Revisiting the seed and soil in cancer metastasis

Tumor and Metastasis Biology Section, Pediatric Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology (Impact Factor: 4.05). 08/2009; 41(7):1452-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2009.01.015
Source: PubMed


Metastasis remains the overwhelming cause of death for cancer patients. During metastasis, cancer cells will leave the primary tumor, intravasate into the bloodstream, arrest at a distant organ, and eventually develop into gross lesions at the secondary sites. This intricate process is influenced by innumerable factors and complex cellular interactions described in 1889 by Stephen Paget as the seed and soil hypothesis. In this review, we revisit this seed and soil hypothesis with an emerging understanding of the cancer cell (i.e. seed) and its microenvironment (i.e. soil). We will provide background to suggest that a critical outcome of the seed-soil interaction is resistance of the stresses that would otherwise impede metastasis.

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    • "The NI ability of hilar-CCA was evaluated by hilar-CCA and perineural cells coculture migration assay with three replicates. Hilar-CCA cells was cocultured with perineural cells using Matrigel invasion chamber purchased from BD Biocoat Cellware (San Jose, CA, USA) as previously reported.18 Medium (0.5 µL) containing 5×105 hilar-CCA cells was added to the upper chamber, and 0.5 mL of either medium alone or medium containing 1 to 2×104 HPC cells was added to the lower chamber. "
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