study investigated whether contrasting similar words triggers this sharpening process and facilitates learning. In a multiple-choice learning task, 114 adults acquired orthographically and semantically similar L2 (pseudo)words by either contrasting them or not. In Experiment 1, participants contrasted the L2 words, and in Experiment 2 they contrasted words in their first language. Only contrasting orthographically similar L2 words facilitated their acquisition. We conclude that contrasting underspecified representations serves as a learning mechanism that guides attention to relevant lexical information. As such, it enables learners to build more specific representations and is conducive to learning. Possibilities for further research and potential implications for L2 vocabulary instruction are discussed.
... In contrast, if the response language and target language are different, a target word has to be 640 translated (i.e., "marron", brown in French). According to the Kroll and Stewart (1994) model, we should expect 641 faster responding when an L2 target has to be identified in L1, relative to vice versa. This is due to strong lexical 642 links from L2 to L1 that facilitate backward (L2-L1), but not forward (L1-L2) translation, which is assumed to 643 be conceptually mediated (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). ...
... According to the Kroll and Stewart (1994) model, we should expect 641 faster responding when an L2 target has to be identified in L1, relative to vice versa. This is due to strong lexical 642 links from L2 to L1 that facilitate backward (L2-L1), but not forward (L1-L2) translation, which is assumed to 643 be conceptually mediated (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Future research might aim to tease these differences further 644 apart in both priming directions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The congruency (or Stroop) effect is a standard observation of slower and less accurate colour identification to incongruent trials (e.g., "red" in green) relative to congruent trials (e.g., "red" in red). This effect has been observed in a word-word variant of the task, when both the distracter (e.g., "red") and target (e.g., "green") are colour words. The Stroop task has also been used to study congruency effect between two languages in bilinguals. The typical finding is that the congruency effect for L1 words is larger than that for L2 words. For the first time, the present report aims to extend this finding to a word-word variant of the bilingual Stroop task. In two experiments, French monolinguals performed a bilingual word-word Stroop task in which target word language, language match, and congruency between the distracter and target were manipulated. The critical manipulation across two experiments concerned the target language. In Experiment 1, target language was manipulated between groups, with either French (L1) or English (L2) target colour words. In Experiment 2, target words from both languages were intermixed. In both experiments, the congruency effect was larger when the distracter and target were from the same language (language match) than when they were from different languages (language mismatch). Our findings suggested that this congruency effect mostly depends on the language match between the distracter and target, rather than on a target language. It also did not seem to matter whether the language-mismatching distracter was or was not a potential response alternative. Semantic activation of languages in bilinguals and its implications on target identification are discussed.
... In contrast, if the response language and target language are different, a target word has to be 640 translated (i.e., "marron", brown in French). According to the Kroll and Stewart (1994) model, we should expect 641 faster responding when an L2 target has to be identified in L1, relative to vice versa. This is due to strong lexical 642 links from L2 to L1 that facilitate backward (L2-L1), but not forward (L1-L2) translation, which is assumed to 643 be conceptually mediated (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). ...
... According to the Kroll and Stewart (1994) model, we should expect 641 faster responding when an L2 target has to be identified in L1, relative to vice versa. This is due to strong lexical 642 links from L2 to L1 that facilitate backward (L2-L1), but not forward (L1-L2) translation, which is assumed to 643 be conceptually mediated (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Future research might aim to tease these differences further 644 apart in both priming directions. ...
Article
The congruency (or Stroop) effect is a standard observation of slower and less accurate colour identification to incongruent trials (e.g., "red" in green) relative to congruent trials (e.g., "red" in red). This effect has been observed in a word-word variant of the task, when both the distracter (e.g., "red") and target (e.g., "green") are colour words. The Stroop task has also been used to study congruency effect between two languages in bilinguals. The typical finding is that the congruency effect for L1 words is larger than that for L2 words. For the first time, the present report aims to extend this finding to a word-word variant of the bilingual Stroop task. In two experiments, French monolinguals performed a bilingual word-word Stroop task in which target word language, language match, and congruency between the distracter and target were manipulated. The critical manipulation across two experiments concerned the target language. In Experiment 1, target language was manipulated between groups, with either French (L1) or English (L2) target colour words. In Experiment 2, target words from both languages were intermixed. In both experiments, the congruency effect was larger when the distracter and target were from the same language (language match) than when they were from different languages (language mismatch). Our findings suggested that this congruency effect mostly depends on the language match between the distracter and target, rather than on a target language. It also did not seem to matter whether the language-mismatching distracter was or was not a potential response alternative. Semantic activation of languages in bilinguals and its implications on target identification are discussed.
... While BiLex is a neural network model, it is different from deep learning models that require millions of parameters and training examples to construct. Instead it is a constrained model, incorporating principles from the neuroscience and language literature such as multiple maps and connections between them (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). These principles establish biases that make it possible to construct accurate models with training data from only a small number of subjects. ...
... BiLex is a computational model of the mental lexicon in bilinguals, inspired by the Revised Hierarchical Model of Kroll and Stewart (1994). It can predict naming performance accurately in healthy bilinguals given an individual's history of exposure to the two languages . ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Dementia is a common and debilitating condition that typically gives rise to increasing language impairment. There is a need to understand the nature of this impairment further so that therapies may be developed, particularly in the case of bilinguals. This paper extends BiLex, an existing computational model of bilingual lexical access, to simulate language decline in dementia. Six lesion types are evaluated for their ability to reproduce the pattern of decline in the semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) subtype of dementia. Semantic memory lesions reproduce this pattern of decline best in monolinguals, and further suggest patterns that are likely to be found in longitudinal data from bilingual dementia patients in the future.
... 19 Several bilingual studies propose the existence of different types of networks between words present in L1 and L2. 20 Even though the existence of two separate lexicons may be hypothesized, the words in each language forms connections at many linguistic levels: at lemma level, 21 at word form level, 22 and a level wherein the two lexical systems are associated to general cognition. 22,23 Although developmental bilingual studies on lexical knowledge are at the forefront especially in western countries, there exists a dearth of studies done in India pertaining to the same. ...
... 20 Even though the existence of two separate lexicons may be hypothesized, the words in each language forms connections at many linguistic levels: at lemma level, 21 at word form level, 22 and a level wherein the two lexical systems are associated to general cognition. 22,23 Although developmental bilingual studies on lexical knowledge are at the forefront especially in western countries, there exists a dearth of studies done in India pertaining to the same. Several languages and dialects are spoken in the Southern part of India, with the district of Dakshina Kannada being a prime focus, merely because of the multitude of languages spoken in a small geographical area. ...
Article
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Objectives Lexical breadth of knowledge is the quantity of words that the individual knows with regard to vocabulary size of the learner; while lexical depth is the learner's knowledge and mastery level of various semantic relations of a given word. Both measures have been used in the assessment of speaking/writing skills of first (L1) and second (L2) language users. The current study aims to explore the lexical knowledge of typically developing school going bilingual Indian children. Methods Seventy-two Konkani (L1) and English (L2) speaking children (between 5 and 11 years of age) were recruited in the study. The study was performed in three phases. Phase 1 comprised of developing the experimental tasks (lexical breadth and lexical depth); phase 2 included the data collection; and phase 3 focused on data and statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation of the total number of words and total number of different words were analyzed. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance test was done to assess the level of significance ( p < 0.05) across the groups for both tasks. Paired t -test was done to assess the interaction effect between age and language. Results The results indicated an overall increase in lexical breadth and depth across age for L1 and L2. The interaction between the two languages has been discussed in detail. Conclusion The findings of this study may help pave way toward future explorations to address issues pertaining to the complex interaction of L1 and L2 languages in bilinguals.
... In Experiment 1, we compare the two college student groups in order to detect the role of knowing an additional language in two demographically similar groups; one monolingual and the other comprised of English-dominant bilinguals. The latter might take longer to make their judgments than monolinguals because several meanings and semantic schemata are activated simultaneously through both languages (Ayçiçeği-Dinn et al., 2018;Kroll & Stewart, 1994), complicating semantic access. On the other hand, English-dominant bilinguals may be so skilled at suppressing their non-dominant language that they might either show no difference with monolinguals or even show advantages (Bialystok, 2009;Costa et al., 2008Costa et al., , 2009. ...
... We thus expected a difference between our U.S. bilinguals, who are English-dominant, and our Russian bilinguals, who are native Russian speakers and Russian-dominant. For Russians, lexical and semantic access in English could be slower or mediated by Russian (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Therefore, we expected slower reaction times overall from Russians, which we found, and fluency was the main determinant. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding jokes may differ between mono- and bilinguals because of differences in lexical access; fluency and sense of humor may also be relevant. Three experiments examined English-language joke comprehension in monolingual (n = 91) and bilingual (n = 111) undergraduates, Russian–English bilinguals (n = 39), and MTurk monolinguals (n = 77). Participants rated jokes and non-jokes in English as funny or not funny. We assessed the effects of bilingualism, language dominance, fluency, sense of humor, experience, and motivation on response time (RT) and sensitivity ( d ′) in identifying jokes. Bilingualism predicted neither RT nor d ′ in mono- and English-dominant bilingual undergraduates; English fluency predicted d ′. Russians were slower than English-dominant bilinguals but were more not less sensitive to humor. MTurk monolinguals were faster than undergraduates and equally sensitive; sense of humor predicted sensitivity. Overall, humor processing is alternately affected by fluency, sense of humor, and motivation, depending on the population. Bilingualism per se is not a factor.
... An important question following from these findings is how exactly words from different languages are connected at each level of representation (sublexical, lexical, semantic), and whether the nature and strength of these connections change dynamically as a function of relative experience with each language (e.g., Kroll & Stewart, 1994). One of the most direct ways to explore cross-language connections in the bilingual lexicon is to use priming techniques, with prime and target words belonging to different languages. ...
... Although several comprehensive theories have been advanced (see Kroll & Ma, 2017, for review), the two most prominent models of bilingual lexical-semantic processing are arguably the Revised Hierarchical Model (RHM; Kroll & Stewart, 1994;Kroll et al., 2010) and Multilink (Dijkstra et al., 2019), which aims to integrate the tenets of the RHM and the Bilingual Interactive Activation model(s) (BIA/BIAþ; Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002). ...
Article
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A growing consensus sees the bilingual lexicon as an integrated, nonselective system. However, the way bilingual experience shapes the architecture and functioning of the lexicon is not well understood. This study investigates bilingual lexical-semantic representation and processing employing written translation priming. We focus on the role of active exposure to and use of the second language (L2)—primarily operationalized as immersion. We tested 200 highly proficient Spanish–English bilinguals in two groups differing in their societal language (immersed vs. nonimmersed) and amount of L2 use. L2 proficiency was controlled across participants, allowing us to disentangle its effects from those of L2 use. Overall, however, the immersion’s impact on our data was minimal. This suggests a ceiling effect for the influence of active L2 use on bilingual lexical functioning when L2 development is maximal. The present data provide relevant insights into the nature of the bilingual lexicon, informing developmental models.
... The effects of feature-based semantic similarity have also been investigated through picture naming in context (e.g., blocked cyclic naming, continuous naming, naming within categories, Belke et al., 2005;Damian et al., 2001;Howard et al., 2006;Kroll and Stewart, 1994;Schnur et al., 2006). These studies show that people name items from the same category more slowly compared to unrelated items, suggesting that the activation of semantically similar items causes interference in lexical selection. ...
Article
As we age, language reflects patterns of both stability and change. On the one hand, vocabulary and semantic abilities are largely stable across the adult lifespan, yet lexical retrieval is often slower and less successful (i.e., slower picture naming times, increased tip of the tongue incidents). Although the behavioral bases of these effects have been well established, less is known about the brain regions that support these age-related differences. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural basis of picture naming. Specifically, we were interested in whether older adults would be equally sensitive to semantic characteristics, specifically the number of semantic near neighbors. Near neighbors, defined here as items with a high degree of semantic feature overlap, were of interest as these are thought to elicit competition among potential candidates and increase naming difficulty. Consistent with prior reports, pictures with more semantic near neighbors were named more slowly and less accurately for all adults. Additionally, this interference for naming times was larger as age increased, starting around 30 years old. In contrast to the age-related behavioral slowing, the neural basis of these effects was stable across adulthood. Across all adults, a number of language-relevant regions including left posterior middle temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, pars triangularis were sensitive to the number of near neighbors. Our results suggest that although middle-aged and older adults’ picture naming is more slowed by increased semantic competition, the brain regions supporting semantic processes remain stable across the adult lifespan.
... The most widely acknowledged explanatory model 1 was proposed by Kroll and Stewart (1994) and is known as the Revised Hierarchical Model. They stated that learners rely on their L1 to access the concepts when using the L2, especially at the initial stages of acquisition (L1 lexical mediation). ...
Article
The present paper examines lexicon organization and lexical uniqueness through a lexical availability task. Previous research has concentrated on exploring via word association tests how learners organize their L1 and L2 lexicons. Additionally, the closeness between the native and the L2 lexicons are also object of analysis in research. Lexical uniqueness has also been used as a measure to determine “nativeness”. In the present study, we had two groups of Greek B1 and C1 level learners of Spanish FL answer a lexical availability task and compared their results with those of a group of native speakers. We found that proficiency level is crucial in the determination of lexical uniqueness and lexicon organization via lexical associations obtained with a lexical availability task. Furthermore, our results revealed that thematic field is a relevant factor in speakers’ associative behaviour and lexicon organization. Results are discussed in light of previous research findings and pedagogical implications are proposed
... Additional evidence for mid-to-posterior MTG involvement in lexical-semantic retrieval comes from multiple neuroimaging and neuromodulatory studies employing semantic context manipulations in experimental naming paradigms (for a detailed review, see de Zubicaray & Piai, 2019). These include but are not limited to the PWI (Rosinsky et al., 1975), continuous naming (Howard et al., 2006) and blocked cyclic naming paradigms (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). The principal finding is that naming latencies are slower in contexts comprising category coordinates (e.g., exemplars of animals) than in unrelated contexts that comprise exemplars selected from multiple categories (e.g., animals, tools, vegetables, vehicles, etc), an effect termed semantic interference. ...
Preprint
This is a chapter to appear in a forthcoming book on Cognitive Processes of Language Production. For over 150 years, most of our knowledge about the neural organisation of language production has been informed by aphasiology. However, neuroimaging and brain stimulation (i.e., neuromodulation) technologies have contributed considerably to our understanding in recent decades and are increasingly being applied in combination. In addition to contributing to our knowledge about neural mechanisms, these studies have caused us to reconsider the cognitive representations and processes involved, leading to the construction of neurobiologically-informed models of production. This chapter begins with a review of the findings that have contributed significantly to our understanding of the brain’s capacity for spoken, written and signed production. Next, mechanisms of monitoring and cognitive control during production are reviewed. This is followed by an overview of the anatomical connectivity supporting the production system, i.e., its connectome.
... Also, literacy acquisition while speaking a dialect is not directly comparable with literacy acquisition in bilingual children (Lallier et al., 2016), where a direct mapping between spoken L1 and written L2 is typically not possible and where the direct acquisition of spoken L2 is required. Nonetheless, where bilingual children may use graphemephoneme conversion strategies to acquire vocabulary in their less dominant second language (e.g., (Kroll & Stewart, 1994)), dialect speaking children may use a Fig. 1 Direct vs. indirect model of spoken and written language mapping similar method in reading to acquire vocabulary in the standard language. However, studies in bilingual children have also shown that exposure to more than one language may increase metalinguistic skills, such as phonological awareness, in bilingual children ( (Vygotsky, 1962); but see also for some limitations). ...
Chapter
Arabic is considered a classical case of diglossia because conventionally, one form of Arabic is spoken (SA) and another is used in the domain of written language (MSA). In the recent past, globalization of English-based technology, together with the absence of Arabic supporting keyboards, had resulted in the reliance on Latin script as the main writing system when communicating through computers (CMC). This writing was known as ‘Arabizi’, which represents Spoken Arabic (SA). The advent of Arabic supporting software has allowed the writing of SA in Arabic letters, but has not completely eradicated Arabizi. Although the use of Arabizi today is less ubiquitous than it was half a decade ago, its effects on the cognitive processes involved in literacy are scientifically interesting. The present chapter explores the way that Arabizi affected reading, writing, and personal and social dynamics in a sample of Arabic-speaking adolescents in 2014. We focused on three areas of inquiry: The first aimed to provide a description of writing practices, perceptions, and attitudes for the two writing systems, Arabizi and MSA. The second examined literacy skills and abilities in MSA and Arabizi. And the third tried to evaluate the stability of the Arabizi orthography in order to evaluate to which extent it is standardized.
... From bilingualism studies that examine bidirectional transfer between languages, we know that L2 can have an impact on L1 lexicon and semantics (van Hell and Dijkstra, 2002;Pavlenko, 2003) as well as conceptual representations (Shimron and Chernitsky, 1995;Kecskes and Papp, 2003) even in late bilinguals. In understanding bilingual lexicon, the Distributed Feature Model (De Groot et al., 1994) suggests that bilinguals translate concrete words faster than abstract ones (Kroll and Stewart, 1994;Van Hell and De Groot, 1998). This implies that representations of concrete words are shared largely across languages, while representations of abstract words share fewer semantic elements. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the relations between L2-English proficiency and L1-Turkish lexical property evaluations. We asked whether L2 proficiency affects lexical properties, including imageability and concreteness ratings of 600 Turkish words selected from the Word Frequency Dictionary of Written Turkish. Seventy-two participants (L1-Turkish - L2-English) provided ratings of concreteness and imageability for 600 words on a 7-point scale. In order to assess their L2 proficiency, we administered Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV (PPVT-IV). We divided categories into two subcategories as high and low for the frequency, concreteness, imageability, and age of acquisition (AoA). The relationship between these subcategories and imageability-concreteness was examined by mixed effects linear regression analyses. We found that L2 proficiency and imageability ratings were positively correlated and specifically, this positive association was evident for low-frequency words and later acquired words. Results are in line with the interaction of bilingual representation under the dual-coding theory which suggests that bilinguals develop an interconnected imaginal representation for two languages as opposed to separate verbal representations. As L2 proficiency increased, the imageability also increased. These findings have implications for literature investigating the relationship between L2 proficiency and linguistic outcomes. Additionally, findings point to the importance of considering the L2 proficiency of participants when lexical tasks that involve cue words or word lists are used.
... Não há consenso sobre a existência de apenas um léxico, no qual todas as informações das línguas estariam armazenadas integradamente, ou separado, no qual cada língua teria o seu próprio léxico. De acordo com essa divergência, os modelos disponíveis na literatura também abordam diferentes perspectivas.Segundo o Modelo Hierárquico Revisado -RHM (KROLL;STEWART, 1994), por exemplo, acredita-se que as palavras de duas línguas são armazenadas em léxicos separados e que, ao adquirir o vocabulário de uma L2, as palavras podem ser processadas por meio de uma associação direta às da primeira língua (L1) ou por mediação conceitual (TOASSI;MOTA, 2015;TOKOWICZ, 2005). De Bot (2004) e Dijkstra, Grainger e Van Heuven (1999) discutem que há controvérsias quanto ao acesso do léxico mental. ...
Research
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The main objective of the present work was to investigate the effect of knowledge of Pomeranian on lexical access and on the learning of reading cognate words in English. Thus, it was sought to analyze whether a minority language, such as Pomeranian, can bring some benefit in learning English, a majority and hegemonic language in the world.
... The three most influential behavioral models of bilingual language organization all indicate that semantic systems are completely or partly shared across languages. The revised hierarchical model [37], with its focus on lexico-semantic links, and the BIA + model [38], which is focused on orthographic lexical representations, assume there is only one shared semantic system. However, this does not imply that the meaning of every word should be completely identical in every language. ...
Article
In this review, we evaluate the knowledge gained so far about the neural bases of multilingual language processing obtained mainly through imaging and electrical stimulation mapping (ESM). We attempt to answer some key questions about multilingualism in the light of recent literature evidence, such as the degree of anatomical-functional integration of two or more languages in a multilingual brain, how the age of L2-acquisition affects language organization in the human brain, or how the brain controls more than one language. Finally, we highlight the future trends in multilingual language mapping.
... During the Spanish-German translation test, the examiner presented audio recordings of the Spanish words one at a time, and the children were asked each time to speak the correct German translation. The German-Spanish translation test was always administered prior to the Spanish-German test, as translation from one's native to a foreign language has been shown to be a more difficult task than the translation from a foreign language into one's native language and in order to avoid cueing the Spanish words on the final test (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). Children were given 5 s to state their answers before moving to the next word. ...
Article
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Both children and adults have been shown to benefit from the integration of multisensory and sensorimotor enrichment into pedagogy. For example, integrating pictures or gestures into foreign language (L2) vocabulary learning can improve learning outcomes relative to unisensory learning. However, whereas adults seem to benefit to a greater extent from sensorimotor enrichment such as the performance of gestures in contrast to multisensory enrichment with pictures, this is not the case in elementary school children. Here, we compared multisensory- and sensorimotor-enriched learning in an intermediate age group that falls between the age groups tested in previous studies (elementary school children and young adults), in an attempt to determine the developmental time point at which children’s responses to enrichment mature from a child-like pattern into an adult-like pattern. Twelve-year-old and fourteen-year-old German children were trained over 5 consecutive days on auditorily presented, concrete and abstract, Spanish vocabulary. The vocabulary was learned under picture-enriched, gesture-enriched, and non-enriched (auditory-only) conditions. The children performed vocabulary recall and translation tests at 3 days, 2 months, and 6 months post-learning. Both picture and gesture enrichment interventions were found to benefit children’s L2 learning relative to non-enriched learning up to 6 months post-training. Interestingly, gesture-enriched learning was even more beneficial than picture-enriched learning for the 14-year-olds, while the 12-year-olds benefitted equivalently from learning enriched with pictures and gestures. These findings provide evidence for opting to integrate gestures rather than pictures into L2 pedagogy starting at 14 years of age.
... Also in a unilingual situation, when only one of both languages is relevant, the other language is active to some extent, and even influences processing in the relevant language. There is already much information available about bidirectional influences of L1 and L2 in the bilingual's reading, spoken word recognition and speech production (e.g., Duyck & De Houwer, 2008;Green, 1998;Kroll & Stewart, 1994;Lagrou, Hartsuiker & Duyck, 2011;van Heuven, Dijkstra & Grainger, 1998). ...
Article
Cognates - words that share form and meaning between languages - are processed faster than control words. However, is this facilitation effect merely lexical in nature or does it cascade to phonological/orthographic (i.e., sub-lexical) processes? This study compared cognate effects in spoken and typewritten production, which share lexical, but not sub-lexical processes. Dutch-English bilinguals produced English names for pictures representing Dutch-English cognates and control words in either the spoken or typewritten modality. Onset latencies were shorter and accuracy was higher for cognates vs. control words and this effect was similar in both modalities. Compared to controls, total latencies in the written modality were similar for cognates with much cross-linguistic overlap, but longer for ones with less overlap. Additionally, error analysis showed that cognates were more affected by L1 interference than controls. These results suggest two different cognate effects: one at the lexical and one at the sub-lexical level.
... Regarding the latter, it is assumed that the level of co-activation on the conceptual level is directly modulated by the degree to which the concepts are related to the target concept, with stronger coactivation for closely related concepts. Different naming paradigms have been used to investigate lexical-semantic encoding, starting with the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm [11][12][13][14], see 15 for a recent overview], followed by the blocked-cyclic naming task [e.g., [16][17][18][19][20]. More recently, the continuous picture naming paradigm with its robust cumulative semantic interference (CSI) effect has become increasingly popular [21,22]. ...
Article
Full-text available
When naming a sequence of pictures of the same semantic category (e.g., furniture ), response latencies systematically increase with each named category member. This cumulative semantic interference effect has become a popular tool to investigate the cognitive architecture of language production. However, not all processes underlying the effect itself are fully understood, including the question where the effect originates from. While some researchers assume the interface of the conceptual and lexical level as its origin, others suggest the conceptual-semantic level. The latter assumption follows from the observation that cumulative effects, namely cumulative facilitation, can also be observed in purely conceptual-semantic tasks. Another unanswered question is whether cumulative interference is affected by the morphological complexity of the experimental targets. In two experiments with the same participants and the same material, we investigated both of these issues. Experiment 1, a continuous picture naming task, investigated whether morphologically complex nouns (e.g., kitchen table ) elicit identical levels of cumulative interference to morphologically simple nouns (e.g., table ). Our results show this to be the case, indicating that cumulative interference is unaffected by lexical information such as morphological complexity. In Experiment 2, participants classified the same target objects as either man-made or natural. As expected, we observed cumulative facilitation. A separate analysis showed that this facilitation effect can be predicted by the individuals’ effect sizes of cumulative interference, suggesting a strong functional link between the two effects. Our results thus point to a conceptual-semantic origin of cumulative semantic interference.
... Besides, converging evidence from alternative paradigms can also be interesting. For instance, we could use the blocked cyclic naming paradigm (Kroll & Stewart, 1994), in which cycles of usually four stimuli sharing or not a specific characteristic are presented one after another. The first cycle of stimuli could include four pictures represented by target nouns of the same gender (e. g., masculine gender), followed by a cycle mixing stimuli of different genders (e.g., masculine and feminine gender). ...
Article
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Grammatical gender retrieval during language production has been largely addressed through the picture-word interference (PWI) paradigm, with the aim of capturing the so-called gender congruency effect (GCE). In the PWI paradigm, participants name target pictures while ignoring superimposed written distractor nouns. The GCE shows faster responses when target and distractor nouns share the same gender than when gender differs. Yet, the locus of this effect is not clear: it might be either due to the selection of a determiner or due to the selection of a gender node at the lemma level, which may be primed or delayed by competition. Importantly, many of those who argue that the GCE is not a genuine effect of gender conclude that gender is a feature that is retrieved automatically. Such a claim is controversial since the PWI paradigm has been seen as too complex and perhaps not sensitive enough to capture small effects. Besides, for Romance languages, mixed results draw a complex picture with effects occurring mainly in the opposite direction, i.e., a gender incongruency effect (GIE). In the present study, we conducted a meta-analysis of the 18 studies that have addressed this issue. The results confirm the existence of the GCE as a determiner effect in Germanic/Slavic languages, while little support is found for the GIE in Romance languages. Nevertheless, we argue that the absence of gender effects in Germanic and Slavic languages within the PWI paradigm cannot be taken as evidence of an absence of priming/competition during gender selection and thus as evidence of an automatic selection of gender. Parametric replication of previous studies, especially those featuring bound morphemes, together with the use of other measuring techniques such as event related potentials are suggested as a way forward.
... 45 Furthermore, such errors have been found to occur consistently even for high-frequency L2 words, and even among learners with high L2 proficiency, which provides support for the notion of fossilization (Altenberg & Granger, 2001). words through the L1, and this form of mediated conceptual processing of L2 words is influenced by form associations between L2 words and their L1 counterparts (Kroll et al., 2010;Kroll & Stewart, 1994;Talamas et al., 1999). ...
Thesis
Learners’ native language (L1) influences their knowledge and use of second language (L2) vocabulary, a phenomenon known as lexical transfer. Past research on this shows that learners’ L1 influences their L2 word choices, and that lexical similarity—which relates to cognancy—between L1 words and their L2 counterparts facilitates the processing of the L2 words, particularly during the early stages of L2 acquisition, and makes speakers more likely to use the L2 words in spontaneous productions. To extend past research, the present research investigates whether crosslinguistic similarity influences L2 vocabulary use in a task-based, English-as-a-foreign language educational setting. Specifically, it investigates whether increased similarity between languages as a whole increases L2 lexical diversity, and whether increased similarity between L1 words and their L2 counterparts increases the use of the L2 words. It investigates this using two matching learner samples, containing 8,500 and 6,390 English texts, written in response to 95 and 71 tasks, by speakers of 9 typologically diverse L1s, in the A1–B2 CEFR range of L2 proficiency. Surprisingly, lexical similarity between the L1 and the L2 as a whole did not influence L2 lexical diversity, regardless of learners’ L2 proficiency. Likewise, lexical similarity between corresponding L1-L2 words did not influence the use of the L2 words, again regardless of L2 proficiency. Conversely, there were strong task effects on both L2 lexical diversity and L2 word choice. These findings show that the facilitative effect of crosslinguistic lexical similarity (especially the cognate facilitation effect) is constrained, and suggest that communicative needs and other task effects can override positive lexical transfer. This highlights the role of situational factors in crosslinguistic influence, and raises questions regarding when and how these and similar factors can override language transfer, for example when it comes to different types of transfer (e.g., positive vs. negative, or lexical vs. syntactic). In addition, this research contains substantial insights into related topics, such as the developmental patterns of L2 lexical diversity, accounting for task effects in language assessment, measuring crosslinguistic distance, and using online platforms to develop language corpora.
... Throughout the keynote, we refer to L1 effects on the acquisition of L2 lexical representations, focussing on the ontogenesis of individual components of L2 units rather than the global mechanisms of the L1-L2 interaction. This focus of the OM highlights particular aspects of the L2 lexicon to achieve their greater visibility rather than diminishing the relevance of other aspects that are addressed more often, e.g., in bilingual models such as BIA+ (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) or RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994). As fittingly put forward by van Hell (2021), the "in-depth and comprehensive description of the developmental dynamics of L2 representations positions the Ontogenesis Model in the current literature of models describing the bilingual mental lexicon". ...
... How bilinguals organise and manage their languages has always been a hot topic in psycholinguistics research. Many interesting frameworks have been proposed for bilingual speech production, including The Revised Hierarchical Model (Kroll and Stewart 1994) and The Inhibitory Control Model (Green 1998). In terms of bilingual word recognition, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA, Van Heuven et al. 1998) is probably the most prominent one. ...
Article
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Previous studies on the comprehension of code-switched sentences often neglected the code-switching habit of the specific community, so that the processing difficulty might not have resulted from the change in language but from unnatural switching. This study explores the processing cost of habitual and nonhabitual code-switching. Thirty-one young adults participated in the sentence-reading task with their eye movement tracked. A two-by-two factorial design was used, with Habit (habitual/nonhabitual) and Language (unilingual/code-switched) as the factors. The main effect of Language was observed only in First Fixation Duration, suggesting that the language membership was already identified in an early processing stage. However, for habitual switches, no switching cost in overall processing effort was found, as reflected by Total Fixation Duration and Visit Counts. Our results indicate that the cognitive load was only larger when the switch occurred nonhabitually, regardless of the language membership. In light of this finding, we propose that habitual code-switching might promote the formation of bilingual collocations, or prefabs, which are then integrated into the mental lexicon of the dominant language. Despite a conscious language tag of a foreign origin, these bilingual prefabs are not processed as a language switch in the lexicon. View Full-Text
... Moreover, bilingual lexical performance is highly sensitive to the bilinguals' linguistic background. Performance shifts with increases in language proficiency have been documented for bilinguals' lexical performance (Kroll and Stewart, 1994;Treffers-Daller, 2009) and bilinguals' working memory skills (Service et al., 2002). These results show that overall task performance is strongly influenced by bilinguals' language experience and history. ...
Article
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Language is a cognitive function that is asymmetrically distributed across both hemispheres, with left dominance for most linguistic operations. One key question of interest in cognitive neuroscience studies is related to the contribution of both hemispheres in bilingualism. Previous work shows a difference of both hemispheres for auditory processing of emotional and non-emotional words in bilinguals and monolinguals. In this study, we examined the differences between both hemispheres in the processing of emotional and non-emotional words of mother tongue language and foreign language. Sixty university students with Persian mother tongue and English as their second language were included. Differences between hemispheres were compared using the dichotic listening test. We tested the effect of hemisphere, language and emotion and their interaction. The right ear (associated with the left hemisphere) showed an advantage for the processing of all words in the first language, and positive words in the second language. Overall, our findings support previous studies reporting left-hemispheric dominance in late bilinguals for processing auditory stimuli.
Article
This study examined the influence of semantic and phonological priming on L2 speech planning, as well as the difference between native and non-native speakers of English in terms of lemma activation. Two potential explanations for the contrast between the performance of L2 speakers and native controls were considered. The first of which was that L2 speakers’ phonological forms are activated before selection of syntactic frame occurred, whereas the reverse is true for native speakers. The second explanation posits that the organisation of the speech production procedure is fundamentally similar in native and L2 speakers, and the disparity in performance arises from difference in the levels of activation of stored items. The results of the present experiment suggest that lemma selection is indeed what drives syntactic frame selection. However, lemmas in L2 speakers can be primed through a chain of connections demonstrated as: L2 phonological form → L1 phonological form → L1 lemma.
Preprint
This is an extended version of the LSA paper "Some remarks on the history of transfer in language studies". It covers the history of the notion of "transfer" in psychology (up to 1948), language learning (1948-1960s), and language acquisition studies (from 1960s on).
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Several previous studies showed that prime‐target pairs with orthographical overlap but no semantic or morphological relationship (e.g., freeze‐free) produced a masked priming effect in second language (L2) speakers but not in first language (L1) speakers. The present study further explored this intriguing L1–L2 difference by comparing English native speakers and nonnative speakers in the masked priming paradigm in combination with a lexical decision task. The stimuli included prime‐target pairs with orthographical overlap at both the word‐initial and word‐final positions (e.g., rubber‐rub, stage‐age) but without any semantic or morphological relationship. The results replicated orthographic priming in L2 speakers for words with both overlap positions. Two accounts of this L1–L2 difference are discussed, one focusing on the representational aspect and the other on the processing characteristics of the L2 lexicon.
Article
The present study explored the conditions under which phonological similarity effects arise without orthographic confounds by testing languages with true cognates but divergent scripts. We investigated the similarities and differences between within- and cross-script processing patterns by providing data from an understudied language pair, Korean and Cantonese, which have many cognates but bear no orthographic resemblance. In two word-naming and translation tasks, beginning and intermediate Cantonese-speaking learners of Korean ( N = 112) were tested for the processing speed of Sino-Korean words. The results of the word-naming experiments showed that phonologically similar words were processed faster than dissimilar ones, regardless of L2 fluency, especially when the logographic L1 characters were used as primes. However, facilitation by shared phonology was not observed in the translation experiments in either direction. L1-to-L2 forward translation was much faster than L2-to-L1 backward translation, indicating conceptual memory being used as a primary processing pathway. The characteristics of cross-script processing patterns were discussed in terms of the structure of bilingual memory.
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The present work examines the impact of code-switching (CS) on novel word learning in adult second language (L2) learners of Spanish. Participants completed two sessions (1–3 days apart). In the first session, they were taught 32 nonwords corresponding to novel creatures. Training occurred across 4 conditions: (1) a sentence in English only, (2) a sentence in Spanish only (the L2), (3) a sentence that contained CS from Spanish-to-English, (4) a sentence that contained CS from English-to-Spanish. Immediately after training, participants were tested on their ability to identify the newly trained words using a looking-while-listening paradigm in which videos of participants’ looking patterns were collected remotely via Zoom. In the second session, re-testing of the trained words was completed. In the first session, training in the English-only condition led to better initial learning compared to the other conditions. In the second session, the English-only condition still had the highest accuracy, but performance in the two CS conditions was significantly better compared to the Spanish-only condition. These findings suggest that CS during vocabulary training may aid the retention of newly acquired word-object relations in the L2, compared to when training occurs entirely in the L2. This work has important implications for theories of L2 acquisition and can inform instruction practices in L2 classrooms.
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Quando uma ou mais palavras nos é(são) apresentada(s) é necessário acessar o léxico mental a fim de reconhecê-la(s) ou identificá-la(s). A esse processo dá-se o nome de acesso lexical. Essa é uma temática em ascensão, pois, ao fazer uma rápida busca no Portal de Periódicos da Capes verificamos que o número de pesquisas em português com o termo “acesso lexical” no título vem aumentando nos últimos 20 anos. No entanto, ainda há espaço para as pesquisas sobre o acesso lexical de bilíngues. No presente artigo, buscamos traçar um paralelo entre o histórico do estudo sobre o acesso lexical bilíngue e as perspectivas para futuras pesquisas, em especial no cenário brasileiro. Para tanto, realizou-se um levantamento de trabalhos de pesquisa nacionais e internacionais indexados na base de dados Periódicos CAPES sobre o tema em evidência. Esse levantamento nos mostrou semelhanças com trabalhos influentes na área, mas também possibilidades em relação a diversificação de metodologias e objetos de estudo.
Article
The shared-syntax account of bilingual syntactic representations suggests that similar structures from different languages are represented as one in the bilingual mind. In this study, we examined the degree of morpho-syntactic similarity needed for representations to be shared in the bilingual mind by comparing passive structures in Greek and English. Contrary to English, non-active morphology in Greek is not restricted to passives and the “by phrase” is considered marked. In two structural priming experiments, we examined whether passives can be primed in L1-Greek and, subsequently, whether there is a single representation for passives in Greek-English bilinguals despite distributional and morpho-syntactic differences. Results showed that passive structures were primed in L1-Greek (Experiment 1) and from L1-Greek to L2-English (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that morpho-syntactic and distributional differences inherent to passives do not prevent priming, and that structural representations can be shared even when featural structure is not identical.
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The acquisition of a second language in childhood is affected by several factors, including the age of onset, quantity and quality of language input, context of language use, and many more. The impact of these variables is observed in the size and quality of the language-specific lexicons. Therefore, successive bilingual children may show similar vocabulary deficits in their second language as children with lexical developmental deficits. It is necessary to differentiate between these two groups of children, because the latter group needs customized word finding therapy in both their languages, while for the former group, additional education in the second language might be sufficient. Various procedures for diagnosing word finding disorders were developed to fit the needs of bilingual children. In general, these developments are an improvement to standard procedures, but they still fail to accurately identify word finding disorders in bilingual children. However, assessing vocabulary capabilities is a worthwhile endeavor. Strengths and weaknesses can be identified and incorporated into additional language education.
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The purpose of this study is to draw on the conceptual blending hypothesis from the socio-cognitive approach to investigate the conceptually equivalent translation written in L2—English—of bilingual students via two tasks of translating and defining individual words and translating texts from L1 to L2. Next, the study demonstrates how translation abilities that vary amongst groups can affect students’ lexical density, lexical diversity, lexical sophistication, and lexical idiosyncrasies in translated text. The translating process in bilinguals could be interpreted via the lens of the conceptual blending hypothesis and dueling contexts framework to demonstrate that bi/multilingual students do not differ from monolingual ones pertaining to cognitive or linguistic abilities. Rather, the distinctive difference between bilingual and monolingual language users is bilingual speakers’ abilities of the third competence of formulating a synergism across word concepts and utilizing a bidirectional translation between two languages. When a word in L2 is acquired, there is a conceptual blending between the new conceptual information, encoded after each time the L2 word is used in an L2 socio-cultural context and the existing socio-cultural conceptual information in L1. The new concept created after the blending is called a synergic concept. If the synergic is not well developed, the language user selects incorrect or inappropriate words in a context, resulting in lexical idiosyncrasies. Data gathered from 30 English–Chinese bilingual university students in a transnational program in sociology were collected and compared against 15 monolingual American students. The preliminary findings are as follows: (1) regardless of the location of where the English (L2) socio-cultural meaning conceptualization mainly takes place (in China or the U.S.A.), English–Chinese bilingual language users demonstrated a significant difference in connotative meaning knowledge of noun word concepts and idiomatic concepts, compared with English native speakers; (2) the synergic concepts were detected in all experimental concepts and demonstrated the conceptual blending to a varying degree that affects their translating process and its outcomes: the domineering L1 socio-cultural concept, the well-blended L1 and L2 socio-cultural concept that results in a “third culture”, and the assimilating L2 socio-cultural concept; (3) the synergistic blending of two socio-cultural loads embedded in lexical concepts detected in the bilingual students in the U.S.A. was more robust than those in China, resulting in significantly fewer sophisticated words and lexical idiosyncrasies in their English translated essays. The study sheds new light on understanding the dynamism in bilingualism via translation tasks to indicate bilingual learners’ lexical development. Implications for using translation tasks and analysis of word concepts across languages to support bi/multilingual students in language and academic learning are discussed.
Article
Aims and objectives Semantic verbal fluency taps into vocabulary knowledge but often elicits poorer performance in bilingual speakers tested in a second language (L2). Few studies have examined verbal fluency tasks that target abstract words and examined test–retest reliability. The present study examined the performance gap between English speakers and Chinese-English speakers on classic semantic, action, and emotional verbal fluency. Methodology English data were collected for six verbal fluency tasks from 41 English speakers and 18 Chinese-English speakers who spoke English as L2. Verbal fluency performance was reassessed one week later to examine test–retest reliability. Data and analysis Verbal productivity, valence and arousal, test–retest reliability, and cross-session consistency in producing similar responses in repeated testing were analyzed. Morphological complexity of verbal responses also was compared because Chinese is morphologically simpler than English and emotional verbal fluency may trigger morphologically complex words. Findings/conclusions Productivity gaps between groups were reliable for all tasks despite practice effects but were smaller for action and emotional verbal fluency. Words produced by Chinese-English speakers were more positive generally and less arousing for specific categories (e.g., “happy”). Both speaker groups were equally likely to produce variable responses with repeated testing, especially for emotional verbal fluency. Words produced by Chinese-English speakers were morphologically simpler than those produced by English speakers for emotional verbal fluency. Originality Past work on semantic verbal fluency has focused on the retrieval of neutral and concrete words. This is the first study to assess the reliability in performance gaps between speakers tested in L1 and speakers tested in L2 on verbal fluency that targets the retrieval of abstract and emotional-laden words. Significance Verbal fluency is one of the most frequently employed tasks in neuropsychological assessments. The findings demonstrate the effects of language proficiency on performance across verbal fluency variants, group differences in valence and arousal, the effects of repeated testing, and the effects of linguistic features on responses produced.
Thesis
Thanks to the French-German Agenda 2020, many new French-German day-care centres have opened in the region of the Upper Rhine, guaranteeing an early bilingual and bicultural upbringing.The present thesis elaborates an inventory of the contents, strategies and language practices offered in the respective structures and, even more important, of the linguistic and cultural interactional competencies that can actually be acquired by the children visiting these day-care centres.For this purpose, the present thesis analyses different corpora such as the legal framework for early childhood care in France and Germany, the websites of the French-German day-care centres of the Upper Rhine, the interviews made with the centres’ employees and directors, and, last not least, the field notes taken in 3 centres that have been visited as well as 28 hours of audiorecorded caretaker-child interactions. In so doing, it uses an ethnolinguistic research design in order to identify fields of tension as well as the synergies to be exploited.
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Bilingualism imposes additional requirements on the cognitive system. As such, it can be a driving force of neuroplastic changes in the brain of a person who speaks more than one language. The need to store and use two systems of representations corresponding to the two languages as well as to develop an efficient control system which allows to use the intendent, contextual-ly appropriate language, may result in both functional and structural changes. Neuroimaging studies show that the neural organization of language representations in a bilingual brain depends to a large degree on the type of representation. Conceptual representations seem to share common neural underpinnings between the different languages. Lexical representations, related to the vocabulary and words, are processed by the same brain regions regardless of the language, however , they have been shown to be coded by distinct neu-ronal populations. Finally, neuroplastic reorganization of syntactic representations is highly dependent on factors related to individual experiences of bilingualism, such as age of acquisition and proficiency in the second language. Neuroplastic changes in the bilingual brain have also been linked to the increased demands that using two languages imposes on the cognitive control mechanisms. Both structural and functional changes in the brain of bilinguals were observed withing a wide network referred to as language control network. Summing up, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that bilingualism is related to neuroplastic changes in both structure and functioning of the brain. However, the newest reports suggest the extent and intensity of the neuroplastic changes are most likely dependent on individual experiences of each bilingual speaker.
Article
Objective Assessing neuropsychological functions of dual-language speakers with semantic verbal fluency should consider the impact of language proficiency. Much evidence for the proficiency effect is found in tasks targeting neutral words. The proficiency effect on emotional verbal fluency (Emo-VF) that targets emotional word retrieval, however, is far from conclusive. This study aimed to clarify the proficiency effect on Emo-VF, specifically the extent to which language proficiency impacted positive and negative word retrieval comparably. In addition, the study examined the extent to which dual-languages speakers produced duplicated items and unique, non-duplicated items in each of two languages tested. Method Thirty-two adult participants completed Emo-VF tasks that targeted a comprehensive set of basic emotions (“joy,” “sadness,” “fear,” “anger,” “disgust”) in English and Spanish in two sessions separated by at least 72 h. All participants exhibited greater proficiency in English than in Spanish according to subjective and objective measures of language proficiency. Results Verbal productivity was comparably lowered for all emotions in the less proficient language. Differences among categories were consistent between languages, with “joy” eliciting more words than other emotions, and “fear” yielding the highest productivity among negative emotions. Finally, dual-language speakers produced a significant number of unique items in different languages, especially for “fear.” Conclusion Language proficiency exerts a general effect on positive and negative word retrieval. The study extends previous work by revealing differences between “fear” and other negative categories in addition to replicating positivity biases in unbalanced dual-language speakers. Dual-language testing is valuable in capturing the richness of emotional word repertoire associated with different languages.
Article
Purpose: We examined native language (L1) and second language (L2) convergence of underlying skills in adult L2 learners as well as the contribution of instructional L2 level on L2 attainment across speech motor, lexical, and narrative levels. Method: Thirty-four adult Spanish L2 learners who had completed at least 1 year of college Spanish participated in this preliminary study. Learners were tested at the speech motor, lexical, and narrative levels in their L1 (English) and L2 (Spanish). L1-L2 convergence was indexed by associative links between corresponding L1 and L2 skills. In regression analyses, the level of Spanish instruction at the time of the study was also considered as a predictor of L2 attainment across speech motor, lexical, and narrative levels. Results: L1-L2 convergence was identified for some speech motor skills (distance, maximum speed) and for lexical skills but was limited for other speech motor skills (duration, spatiotemporal index) and for narrative measures. Furthermore, lexical and narrative measures, but not speech motor measures, showed improvements with Spanish (L2) instruction. Conclusions: L1-L2 convergence and instructional level are predictors of L2 performance in adult language learners. These factors play somewhat different roles across speech motor, lexical, and narrative levels, warranting further "all-system" research across processing and proficiency levels.
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Semantic and perceptual size decision times for pictorial and verbal material were analyzed in the context of a unitary memory model and several dual memory models. Experiment 1 involved a same-different categorical judgment task. The results showed that picture-picture response latencies were 185 msec faster than the corresponding word-word latencies, and word-picture and picture-word latencies equaled the mean of these two extremes. Similarity of subcategory for "same" judgments led to faster decision latency for all presentation conditions. Additionally, a linear relationship was found between picture-picture and word-word latencies for individual item pairs. Experiment 2 involved a comparison of pictures and words across a. categorical judgment and a size judgment task. Pictures produced faster decision latencies in both tasks, and the latency diflerence between pictures and words was comparable across tasks. These data fit the predictions of a unitary memory model. Several variants of a dual memory model are rejected and those which fit the data require assumptions about storage and/or transfer time values which result in a functional regression to the unitary memory model.
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Three experiments looked for the determinants of performance in 3 versions of the word-translation task. Exp 1 contained the normal-translation version and the cued-translation version. In Exp 2, Ss performed the translation-recognition task. In both experiments, word frequency and word imageability were manipulated. Both affected performance in all 3 versions of the task. In Exp 3 (normal translation), in addition to the effects of frequency and imageability, those of context availability, cognate status, definition accuracy, length of the stimulus words and of their translations, and familiarity were studied. All of them correlated with the performance measures, but only 4 variables accounted for unique translation variance: the frequency of the stimulus word, the frequency of the response word, cognate status, and context availability. These results are discussed in terms of bilingual memory structure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Theories of how bilinguals represent information have been conceived in terms of either a single, language-independent code or dual, language-specific codes. In this study, Spanish-English bilinguals exhibited both a language-independent and a language-specific pattern of results under identical study conditions depending on the retrieval demands of a task. With the data-driven task of word fragment completion, language specificity was observed. With the conceptually driven task of free recall, language-independence was generally observed. Results from a yes/no test of recognition memory were interpreted as reflecting both types of processing. The issue of whether bilinguals store information in one or two codes seems indeterminable, because the varying retrieval demands of different tasks produce different patterns of results and lead to opposite conclusions. Rather, a transfer appropriate processing framework—in which performance on retention tests is shown to benefit to the extent to which procedures required on the test recapitulate those employed during encoding—provides a more fruitful analysis.
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Two hypotheses about the association between the equivalent words in a bilingual's two languages are considered. The word association hypothesis proposes that a direct association is established between words in the two languages. During second-language acquisition, that association is used to understand and produce words in the second language by retrieving a word in the first language. The concept mediation hypothesis proposes that the only connection between the two languages is via an underlying, amodal conceptual system, one to which pictured objects also have access. The hypotheses make different predictions about the time to name pictures in the second language relative to the time to translate first-language words into the second language. Two experiments are reported, one with proficient Chinese—English bilinguals and the second with nonfluent English—French bilinguals (American high school students). Subjects read words aloud, named pictures, and translated words; one Chinese—English group categorized pictures and words. The results were consistent with the concept mediation hypothesis and contradicted predictions of the word association hypothesis. There was no evidence for a direct association between words in the two languages in either bilingual group.
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In Experiment 1 subjects studied a mixed list of pictures and words and then received either a free recall test or a word fragment completion test (e.g.,_yr_mi_forpyramid) on which some fragments corresponded to previously studied items. Free recall of pictures was better than that of words. However, words produced greater priming than did pictures on the fragment completion test, although a small amount of picture priming did occur. Experiments 2 and 3 showed that the picture priming was not due to implicit naming of the pictures during study. In Experiment 4 subjects studied words and pictures and received either the word fragment completion test or a picture fragment identification test in which they had to name degraded pictures. Greater priming was obtained with words in word fragment completion, but greater priming was obtained with pictures on the picture identification test. We conclude that (1) the type of retrieval query determines whether pictures or words will exhibit superior retention, and (2)our results conform to the principle of transfer appropriate processing by which performance on transfer or retention tests benefits to the extent that the tests recapitulate operations used during learning.
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The context in which a word occurs could influence either the actual decoding of the word or a postrecognition judgment of the relatedness of word and context. In this research, we investigated the loci of contextual effects that occur in lexical priming, when prime and target words are related along different dimensions. Both lexical decision and naming tasks were used because previous research had suggested that they are differentially sensitive to postlexical processing. Semantic and associative priming occurred with both tasks. Other facilitative contextual effects, due to syntactic relations between words, backward associations, or changes in the proportion of related items, occurred only with the lexical decision task. The results indicate that only associative and semantic priming facilitate the decoding of a target; the other effects are postlexical. The results are related to the different demands of the naming and lexical decision tasks, and to current models of word recognition.
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Three experiments were conducted to examine cross-language priming in bilinguals. The first was a cross-language primed lexical decision task experiment with Chinese-English bilinguals. Subjects made lexical decisions about primary associate targets in the two languages at the same rate, but priming occurred only when the prime was in their first language (L1), Chinese, and the target was in their second language (L2), English. Experiment 2 produced the same pattern of asymmetrical priming with two alphabetic languages, French and Dutch. In Experiment 3, the crucial stimuli were translation equivalents. In contrast to the results of Experiments 1 and 2, priming occurred across languages in both the L1-L2 and L2-L1 conditions. However, this priming was also asymmetrical, with more priming occurring in the L1-L2 condition. A tentative separate-interconnected model of bilingual memory is described. It suggests that the representations of words expressed in different languages are stored in separate memory systems, which may be interconnected via one-to-one links between some translation-equivalent representations as well as meaning-integration processes.
Article
A word-association experiment was performed with three groups of bilingual Ss. Four test sequences were studied, the stimulus word in English responded to in English or the native language, and a translation of the word into the native language responded to in English or the native language. There were five semantic categories of words. The results were that only about one-third of the responses in one language translated those in the other, and the proportion did not differ very much whether the word associations were intralingual or interlingual. Of this proportion, about two-thirds (20% of the total responses) were lexically similar or translations in the interlingual tests. The number of similar associations changed sharply with the semantic category of the word, words referring to concrete, manipulable objects more often having similar associations than words referring to abstract states or emotions. The data are interpreted to mean that experiences and memories of various kinds are not stored in common in some supralinguistic form but are tagged and stored separately in the language S used to define the experience to himself.
Article
In four experiments the representation of words in a Dutch-English bilingual lexicon was examined. Within- and between-language repetition-priming and associative (semantic)-priming effects were compared. In Experiments 1 and 2 only cognate words were presented, whereas in Experiments 3 and 4 also noncognates served as stimuli. In Experiment 1 the primes were presented unmasked; in Experiments 2 and 4 they were masked by means of a forward/backward masking technique; in Experiment 3 they occurred under both masked and unmasked presentation conditions. Within- and between-language repetition-priming and associative-priming effects were obtained, both under masked and unmasked presentation conditions, but in the masking condition the between-language associative priming effect for noncognates disappeared. The results suggest separate but connected lexical representations for Dutch-English translation equivalents, both for cognates and noncognates, shared conceptual representations for Dutch-English cognate translations, and separate conceptual representations for noncognate translations.
Article
Data are reported on picture naming under speeded deadline conditions. In Exp 1, more errors were made in response to pictures with low- relative to high-frequency names, indicating that the deadline constrained name selection. In addition, Ss often made prime-related perseverative errors, in which they misnamed target pictures by giving them the names of related pictures that had been named previously (primes). In Exp 2, prime-related perseverative errors did not occur at a greater than chance level when Ss categorized rather than named prime pictures. In Exp 3, these errors did not occur at a greater than chance level when Ss first named related prime words. It is concluded that prime-related perseverative errors reflect persistent activation in the mappings connecting semantic representations of pictures to name representations. The relevance of the findings for models of picture naming and the use of the deadline technique for decomposing the picture-naming process are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In three experiments, native Cantonese speakers were asked to read words aloud, name pictures, and translate words. In the study, subjects with different degrees of proficiency in their nonnative language were used (i.e., proficient subjects, adult beginners, and second- and fourth-grade child beginners). The results show that all subjects were more efficient in reading words than in naming pictures when responding in their native language. When the response was in the nonnative language, the proficient subjects were equally efficient in both translating and picture-naming tasks. For the adult beginners, however, translating was faster than picture naming, whereas naming was faster than translating for the child beginners. These results were consistent with the idea that proficient subjects could directly access the meanings of words in the nonnative language, whereas beginners tended to use either corresponding words in the native language (i.e., the adult beginners) or pictorial representations (i.e., the child beginners) as media for such end. These results thus suggest that the proficiency of the nonnative language and the age or method of acquisition of the language are important determinants for the pattern of lexical processing in the nonnative language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Spanish-English bilinguals were tested in a two-part lexical-decision experiment. Word stimuli were (a) noncognates (words with differently spelled translations, e.g., dog and perro), (b) cognates (words with identically spelled translations, e.g., actual), and (c) homographic noncognates (words spelled identically in both languages but with different meanings, e.g., red). The noncognate and cognate words had similar frequencies of usage in each language, but the homographic noncognates differed. In each part of the experiment, subjects looked for words in a single target language. In both parts, word latencies were primarily determined by frequency of usage of a word in the target language. In the unanticipated cross-language-transfer trials in Part 2, no cross-language facilitation of noncognate translations was found. However, there was equivalent cross-language facilitation of cognates and homographic noncognates (i.e, repetitions of the same spelling pattern). This cross-language transfer was independent of the target language and frequency of usage in the target languages. The results of this experiment are consistent with the hypothesis that lexical information is represented in language-specific lexicons and that word recognition requires searching the language-appropriate lexicon. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined whether the main characteristics of Stroop-like naming tasks also show up in a word-translation variant of the Stroop Color and Word Test. 14 Dutch university students translated common English words that were preceded or followed by a Dutch distractor word (DW). Results were similar to those obtained with color and picture naming. When the DW followed the target stimulus, an orthographic relation between the DW and the to-be-retrieved response word (RW) facilitated performance compared with an unrelated word. A categorical relation between the DW and the RW hampered performance. This task may be useful in the study of word recognition, name retrieval, and bilinguality. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Examined in 5 experiments with 205 undergraduates the retrieval dynamics involved with multiple retrievals from a semantic category. When 5 consecutive retrievals were required with category–letter cues, cumulative inhibitory effects were evidenced in both retrieval latency increases and retrieval probability decreases. This inhibition also occurred with 8 consecutive retrievals with picture cues whether the instances were blocked by category or randomly mixed. Retrieval "fatigue" was ruled out as a cause of the latency increase. The relationship of this retrieval interference to previous demonstrations of prime facilitation and interference was discussed as well as its application to other memory phenomena. It is suggested that the recently proposed retrieval model of J. G. W. Raaijmakers and R. M. Shiffrin (1980) provides a good account of the present findings. (48 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It has long been known that a word (e.g., BUTTER) presented shortly after a related word (e.g., BREAD) can be processed more rapidly than when presented shortly after an unrelated word (e.g., TABLE). This phenomenon has come to be referred to as “semantic” priming. To this date, however, only I. Fischler (1977, Memory & Cognition, 5, 335–339) has provided any evidence that this phenomenon is semantically and not associatively based. In the present paper six studies were undertaken in an attempt to generalize Fischler's findings to tasks other than the simultaneous lexical decision task he used. In Experiments 1, 2, and 3 it was determined that semantic category relationships, in which the two words named members of the same semantic category (e.g., DOG-PIG) did little to facilitate naming of the second stimulus. In Experiments 4 and 6, it was determined that a semantic category relationship did nothing to augment the priming from associative relationships in naming and lexical decision tasks, respectively. However, in Experiment 5, in a replication of Fischler's results, semantic relatedness alone did produce priming in a lexical decision task. These results appear to indicate that the role of semantics in the priming process is somewhat limited. Further, these results also indicate that the amount of priming observed is somewhat task dependent. Implications for models of “semantic” priming are discussed.
Article
Spanish—English bilinguals were tested in two lexical decision, word recognition experiments. In one experiment, practice on words from one language speeded later recognition of those same words, but did not affect recognition of translations of those words. In a second experiment, subjects told to respond positively to words of one language responded to real words from the nontarget language as if they were nonwords. These experiments show that bilinguals in a word recognition task are able to process the words of a language in a language-specific manner without any influence of their knowledge of the surface (e.g., spelling) or conceptual representations of words in the other language.
Article
The Ss looked through a series of about 600 stimuli selected at random from an initially larger population. They were then tested for their ability to recognize these “old” stimuli in pairs in which the alternative was always a “new” stimulus selected at random from the stimuli remaining in the original population. Depending upon whether this original population consisted solely of words, sentences, or pictures, median Ss were able correctly to recognize the “old” stimulus in 90, 88, or 98% of the test pairs, respectively. Estimated lower bounds on the informational capacity of human memory considerably exceed previously published estimates.
Article
Five experiments were conducted to evaluate hypotheses concerning lexical organization in bilinguals. Previous work has shown that the repetition effect in lexical decision is restricted to intralingual conditions for English and Hindi. Experiments 1–3 each involved 12 English—French bilinguals and demonstrated that a previous finding generalizes to more similar languages and orthographies (English and French) and that it is unaffected by mixed-language test conditions. The results also demonstrated that although interlingual transfer occurs in response to translative activity during encoding, transfer does not occur as a result of tasks which emphasize meaning rather than translation. Experiment 4 involved 12 English—Hindi bilinguals in a two-word lexical decision task with semantically related and unrelated words under pure and mixed-language conditions. The results confirmed Meyer and Ruddy's (1974, Bilingual word recognition: Organization and retrieval of a alternative lexical codes) unpublished report that semantic priming is present under mixed as well as pure language conditions, and further showed that when language is defined by orthography—as is the case for English and Hindi—there is no overall deficit for mixed-language conditions. Experiment 5 demonstrated that for interlingual semantic priming to occur under successive presentation conditions, the related concepts must follow one another immediately. The overall pattern of results suggests that although the unit of lexical representation in bilinguals is language specific, the units function in an integrated network.
Article
Two experiments are reported in which mismatches in sound (Experiment I) and mis-matches in spelling (Experiment II) were studied in Dutch (pseudo) words which were used as stimuli in English lexical decision experiments. The subjects of the experiments were Dutch-English bilinguals who were assumed to have a common lexical store for their Dutch and English words. The results show that mismatches in sound or in spelling result in longer latencies for the Dutch (pseudo) words than for their nonword controls. Together these results support a cooperation model of lexical access while providing evidence against a phonological recording model. Finally, they also support the idea of a common store in memory for words from two languages.
Article
A series of five experiments addressed the question of whether pictures and the words that name them access a common conceptual representation. In the first three experiments the processing of words in the lexical decision task was compared with the processing of pictured objects in a formally analogous task which we called the object decision task. The results showed that the lexical and object decision tasks produce approximately similar response latencies and are similar in their sensitivity to a set of experimental manipulations (e.g., frequency effects, interference effects, semantic facilitation from related words or pictures). In two additional experiments the processing of words was compared with that of pictures in a mixed reality decision task in which a decision about whether a word or picture represents a real thing is to be made independent of the surface form. The results indicated that subjects were unable to make amodal decisions of this sort; the response latencies in reality decision were markedly longer than those in either a pure lexical or pure object decision and there was little conceptual transfer across repetitions of different surface forms. Overall, the results of the five experiments suggest that the major component in a lexical or object decision is a form-specific memory representation of the word or visual object.
Article
Bilingual Ss were given free recall lists consisting of both English and Spanish words. In those lists, words were repeated in the same language (within-language repetition) or were followed by their translation in the other language (between-language repetition). The distance, i.e., number of other words intervening, between the word and its repetition was systematically varied. The results show that the probability of recall is an orderly function of distance, type of repetition and their interaction. The greater the distance, the higher the probability of recall. Between-language repetitions give higher recall overall than within-language repetitions. This advantage is most marked at short distances, dis-appearing at the greater distances. These effects are related to a picture of short-term storage and the way in which a word is represented in it.
Article
Two experiments were performed to examine the representation of semantic information in the bilingual lexicon. The influence of cross-language priming on lexical decisions in Spanish-English bilinguals was tested at a 300-ms (Experiment 1) and 100-ms (Experiment 2) stimulus onset asyncrony. Experiment 1 showed that the benefit derived from a same language prime was not greater than that derived from a cross-language prime. The recognition of words following the other language primes was not slowed in comparison to that following the same language primes. This was true regardless of the semantic distance from the prime. Experiment 2 found similar results. These results are consistent with the view that the bilingual lexicon is connected via a language-independent representational system.
Article
Cross-form priming of words by pictures was compared to within-form priming of words by words in a lexical decision task. For prime—target pairs containing repetitions of a concept or semantically related concepts, pictures provided priming of word targets in magnitudes at least as large as the priming provided by words themselves. Such equivalent priming by surface forms occurred for concrete word targets and for abstract word targets in pairs comprising a variety of semantic associations. Recognition memory for pairs in the lexical decision task revealed both form-dependent and form-independent components in the episodic trace. The results are interpreted as consistent with a single system of semantic representation accessed in common by both surface forms, rather than separate form-specific semantic systems.
Article
Two questions of bilingual language processing are addressed: (1) Does the fluent bilingual have one unified language processing system, used for processing both languages, or two processing systems, one for each language? (2) If the bilingual has two processing systems, are both activated during language processing (the Interaction Hypothesis) or is one selectively deactivated according to language mode (the Independence Hypothesis)? These questions are addressed with respect to the bilingual's use of phonotactic constraints during lexical processing. The results of judgment tasks and lexical decision tasks conducted with English—German bilinguals indicate that the bilingual has a knowledge of two sets of phonotactic constraints and support the hypothesis that both sets of constraints are simultaneously available to the bilingual during processing.
Article
WHEN an object such as a chair is presented visually, or is represented by a line drawing, a spoken word, or a written word, the initial stages in the process leading to understanding are clearly different in each case. There is disagreement, however, about whether those early stages lead to a common abstract representation in memory, the idea of a chair1-4, or to two separate representations, one verbal (common to spoken and written words), and the other image-like5. The first view claims that words and images are associated with ideas, but the underlying representation of an idea is abstract. According to the second view, the verbal representation alone is directly associated with abstract information about an object (for example, its superordinate category: furniture). Concrete perceptual information (for example, characteristic shape, colour or size) is associated with the imaginal representation. Translation from one representation to the other takes time, on the second view, which accounts for the observation that naming a line drawing takes longer than naming (reading aloud) a written word6,7. Here we confirm that naming a drawing of an object takes much longer than reading its name, but we show that deciding whether the object is in a given category such as `furniture' takes slightly less time for a drawing than for a word, a result that seems to be inconsistent with the second view.
Article
Words or pictures completed sentence fragments to form coherent or incoherent sentences. Subjects made lexical decisions about words and object decisions about pictures. Modality was blocked in Experiment 1 and mixed in Experiment 2. In both experiments there were similar effects of context for words and pictures, contrary to the hypothesis that lexical priming produces the sentence context effect. Mixed conditions produced longer response latencies than blocked conditions but did not interact with the context effect. The finding of no interaction between the effect of context and the mixed-blocked manipulation, supports a version of lexical modularity in which context effects arise as a function of post-access integration processing.
Article
Previous research has shown that the naming of the picture of, for example, a guitar is substantially delayed when it is accompanied by the name of an object from the same semantic category (e.g., piano) as compared to a nonword control (e.g., xxxxx). La Heij (1988a) has shown that a large part of this Stroop-like interference effect can be attributed to two semantic characteristics of the distractor word: its semantic similarity to the target picture and its semantic relevance in the task at hand. Furthermore, it was argued that the locus of these two interference effects is the process of target-name retrieval. If this is true, semantic interference effects should diminish or disappear when, instead of a picture-naming task, a word-reading task is used. In the present study this prediction is tested. The effects of four distractor characteristics are examined: semantic relatedness, semantic relevance, response set membership and wordness. In contrast to the original picture-naming task only the effect of wordness reached significance. The results of experiments 2 and 3 show that the absence of significant semantic context effects in experiment 1 is not simply due to the fact that a distractor word has less time to affect a word-reading response. The results are taken to support a name-retrieval account of semantic interference in color and picture naming.
Article
Presents a series of 6 experiments in which Stroop-like effects were generated by modally pure color-color, picture-picture, and word-word stimuli instead of the usual modally mixed color-word or picture-word stimuli. Naming, reading, and categorization tasks were applied. The Stroop inhibition was preserved with these stimuli but unexpectedly showed a semantic gradient only in the naming and not in the reading task. Word categorizing was slower and more interference prone than picture categorizing. These and other results can be captured by a model with two main assumptions: (a) semantic memory and the lexicon are separate, and (b) words have privileged access to the lexicon, whereas pictures and colors have privileged access to the semantic network. Such a model is developed and put to an initial test.
Article
In two experiments, semantic facilitation and translation priming effects in Chinese-English bilingual speakers were demonstrated with a lexical decision task. A 300-msec stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) was used between display of the prime and the target item. Experiment 1 showed that subjects' lexical decision responses were facilitated to a greater extent when primed by a translation equivalent than a semantically related between-language word. In Experiment 2, we found that pictorial, between-language, and within-language primes produced comparable effects of semantic facilitation. These results are in line with the hypothesis that lexical items in different languages and pictures are processed by means of an amodal conceptual system.
Article
A number of independent lines of research have suggested that semantic and articulatory information become available differentially from pictures and words. Five experiments with 212 university students suggest a model of information access whereby pictures access semantic information more readily than name information, with the reverse being true for words. Memory for both pictures and words was a function of the amount of processing required to access a particular type of information as well as the extent of response differentiation necessitated by the task. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Two experiments with 40 Canadian undergraduates examined the effects of phonetic and orthographic similarity between the word and the picture's name to investigate the role these factors play in the picture-naming process. Results show that both orthographic and phonetic similarity facilitated picture naming in comparison to an unrelated word condition. Data suggest that this facilitation is not an output phenomenon and, as such, can be separated from the response-competition processes that lead to the basic interference effect. Instead, the locus of these effects appears to be the name-retrieval process, with orthographic and phonetic information from the word aiding in the search for the picture's name. (French abstract) (25 ref)