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Inside/Outside: Teacher Research and Knowledge

... Traditionally, that has not included the academy (Zeichner, 1995), which is usually a 30,000 feet viewpoint of the classroom and the work that they do with their students. Yet, a grassroots movement of PreK-12 teacher researchers is trying to change that; over the past few decades, a large number of classroom teachers have engaged in systematic examinations of their teaching (Caro-Bruce, Flessner, Klehr, & Zeichner, 2007;Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993Zeichner, 1995;Zeichner & Noffke, 2001). ...
... Teacher research offers a different view of the relationship between knowledge and practice, as well as the role of practitioners in educational research (Caro-Bruce, Flessner, Klehr, & Zeichner, 2007;Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993Lytle & Cochran-Smith, 1990Zeichner, 1995;Zeichner & Noffke, 2001). As Cochran-Smith and Lytle ( , 1999bLytle ( , 2009 have argued, teacher-researchers are likely to ask different questions than university-based researchers and often offer different perspectives in their results. ...
... Over two and a half decades ago, Cochran-Smith and Lytle's (1993) book Inside/Outside: Teacher Research and Knowledge ushered in renewed interest in teacher research. Their book gave momentum to a growing movement of teacher research and offered an argument for its inclusion and elevation of stature within the larger field of educational research. ...
... 23) of one's own practice would become our project's central tenet. While practitioner inquiry is commonly associated with teachers working in schools (see Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993;Anderson et al., 1994), Hall (Sage, n.d) explains that this methodology is "about the practitioner, whether they're a teacher, a lawyer, a doctor, or a social worker, thinking about their work in a curious, but also a very systematic way" (0.29s -0.38s). Our literature searches did not reveal other studies in the fields of environmental education and outdoor recreation that had employed a PI research design to explore issues of sustainability; this study thus enters novel methodological ground in these fields. ...
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Amidst a vast jungle of products, brands, materials, labels, and systems of global trade and production, it has become increasingly challenging to make consumption choices that may be considered "sustainable". This inquiry examines the decision-making process of a team of university outdoor environmental educators, as they puzzled over the most appropriate shell jacket to purchase for their outdoor teaching. The project's first aim was to determine the team's most important features of sustainability with regard to clothing procurement, while the second was to interrogate these features in relation to germane literature and guidance. Driven by a practitioner inquiry approach, the team of eight interrogated their own beliefs, assumptions, and knowledge about outdoor clothing over seven months. Data were generated through four group discussions, where the content from each was thematically analyzed and then used as a platform for the following meeting. Ultimately, four factors emerged as central to informing their outdoor clothing purchases: (1) durability, (2) assurances of ecologically friendly production, (3) assurances of fair labour conditions, and (4) underlying socio-political motivators. Navigating the varied and shifting ground of eco-labels and certifications in relation to environmental sustainability and fair labour conditions is highlighted as a central challenge to making nature-and human-friendly purchases. Interrogating the drivers and surrounding information around material consumption is positioned as a valuable pedagogical enterprise in itself.
... This movement in education research came in response to both positivist process-product conceptions of the interactions between research, policy, and teaching practice and critical theoretical assertions that teachers' thinking was compromised by problematic ideologies (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993;Connelly & Clandinin, 1988;Pratt & Rosiek, 2021;Rosiek & Atkinson, 2005;Rosiek & Gleason, 2017;Shulman, 1986Shulman, , 1987etc.). The new movement focused variously on promoting the importance of teacher knowledge, teacher practical knowledge, personal practical knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, teacher action research, teacher inquiry, among other areas. ...
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As teachers engage with what is taught, rather than a sense of the distribution of inert knowledge, there can be a feeling that the “what” is moving and adapting with them. This is especially true when teachers are working with topics like anti-Black racism. The what being taught, or the curriculum-as-a-whole has been analyzed by cutting it apart into many different aspects including the planned, the assessed, the learned, the hidden, the null, and the enacted. This dissertation focuses on the enacted curricula specifically as it is co-produced in the class and highlights how the teacher is not the only aspect of that class with the agency to shift the enacted curriculum. These conclusions are based on four case studies of enacted antiracist curricula. The enactments of these curricula were undertaken by elementary, middle, and high school teachers in three different cities and were re-storied in a series of interviews with the author. This dissertation concludes that anti-Black racism is always already influencing the curriculum as it is conceived, planned, enacted, and re-storied, though it is particularly influential in the liminal spaces.
... Furthermore, Faez and Valeo (2012) point out that teachers enact their education through their experience, assumptions, and personal differences J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f and can explain it by their context. This means that teachers learn through formal and informal experience and then situate their knowledge according to certain surrounding conditions such as elements of power (Pennycook, 1989), sociocultural factors, personal factors, which includes their beliefs and values, and then they construct and theorise knowledge in the form of teaching methods -post methods pedagogy-which they claim as their own (Kumaravadivelu, 1994;Johnson, 2006;Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993;Johnson, 2003;Cirock, Madyarov, & Baecher, 2019). It also means that teachers need to grow awareness of themselves as learners, their own identities, and how they construct knowledge within their contexts. ...
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This study explores twelve Saudi teachers’ course content and experiences in local and international MA TESOL programs. The researcher uses an epistemological lens to consider the theoretical content derived from both behaviourist and cognitivist learning theories, which are part of a positivist paradigm in contrast to constructivist pedagogical knowledge concerned with teachers' knowledge construction of teaching through practice and reflection. The findings suggest that TESOL programs are primarily founded on a positivist paradigm, focusing on content and pedagogical knowledge. The researcher calls for constructivist approaches that prioritize practicums, engagement with contextual sociocultural histories, and students-teachers reflective work.
... This paper is grounded in critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 2013;Gee, 2014), discourse studies (Blommaert, 2005;Bloome, Carter, Christian, Otto, & Shuart-Faris, 2005) and interactional sociolinguistics (Green & Wallet, 1981;Gumperz, 1986) and applied to the analysis of professional conversations (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993;Feldman, 1994). We rely on Bakhtin's (1986) and Volosinov's (1973) assertion of the inherent dialogical nature of language such that any utterance is always a reflection of and refraction of other people's words and utterances across different social contexts. ...
... These courses focused on the contexts of the schools in which candidates will teach and the students and families with whom they will work, as well as how to engage students in inquiry-based science and dialogic mathematical practices. Finally, students were required to conduct research into their own teaching and develop an ongoing inquiry stance into their practice as a means of developing a familiarity with the cycle of inquiry and its practical application to practice (Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993). They also include content preparation courses, in which candidates learn theoretical concepts associated with inquiry-based science instruction (Keys & Bryan, 2001;Crawford, Capps & van Driel, 2014;Lakin & Wallace, 2015) and dialogic mathematics (Munter, Stein & Smith, 2015;Kazak, Wegerif & Fujita, 2015;Bakker, Smith & Wegerif, 2015). ...
... Three teachers used practitioner research to study how to support learners who struggled with achieving rigorous, academic expectations in detracked, biology and geometry classes. Several scholars define practitioner research as the systematic study of one's own teaching practice through collaborative discussions and individual reflections around specific data pieces collected throughout the planning, implementation, and analysis phases of the practitioner research study (Campbell, 2013;Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 1993, 2009Dana & Yendol-Hoppey, 2008, 2009Lytle, 1996). One of the main reasons that a teacher engages in practitioner research is to study their classroom practice in order to take action that leads to improvement in instruction and ultimately student outcomes (Dana and Yendol-Hoppey, 2014). ...
Article
Scientific or academic publications have become the best accepted media for scientific and academic communities—mainly established in universities or research centers—to share the knowledge they create and give it greater visibility worldwide. That is, these journals are at the core of scientific communication, which requires permanent assessment of the editorial work and careful planning bearing in mind the responsibilities and needs of the stakeholders that are involved in the production and use of these periodical publications. In this article, I share an improvement plan for the Profile journal, whose purpose is to strengthen the journal’s editorial management and, thus, support the generation and consolidation of communities of teacher researchers.