Article

Endurance and neuromuscular changes in world-class level kayakers during a periodized training cycle

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Abstract

This study was undertaken to analyze changes in selected cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables in a group of elite kayakers across a 12-week periodized cycle of combined strength and endurance training. Eleven world-class level paddlers underwent a battery of tests and were assessed four times during the training cycle (T0, T1, T2, and T3). On each occasion subjects completed an incremental test to exhaustion on the kayak-ergometer to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), peak blood lactate, paddling speed at VO2max (PSmax) and at VT2 (PSVT2), stroke rate at VO2max and at VT2, heart rate at VO2max and at VT2. One-repetition maximum (1RM) and mean velocity with 45% 1RM load (V 45%) were assessed in the bench press (BP) and prone bench pull (PBP) exercises. Anthropometric measurements (skinfold thicknesses and muscle girths) were also obtained. Training volume and exercise intensity were quantified for each of three training phases (P1, P2, and P3). Significant improvements in VO2max (9.5%), VO2 at VT2 (9.4%), PSmax (6.2%), PSVT2 (4.4%), 1RM in BP (4.2%) and PBP (5.3%), V 45% in BP (14.4%) and PBP (10.0%) were observed from T0 to T3. A 12-week periodized strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase (i.e. muscle hypertrophy and VT2 in P1, and maximal strength and aerobic power in P2) seems effective for improving both cardiovascular and neuromuscular markers of highly trained top-level athletes.

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... In two studies [15,18] the velocity loss method was used, where the set of the given exercise is stopped after movement velocity falls below a certain threshold. Garcia-Pallares et al. [15] analyzed changes in selected cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables during a 12-week training cycle. ...
... In two studies [15,18] the velocity loss method was used, where the set of the given exercise is stopped after movement velocity falls below a certain threshold. Garcia-Pallares et al. [15] analyzed changes in selected cardiovascular and neuromuscular variables during a 12-week training cycle. Using this periodized cycle, eleven world-class level paddlers underwent a battery of tests four times (T0, T1, T2, and T3). ...
... This in turn will help maintain a higher quality of neuromuscular work (strength, power, speed) performed during a training session and ultimately increase specific performance (sprint, jump, change of direction performance, etc.). Velocity losses/thresholds of 10% [15], 15%, and 30% [18] were used in the reviewed studies. ...
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Due to drawbacks of the percentage-based approach, velocity-based training was proposed as a method to better and more accurately prescribe training loads to increase general and specific performance. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the studies that show effects of velocity-based resistance training on strength and power performance in elite athletes. Electronic searches of computerized databases were performed according to a protocol that was agreed by all co-authors. Four databases—SportDiscus with Full Text and MEDLINE via EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science—were searched. Seven studies were found which researched the effects of velocity-based resistance training on athletes after a given training period. The analyzed studies suggest that applying velocity losses of 10–20% can help induce neuromuscular adaptations and reduce neuromuscular fatigue. Using velocity zones as part of a separate or combined (e.g., plyometric) training program can elicit adaptations in body composition and performance parameters. Moreover, velocity zones can be programmed using a periodized or non-periodized fixed velocity zones protocol. Lastly, obtaining instantaneous feedback during training is a more effective tool for increasing performance in sport-specific parameters, and should be used by sport practitioners to help keep athletes accountable for their performance.
... This partitioning into zones allows the fractional distribution of exercise intensity (e.g., within a training session or a mesoand macrocycle) to be quantified. Previously, the following three-zone model has been employed most widely: (i) Zone (Z) 1, in which the intensity is at or below the aerobic threshold; (ii) Z2, with an intensity between the aerobic and anaerobic thresholds; and (iii) Z3, involving an intensity above the anaerobic threshold (Esteve-Lanao et al., 2005;Seiler and Kjerland, 2006;García-Pallarés et al., 2009Plews et al., 2014;Baldassarre et al., 2019;Bellinger et al., 2020). [For further details concerning the concepts of aerobic and anaerobic thresholds, please see Faude et al. (2009)]. ...
... To date, only two prospective reports have evaluated the utilization of different TID by elite sprint kayakers (García-Pallarés et al., 2009, revealing that for these athletes an emphasis on Z2 or Z3 is effective and comparable to the pyramidal or polarized TID in other sports in which the legs play a predominant role. However, prospective training interventions such as these are relatively short and often alter the typical training schedule in an artificial manner. ...
... One explanation for this finding is that low-intensity training is needed to counteract potential negative effects (e.g., autonomic and hormonal stress, energy depletion) of training at intensities at or above threshold intensity (Bourgois et al., 2019). In contrast, two prospective examinations of the TID of elite Spanish sprint kayakers describe an emphasis on Z2 and Z3, with a block of high-intensity peaking designed to improve submaximal and maximal performance (García-Pallarés et al., 2009. The first of these studies involved 12 weeks of such block periodization and the follow-up study this same 12-week block periodization in combination with 22 weeks of linear periodization divided into three periods of training. ...
Article
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Purpose: To evaluate retrospectively the training intensity distribution (TID) among highly trained canoe sprinters during a single season and to relate TID to changes in performance. Methods: The heart rates during on-water training by 11 German sprint kayakers (7 women, 4 men) and one male canoeist were monitored during preparation periods (PP) 1 and 2, as well as during the period of competition (CP) (total monitoring period: 37 weeks). The zones of training intensity (Z) were defined as Z1 [<80% of peak oxygen consumption (VO 2peak )], Z2 (81–87% VO 2peak ) and Z3 (>87% VO 2peak ), as determined by 4 × 1,500-m incremental testing on-water. Prior to and after each period, the time required to complete the last 1,500-m stage (all-out) of the incremental test (1,500-m time-trial), velocities associated with 2 and 4 mmol·L ⁻¹ blood lactate (v2 [BLa] , v4 [BLa] ) and VO 2peak were determined. Results: During each period, the mean TID for the entire group was pyramidal (PP1: 84/12/4%, PP2: 80/12/8% and CP: 91/5/4% for Z1, Z2, Z3) and total training time on-water increased from 5.0 ± 0.9 h (PP1) to 6.1 ± 0.9 h (PP2) and 6.5 ± 1.0 h (CP). The individual ranges for Z1, Z2 and Z3 were 61–96, 2–26 and 0–19%. During PP2 VO 2peak (25.5 ± 11.4%) markedly increased compared to PP1 and CP and during PP1 v2 [bla] (3.6 ± 3.4%) showed greater improvement compared to PP2, but not to CP. All variables related to performance improved as the season progressed, but no other effects were observed. With respect to time-trial performance, the time spent in Z1 ( r = 0.66, p = 0.01) and total time in all three zones ( r = 0.66, p = 0.01) showed positive correlations, while the time spent in Z2 ( r = −0.57, p = 0.04) was negatively correlated. Conclusions: This seasonal analysis of the effects of training revealed extensive inter-individual variability. Overall, TID was pyramidal during the entire period of observation, with a tendency toward improvement in VO 2peak , v2 [bla] , v4 [bla] and time-trial performance. During PP2, when the COVID-19 lockdown was in place, the proportion of time spent in Z3 doubled, while that spent in Z1 was lowered; the total time spent training on water increased; these changes may have accentuated the improvement in performance during this period. A further increase in total on-water training time during CP was made possible by reductions in the proportions of time spent in Z2 and Z3, so that more fractions of time was spent in Z1.
... To overload specific variables that optimise physical performance preparation, professional team-sport athletes often perform multiple training sessions per day (Johnston et al., 2017), including technical, speed, aerobic and strength-focused activities. Whilst some studies report positive adaptations to the performance of multiple training sessions, or training aims, in a concurrent training paradigm (García-Pallarés, Sánchez-Medina, Carrasco, Díaz, & Izquierdo, 2009), a reduced training effect (Jones, Howatson, Russell, & French, 2016), proposed due to a failure to maintain training performance (Leveritt, Abernethy, Barry, & Logan, 1999) and compromised molecular signalling (Hawley, 2009), may also occur. The physiological responses to, and fatigue experienced after, exercise is specific to the intensity (Seiler, Haugen, & Kuffel, 2007), volume (Lepers, Maffiuletti, Rochette, Brugniaux, & Millet, 2002) and mode (Sparkes et al., 2020) and can persist for several days (Brownstein et al., 2017). ...
... 5-6 h between training sessions), speed training performance may be enhanced when preceded by strength training two hours prior (Johnston et al., 2017). When repeated, this enhanced training performance may result in greater adaptive response and improved competitive performance (García-Pallarés et al., 2009). However, as the performance of prior training may impair subsequent performance (Doma & Deakin, 2013) and strength development (Jones et al., 2016), it is clear that the understanding of these responses is important when targeting specific adaptations (García-Pallarés et al., 2009). ...
... When repeated, this enhanced training performance may result in greater adaptive response and improved competitive performance (García-Pallarés et al., 2009). However, as the performance of prior training may impair subsequent performance (Doma & Deakin, 2013) and strength development (Jones et al., 2016), it is clear that the understanding of these responses is important when targeting specific adaptations (García-Pallarés et al., 2009). ...
Article
The 20 h responses of International female netball players to training days requiring two sessions (netball and strength, separated by two hours) ordered alternatively were examined. Eleven players completed strength followed by netball training two hours later (STR-NET), with the order reversed (NET-STR) on a separate day. Well-being, neuromuscular performance (jump height [JH], peak power output [PPO], peak velocity [PV]) and endocrine function (testosterone, cortisol concentrations) were measured before sessions one (PreS1) and two (PreS2), immediately after sessions one (IPS1) and two (IPS2), and 20 h post session one (20P). Session and differential ratings of perceived exertion (upper-body, cognitive/technical [RPE-T], lower-body, breathlessness), were collected, and accelerometry and heart rate measured netball load. Identification of clear between-order differences were based on the nonoverlap of the 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for mean differences relative to baseline. Compared to PreS1, greater increases in JH (percentage difference between trials; 95%CI: 9%; 4 to 14%), PPO (5%; 2 to 8%), PV (3%; 1 to 5%) and cortisol concentration (45%; 1 to 88%), and a greater decrease for testosterone/cortisol ratio (-35%; -72 to -2%) occurred at PreS2 in NET-STR. At 20P, greater decreases in JH (10%; 5 to 15%), PPO (4%; 1 to 8%) and PV (4%; 2 to 6%) were observed following STR-NET. No differences existed for well-being, whilst RPE-T was greater (15 AU; 3 to 26 AU) for strength training during NET-STR. Session order influenced neuromuscular and endocrine responses in International female netball players, highlighting session ordering as a key consideration when planning training.
... Flat-water sprint kayak athletes require highly developed aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to be competitive across each of the 200-, 500-, and 1000-m Olympic distance events. [1][2][3] Consequently, the classification of training intensity into welldefined training zones has become common practice to control and optimize the development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. ...
... [1][2][3] Consequently, the classification of training intensity into welldefined training zones has become common practice to control and optimize the development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. ...
... [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. 4 However, these methods are arbitrary, and likely fail to account for individual, and activity-specific variation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To compare methods of monitoring and prescribing on-water exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], stroke rate [SR], and power output [PO]) during sprint kayak training. Methods: Twelve well-trained flat-water sprint kayak athletes completed a preliminary on-water 7 × 4-min graded exercise test and a 1000-m time trial to delineate individual training zones for PO, HR, and SR into a 5-zone model (T1-T5). Subsequently, athletes completed 2 repeated trials of an on-water training session, where intensity was prescribed based on individual PO zones. Times quantified for T1-T5 during the training session were then compared between PO, HR, and SR. Results: Total time spent in T1 was higher for HR (P < .01) compared with PO. Time spent in T2 was lower for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T3 was not different between PO, SR, and HR (P > .05). Time spent in T4 was higher for HR (P < .001) and SR (P < .001) compared with PO. Time spent in T5 was higher for SR (P = .03) compared with PO. Differences were found between the prescribed and actual time spent in T1-T5 when using PO (P < .001). Conclusions: The measures of HR and SR misrepresented time quantified for T1-T5 as prescribed by PO. The stochastic nature of PO during on-water training may explain the discrepancies between prescribed and actual time quantified for power across these zones. For optimized prescription and monitoring of athlete training loads, coaches should consider the discrepancies between different measures of intensity and how they may influence intensity distribution.
... Flat-water sprint kayak athletes require highly developed aerobic and anaerobic energy systems to be competitive across each of the 200-, 500-, and 1000-m Olympic distance events. [1][2][3] Consequently, the classification of training intensity into welldefined training zones has become common practice to control and optimize the development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. ...
... [1][2][3] Consequently, the classification of training intensity into welldefined training zones has become common practice to control and optimize the development of both aerobic and anaerobic capacities. [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. ...
... [3][4][5] Monitoring the time spent within defined training zones enables coaches to evaluate an athlete's training intensity distribution throughout the training session and the program as a whole. 3,5,6 To delineate training zones for sprint kayak athletes, internal load measures of heart rate (HR), calculated relative to standardized percentages of maximal HR (%HR max ), and generic blood lactate (BLa) concentration ranges have previously been recommended. 4 However, these methods are arbitrary, and likely fail to account for individual, and activity-specific variation. ...
Conference Paper
INTRODUCTION: Current practice for the classification of exercise intensity in Flat-water sprint kayaking involves the use of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) measures (1). However, HR measures are limited by cardiovascular drift during long-duration bouts and a lag time during high intensity, short-duration efforts (2). Moreover, measures of SR are typically delineated into generic SR-bands which ignore individual variation (1). In other sports, measures of power output (PO) are used for load quantification, since this measure provides the most direct intensity indicator (2). In kayaking, recent advances in wireless instrumented paddle technology now enable coaches to utilise real-time PO measures for training monitoring and prescription. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the use of individualised HR, SR and PO-zones for quantifying sprint kayak training. METHODS: Twelve well-trained, sprint kayakers completed a preliminary on-water 7x4 min graded exercise test and a 200, 500 and 1000m time-trial for the delineation of individualised training zones for HR (5-zone model, T1-T5), SR and PO (8-zone model, T1-T8). Subsequently, athletes completed two repeated trials of an aerobic (AER), a high-intensity interval (HIIT) and a sprint interval (SIT) training session, where intensity was prescribed by individual PO-zones. Time spent in T1-T8 during each training session were then compared between PO, HR and SR. RESULTS: Compared to PO, time-in-zone using HR was higher in T1 (p<0.001) across all training sessions, was lower for T2 and higher for T4 (p<0.001) in AER, and lower for T5 (p<0.001) in HIIT. Average and peak HR were not different between HIIT and SIT (p=0.823; p>0.999). Time-in-zone using SR was higher for T4 (p<0.001) and T5 (p=0.028) in AER, higher for T4 (p<0.001) and lower for T5 (p=0.005) and T6 (p<0.001) in HIIT, and lower for T7 (p=0.001) and higher for T8 (p=0.004) in SIT compared to PO. In all training sessions, differences were found between the prescribed and actual time spent in T1-T8 when using PO (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: HR and SR misrepresented the time spent in T1-T8 as prescribed by PO. HR measures were unable to differentiate the training demands across different high-intensity interval sessions and could therefore misrepresent the training load of such sessions. Measures of SR appear limited for quantifying decrements in intensity due to fatigue, whereas PO may be more suitable. The stochastic nature of PO and the influence of unpredictable on-water conditions likely explain the discrepancies between the prescribed and actual time-in-zone for this measure. For optimised training prescription and monitoring, coaches should consider the discrepancies between different measures of intensity, and how they may influence intensity distribution. 1. N. Bullock et al., Physiological Tests for Elite Athletes 2, 421-433 (2012). 2. D. Sanders et al., International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 9, 1-20 (2017).
... 32 Body fat has been associated with poorer performances as race distance increases, 2 while low adiposity values are advantageous in decreasing the total weight and, therefore, the wetted area of the hull and friction drag. 6 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cicloergometri, 39,40 cicloergometro per braccia, 11,15,38,41,42 ergometri canoa 39,43,44 , ergometri kayak 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] e test in acqua. 22,35,38,60 Tuttavia, l'allenamento della parte superiore del corpo con la pagaia induce cambiamenti nel rapporto braccio-gamba dei parametri fisiologici a regime di lavoro submassimale e massimale, di conseguenza testare il lavoro esercitato dalle gambe in canoisti e kayaker non può fornire informazioni affidabili sulla loro potenza aerobica e sulle risposte cardiovascolari. ...
... 71 La principale fonte di energia dei pagaiatori proviene dal sistema aerobico, dal momento che questi trascorrono la maggior parte del tempo di gara nell'intorno del valore di VO 2peak . 29 15,17,22,25,26,34,40,42,48,51,52,55,57,63,73 e fem-ties through the years such as treadmills, 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cycle ergometers, 39,40 arm crankers, 11,15,38,41,42 canoe 39,43,44 or kayak ergometers 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and on-water tests. 22,35,38,60 However, paddling upper-body training induces changes in the arm-to-leg ratio of physiological parameters at submaximal and maximal work, so testing canoeists and kayakers by leg work cannot provide reliable information about their aerobic power and cardiovascular responses. ...
... 71 La principale fonte di energia dei pagaiatori proviene dal sistema aerobico, dal momento che questi trascorrono la maggior parte del tempo di gara nell'intorno del valore di VO 2peak . 29 15,17,22,25,26,34,40,42,48,51,52,55,57,63,73 e fem-ties through the years such as treadmills, 14,21,[35][36][37][38] cycle ergometers, 39,40 arm crankers, 11,15,38,41,42 canoe 39,43,44 or kayak ergometers 2,11,13,17,25,26,29,34,35,39,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58][59] and on-water tests. 22,35,38,60 However, paddling upper-body training induces changes in the arm-to-leg ratio of physiological parameters at submaximal and maximal work, so testing canoeists and kayakers by leg work cannot provide reliable information about their aerobic power and cardiovascular responses. ...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Flatwater canoeing is an Olympic sport in which two modalities are differentiated, kayak and canoe. However, the term “canoeing” is commonly used for both, which can give rise to confusion in the scientific literature despite the great differences between modalities. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was to conduct a systematic search of the scientific literature concerning canoeing and kayaking individually to highlight the main determinants of performance of male and female flatwater paddlers. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A thorough search up to June 2020 has been conducted in Scopus, Sport Discus and Web of Sciences databases for published literature on male and female flatwater canoeing and kayaking. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Male high-level kayakers and canoeists share similar mesomorph structures, with low fat percentages and strong muscled bodies, reporting high values of lean body mass, with kayakers slightly taller than canoeists. In addition, it has also been reported great levels of aerobic and anaerobic capacity together with a distinguished upper-body strength and muscle thickness, especially in arms and shoulders. Female kayakers follow the same trend with lower values than males. CONCLUSIONS: Canoeing and kayaking successful performance depends on a combination of anthropometric, physiological, biomechanical, neuromuscular, psychological and nutritional factors which differ among specialized kayak and canoe paddlers due their different paddling motor pattern. Hence, the importance of taking into account the specific characteristics and demands of each modality in terms of physical preparation and talent detection of female and male canoeists and kayakers.
... However, the ecological validity of such testing is questionable, with prior research showing discrepancies in physiological parameters, stroke rates (SR), muscle activity patterns and kinematic profiles between ergometer and on-water performance (Fleming, Donne, Fletcher, & Mahony, 2012;Klitgaard, Hauge, Oliveira, & Heinen, 2020;Villarino-Cabezas, González-Ravé, Santos-García, & Valdivielso, 2013;Winchcombe, Binnie, Doyle, Hogan, & Peeling, 2019). Furthermore, due to the technical difficulty of measuring PO on-water, the heart rate (HR) collected during the GXT that correspond to LT 1 and LT 2 are commonly used to demarcate onwater intensity into various training zones, which is then used for training monitoring and prescription purposes (Bullock et al., 2012;García-Pallarés, Sánchez-Medina, Carrasco, Díaz, & Izquierdo, 2009). However, HR measures can be heavily influenced by day-to-day biological variability (Bagger, 2003), and are limited by cardiovascular drift, delay, and the relative amplitude of the slow component of HR kinetics (Hogan, Binnie, Doyle, Lester, & Peeling, 2020a;Hogan, Binnie, Doyle, Lester, & Peeling, 2020b;Sanders, Myers, & Akubat, 2017;Zuccarelli, Porcelli, Rasica, Marzorati, & Grassi, 2018); accordingly, more direct and immediate measures of PO may be better suited for monitoring and prescribing training (Hogan et al., 2020a(Hogan et al., , 2020bSanders et al., 2017). ...
... From a training prescription perspective, the ability to accurately define athletes' LT 1 is important given that athletes from endurance-based sports spend ∼75% of their training at or below this threshold (Seiler & Kjerland, 2006). Indeed, training at or below LT 1 is particularly important early in the season or during an accumulation training phase where training is intended to develop aerobic endurance (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;Issurin, 2008). Given that maximal efforts over race-specific distances may not be relevant during these periods, and that the SEEs for the regression equations incorporating 1000-m MMP may be too high to accurately estimate LT 1 PO based upon time-trial data alone (SEE = 11.3%), the use of on-water GXTs may be the preferred testing methodology for delineating training zones during this time. ...
... Given that maximal efforts over race-specific distances may not be relevant during these periods, and that the SEEs for the regression equations incorporating 1000-m MMP may be too high to accurately estimate LT 1 PO based upon time-trial data alone (SEE = 11.3%), the use of on-water GXTs may be the preferred testing methodology for delineating training zones during this time. However, as athletes reach more competitive phases of the season, and both training intensities above LT 2 PO and performance over race-specific distances becomes more important (García-Pallarés et al., 2009), the use of a 1000-m timetrial could potentially become more relevant than GXTs for assessing performance and for estimating physiological thresholds to help delineate on-water training. The ability to inform athletes' LT 2 PO from a single 1000m time-trial is advantageous since it would provide a more feasible, and time-efficient testing protocol within the athletes' training schedule compared to GXTs, potentially allowing coaches and practitioners to monitor changes in LT 2 PO, and subsequently review individual training zones, more regularly. ...
Article
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This study utilised on-water graded exercise tests (GXT) to determine the power output (PO) corresponding to the first and second lactate thresholds (LT1PO and LT2PO), subsequently examining their relationship to the mean maximal power (MMP) and race time achieved across three on-water sprint kayak time-trials. Twelve well-trained sprint kayak athletes completed an on-water GXT and a 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-trial utilising novel instrumented paddle technology. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine whether equations incorporating 200-, 500- and 1000-m MMP data could be used as an alternative method for estimating LT1PO and LT2PO. On-water GXT derived LT1PO and LT2PO were 151±34 and 194±39 W, respectively. For the 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-trials, MMP were 528±143, 358±92 and 287±67 W, respectively. Athletes’ LT1PO and LT2PO had very-large inverse relationships to 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-to-completion (r=-.71 to -.85, P≤.010) and very-large, to near-perfect positive relationships to 200-, 500- and 1000-m MMP (r=.81 to .94, P≤.001). The equation incorporating 1000-m MMP alone provided the best prediction of LT1PO and LT2PO, explaining 78% and 88% of the variance, and yielding a standard error of estimate (SEE) of 11.3% and 7.1% for these measures, respectively. The results of this study provide further evidence to support the ecological validity of recently developed on-water GXTs graded by PO, since LT1PO and LT2PO were significantly correlated to 200-, 500- and 1000-m performance. Practitioners could also predict LT2PO with reasonable accuracy based solely from a 1000-m time-trial; potentially providing an alternative, non-invasive, competition-specific protocol for threshold determination.
... No obstante, conviene matizar que, tanto la frecuencia cardiaca como la potencia, proporcionan información diferente y complementaria. Como prueba de esto, distintos autores (Garcia-Pallares, Sanchez-Medina, Carrasco, Diaz, & Izquierdo, 2009;Garcia-Pallares, Sanchez-Medina, Esteban Perez, Izquierdo-Gabarren, & Izquierdo, 2010;Lucía, Hoyos, Pérez, & Chicharro, 2000) comprobaron que los valores de FC correspondientes a diferentes hitos fisiológicos relacionados con el rendimiento deportivo (VT1,VT2 y PAM), permanecieron estables durante el transcurso de un año completo de entrenamiento, a pesar de las adaptaciones funcionales significativas producidas por el entrenamiento en cada hito fisiológico. ...
... Las diferentes nomenclaturas que ha recibido el primer hito fisiológico de la transición aeróbica-anaeróbica (umbral aeróbico), desde mediados de siglo XX hasta principios de los años 80 del mismo siglo, se muestran en la siguiente tabla: El MLSS está considerado como un gran predictor del rendimiento en pruebas de fondo y medio fondo (Billat, Sirvent, Py, Koralsztein, & Mercier, 2003), siendo la disponibilidad de glucógeno, el principal factor limitante del esfuerzo a esta intensidad (Coyle, Coggan, Hemmert, & Ivy, 1986). Es asimismo el MLSS una parte predominante del entrenamiento aeróbico de los atletas de cualquier nivel competitivo (Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009). Fue Beneke (1995) quien por primera vez estandarizó el protocolo para su detección, consistente en varias cargas de trabajo a intensidad constante de 30 minutos de duración, que desde entonces es considerado el "Gold Standard" para la determinación del MLSS. ...
... El MLSS. Intensidad de entrenamiento habitual y predictor del rendimiento en pruebas de resistencia de larga duraciónLa velocidad de carrera y nado, así como la potencia de pedaleo a intensidad de MLSS, se han mostrado como grandes predictores del rendimiento en pruebas de fondo y medio fondo(Billat et al., 2003), siendo una intensidad de entrenamiento habitual en multitud de estos deportistas (Esteve-Lanao, Foster,Seiler, & Lucia, 2007;Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, et al., 2010;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009;. ...
Thesis
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The doctoral thesis presented in this document is structured in three different parts. The first part of the work is composed of studies I and II, where the validation work of two different workload cycling tools, “drive indoor trainer Cycleops Hammer” and “PowerTap P1 Pedals Power Meter “, is detailed. In both articles, randomized and counterbalanced incremental workload tests (100-500 W) were performed, at 70, 85 and 100 rev·min-1 cadence, with sitting and standing pedalling in 3 different Hammer unit cadences. Then, the results are compared against the values measured by a professional SRM crankset. In general terms, no significant differences were detected between the Hammer devices and the SRM, while strong intraclass correlation coefficients were observed (≥0.996; p=0.001), with low bias (-5,5 a 3,8), and high values of absolute reproducibility (CV<1,2%, SEM<2,1). The PowerTap P1 pedals showed strong correlation coefficients in a seated position (rho ≥ 0.987). They underestimated the power output obtained in a directly proportional way to the cadence, with an average error of 1.2%, 2.7%, 3.5% for 70, 85 and 100 rev∙min-1. However, they showed high absolute reproducibility values (150-500 W, CV = 2.3%, SEM <1.0W). These results prove that both are valid and reproducible devices to measure the power output in cycling, although caution should be exercised in the interpretation of the results due to the slight underestimation. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the study III, where the time to exhaustion (TTE) at the workloads related to the main events of the aerobic and anaerobic pathway in cycling were analysed in duplicate in a randomized and counterbalanced manner (Lactic anaerobic capacity (WAnTmean), the workload that elicit VO2max -MAP-, Second Ventilatory Threshold (VT2) and at Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS). TTE values were 00:28±00:07, 03:27±00:40, 11:03±04:45 and 76:35±12:27 mm:ss, respectively. Moderate between-subject reproducibility values were found (CV=22.2%,19.3%;43.1% and 16.3%), although low within-subject variability was found (CV=7.6%,6.9%;7.0% y 5.4%). According to these results, the %MAP where the physiological events were found seems to be a useful covariable to predict each TTE for training or competing purposes. Finally, in the third part of the work, the results of studies IV y V have been included. The validity of two different methods to estimate the cyclists’ workload at MLSS was evaluated. The first method was a 20 min time trial test (20TT), while the second method was a one-day incremental protocol including 4 steps of 10 minutes (1day_MLSS). The 20TT test absolute reproducibility, performed in duplicate, was very high (CV = -0.3±2.2%, ICC = 0.966, bias = 0.7±6.3 W). 95% of the mean 20TT workload overestimated the MLSS (bias 12.3±6.1W). In contrast, 91% of 20TT showed an accurate prediction of MLSS (bias 1.2±6.1 W), although the regression equation "MLSS (W) = 0.7489 * 20TT (W) + 43.203" showed even a better MLSS estimates (bias 0.1±5.0 W). Related to the 1day_MLSS test, the physiological steady state was determined as the highest workload that could be maintained with a [Lact] rise lower than 1mmol·L-1. No significant differences were detected between the MLSS (247±22 W) and the main construct of the test (DIF_10to10) (245±23 W), where the difference of [Lact] between minute 10 of two consecutive steps were considered, with high correlations (ICC = 0.960), low bias (2.2W), as well as high within-subject reliability (ICC = 0.846, CV = 0.4%, Bias = 2.2±6.4W). Both methods were revealed as valid predictors of the MLSS, significantly reducing the requirements needed to individually determine this specific intensity.
... 3 Multiple studies have investigated the influence of muscular strength on sprint kayaking performance. [4][5][6][7][8] For example, McKean and Burkett 7 showed that bench press 1-repetition maximum resulted in a large significant inverse correlation with time to 200 (r = −.74 to −.76), 500 (r = −.71 to −.75), and 1000 m (r = −.64 to −.66) distances, in both male and female kayakers. Although several studies have shown the importance of muscular strength and power on sprint kayak performance, most of these studies have included either only dynamic strength measurements of the upper body [4][5][6][7][8] or isometric strength using kayak-specific movement. ...
... [4][5][6][7][8] For example, McKean and Burkett 7 showed that bench press 1-repetition maximum resulted in a large significant inverse correlation with time to 200 (r = −.74 to −.76), 500 (r = −.71 to −.75), and 1000 m (r = −.64 to −.66) distances, in both male and female kayakers. Although several studies have shown the importance of muscular strength and power on sprint kayak performance, most of these studies have included either only dynamic strength measurements of the upper body [4][5][6][7][8] or isometric strength using kayak-specific movement. 3,9,10 Interestingly, only one study has endeavored to investigate the relationship between measures obtained from lower-limb strength assessment with sprint kayak performance. ...
Force-time characteristics obtained during isometric strength tests are significantly correlated to various sporting movements. However, data on the relationship between isometric force-time characteristics and sprint kayaking performance are lacking in the literature. Purpose: The purpose of the study was, therefore, to investigate the relationship between sprint kayaking performance with ergometer performance and measures from 3 isometric strength tests: isometric squat, isometric bench press, and isometric prone bench pull. Methods: A total of 23 sprint kayaking athletes performed all 3 tests, at 90° and 120° knee angles for isometric squat and at elbow angles for isometric bench press and isometric prone bench pull, and a 200-m sprint on-water to attain the fastest time-to-completion (OWTT) possible and on a kayak ergometer to attain the highest mean power (LABTT) possible. Results: There was a significant inverse correlation between OWTT and LABTT (r = -.90, P < .001). The peak forces achieved from all isometric strength tests were significantly correlated with time-to-completion for OWTT and mean power for LABTT (r = -.44 to -.88, P < .05 and .47 to .80, P < .05, respectively). OWTT was significantly correlated with the peak rate of force development during all isometric tests except for the isometric squat at a 120° knee angle (r = -.47 to -.62, P < .05). LABTT was significantly correlated with peak rate of force development from the isometric bench press and isometric prone bench pull (r = .64-.86, P < .01). Conclusion: Based on the observed strong correlations, the mean power attained during LABTT is a good predictor of OWTT time-to-completion. Furthermore, upper- and lower-body maximum strength and peak rate of force development are equally important for on-water and ergometer sprint kayaking performance.
... Such effects are evident despite 'best practice' in terms of nutritional and physical therapy countermeasures being applied. Furthermore, elite athletes reducing training at the end of their competitive season can expect rapid (within 5 weeks) declines in function, with the extent being related to the level of withdrawal from training [71]. Such data brings into stark focus the challenges that those involved in collision sports face, if athletes undergo enforced periods of reduced or absent training load. ...
... Focusing on elite athletes, bench press and bench pull performance were assessed in kayakers before and after five weeks of detraining following the World Championships [71]. Seven athletes discontinued all training, while seven completed a dramatically reduced volume of training that included one resistance training session per week. ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has resulted in widespread training disruption in many sports. Some athletes have access to facilities and equipment, while others have limited or no access, severely limiting their training practices. A primary concern is that the maintenance of key physical qualities (e. g. strength, power, high-speed running ability, acceleration, deceleration and change of direction), game-specific contact skills (e. g. tackling) and decision-making ability, are challenged, impacting performance and injury risk on resumption of training and competition. In extended periods of reduced training, without targeted intervention, changes in body composition and function can be profound. However, there are strategies that can dramatically mitigate potential losses, including resistance training to failure with lighter loads, plyometric training, exposure to high-speed running to ensure appropriate hamstring conditioning, and nutritional intervention. Athletes may require psychological support given the challenges associated with isolation and a change in regular training routine. While training restrictions may result in a decrease in some physical and psychological qualities, athletes can return in a positive state following an enforced period of rest and recovery. On return to training, the focus should be on progression of all aspects of training, taking into account the status of individual athletes.
... Elite cyclists typically spend up to 100 days in competition (Lucia et al., 2001), which is both a high physical and psychological exertion, with an inherent risk of burnout toward the end of the season (Silva, 1990;Lemyre et al., 2006). Although the need for a subsequent period of physical and mental recovery is regarded as necessary for elite athletes (Mujika et al., 2018), the manipulation of training in these transition periods is scarcely investigated (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009;Ronnestad et al., 2014). To recover from the strenuous competition period, cyclists' training load is often drastically reduced for 2-3 weeks in the subsequent transition period (Lucia et al., 2000;Sassi et al., 2008). ...
... Maintaining a minimum of training load in periods of decreased training volume seems necessary to avoid performance decrements (Mujika, 1998;Bosquet et al., 2007), with highintensity training (HIT) playing a key role for maintenance of endurance performance (Neufer, 1989;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009;Ronnestad et al., 2014). Maintenance of fitness in the transition period might also be crucial for continuous improvement in the following seasons of elite athletes (Mujika et al., 1995). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of including 30-s sprints in one weekly low-intensity training (LIT) session during a 3-wk transition period in elite cyclists. Sixteen male elite cyclists (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max: 72±5 mL·kg-1·min-1) reduced their training load by ~60% for 3 wks from the end of competitive season and performed only LIT (CON) or included 30-s sprints in one weekly LIT-session (SPR). Performance and physiological capacities were evaluated during a prolonged (~2.5 hrs) test-session, including a strength test, a submaximal blood lactate profile test, an incremental test to exhaustion to determine VO2max, 1 h continuous cycling including 4 maximal 30-s sprints, and a 20-min all-out test. In addition, mental recovery was evaluated using the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. The only significant between-group change during the transition period was an 8±11% larger improvement in 30-s sprint performance in SPR compared to CON (SPR: 4±5%, CON: -4±5%, p= .01). Although not different from CON, SPR maintained 20-min all-out performance (-1±5%, p= .37) and fractional utilization of VO2max (1.9±6.1 %-points, p= .18) during the 20-min all-out test, whereas corresponding declines were observed in CON (-3±5%, p= .04, and -2.5±2.9 %-points, p= .02, respectively). Power output at 4 mmol·L-1 blood lactate concentration decreased similarly in SPR (-4±4%, p= .02) and CON (-5±5%, p= .01), while VO2max, maximal aerobic power (Wmax), and total burnout score were unaffected in both groups. Including sprints in one weekly LIT-session in the transition period improves sprint performance and maintains 20-min all-out power and fractional utilization of VO2max without compromising mental recovery. Inclusion of sprints in LIT-sessions may therefore be a plausible, time-efficient strategy during short periods of reduced training.
... The incremental maximal test protocol had earlier been applied on world class paddlers [18]. Briefly, five min warm-up at a target speed of 9 km h -1 was performed first. ...
... at the beginning of a training period [18]. Of note, the present kayakers were relatively young. ...
Article
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Moderate paddling, as in long distance kayaking, constitutes an endurance activity, which shares energetic aspects with activities such as long distance running and road cycling. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in moderate paddling there is a U-shaped relationship between oxygen uptake and stroke rate, and also whether elite kayakers apply a freely chosen stroke rate, which is energetically optimal. Eleven young male elite kayakers performed moderate kayak ergometry at preset target stroke rates of 65, 75, and 90 strokes min-1, and at a freely chosen stroke rate, while physiological responses including oxygen uptake were measured. The results showed that considering average values calculated across all participants, there was an approximately U-shaped relationship between oxygen uptake and target stroke rate with a minimum at 75 strokes min-1. The freely chosen stroke rate was 67.0 ± 6.1 strokes min-1. Thus, the freely chosen stroke rate, for the group in total, appeared to be lower and require higher oxygen uptake as compared to the energetically optimal preset target stroke rate. Eight out of 11 participants had a higher oxygen uptake (5.1% ± 6.7%, p = 0.028, across all participants) at their freely chosen stroke rate than at the preset target stroke rate, which resulted in the lowest oxygen uptake. In conclusion, an approximately U-shaped relationship between oxygen uptake and stroke rate for young elite kayakers during moderate ergometer kayaking was found. Additionally, the freely chosen stroke rate was systematically lower and, consequently, required higher oxygen uptake than the preset stroke rate, which resulted in the lowest oxygen uptake.
... Trunk and upper extremities hugely participate in paddling efforts to overcome water resistance on both sprint and slalom races García-García et al., 2015). Thus, strength and conditioning coaches regularly prescribe dry-land training based on the bench press and pull for paddlers (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;Bielik et al., 2018). This factor explains why these exercises are adopted for studying the strength/power of these athletes (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011;Ualí et al., 2012;McKean and Burkett, 2014;Bielik et al., 2018). ...
... Thus, strength and conditioning coaches regularly prescribe dry-land training based on the bench press and pull for paddlers (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;Bielik et al., 2018). This factor explains why these exercises are adopted for studying the strength/power of these athletes (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;García-Pallarés and Izquierdo, 2011;Ualí et al., 2012;McKean and Burkett, 2014;Bielik et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study aimed to compare the aerobic power (treadmill running) and muscle power (bench press and bench pull) of Junior/U23 paddlers from Slovakia who won medals in international championships with that of those who did not take the podium. Forty-three Slovak Junior/U23 paddlers (sprint = 24, medalists = 8, non-medalists = 16; slalom = 19, medalists = 11, non-medalists = 8) were tested in 2018 and 2019 after the world championships. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO 2max) were determined by the incremental running protocol (0% slope and 1 km·h −1 increments every minute until volitional exhaustion). Mean maximal power from the entire concentric phase was recorded during bench press and bench pull exercises by the validated TENDO weightlifting analyzer. No interaction was obtained between medal and canoe discipline for VO 2max (p = 0.069, F = 3.495), vVO 2max (p = 0.552, F = 0.361) and absolute (bench press: p = 0.486, F = 0.495; bench pull: p = 0.429, F = 0.640) or relative (bench press: p = 0.767, F = 0.089; bench pull: p = 0.696, F = 0.155) mean maximal power. Conversely, a significant effect for the medal on the bench press (absolute p = 0.017, F = 6.170; relative p = 0.043, F = 4.384) and the bench pull (absolute p = 0.041, F = 4.470) mean maximal power were observed. Our study indicates the absolute mean power on the bench press as a prerequisite for success in international Junior/U23 championships of slalom and sprint canoeing. However, the mean power on bench pull seems to have a deeper influence on sprint paddlers when compared to slalom athletes. Regarding the aerobic power, the data from the treadmill testing did not reveal outcomes between medalists and non-medalists. This result can be associated with the lack of specificity of the incremental treadmill testing for canoeing, and future studies are encouraged to propose specific protocols to compare the aerobic power of medalists and non-medalists in international slalom and sprint championships.
... Such effects are evident despite 'best practice' in terms of nutritional and physical therapy countermeasures being applied. Furthermore, elite athletes reducing training at the end of their competitive season can expect rapid (within 5 weeks) declines in function, with the extent being related to the level of withdrawal from training [71]. Such data brings into stark focus the challenges that those involved in collision sports face, if athletes undergo enforced periods of reduced or absent training load. ...
... Focusing on elite athletes, bench press and bench pull performance were assessed in kayakers before and after five weeks of detraining following the World Championships [71]. Seven athletes discontinued all training, while seven completed a dramatically reduced volume of training that included one resistance training session per week. ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has resulted in widespread training disruption in many sports. Some athletes have access to facilities and equipment, while others have limited or no access, severely limiting their training practices. A primary concern is that the maintenance of key physical qualities (e. g. strength, power, high-speed running ability, acceleration, deceleration and change of direction), game-specific contact skills (e. g. tackling) and decision-making ability, are challenged, impacting performance and injury risk on resumption of training and competition. In extended periods of reduced training, without targeted intervention, changes in body composition and function can be profound. However, there are strategies that can dramatically mitigate potential losses, including resistance training to failure with lighter loads, plyometric training, exposure to high-speed running to ensure appropriate hamstring conditioning, and nutritional intervention. Athletes may require psychological support given the challenges associated with isolation and a change in regular training routine. While training restrictions may result in a decrease in some physical and psychological qualities, athletes can return in a positive state following an enforced period of rest and recovery. On return to training, the focus should be on progression of all aspects of training, taking into account the status of individual athletes.
... Elite cyclists typically spend up to 100 days in competition (Lucia et al., 2001), which is both a high physical and psychological exertion, with an inherent risk of burnout toward the end of the season (Silva, 1990;Lemyre et al., 2006). Although the need for a subsequent period of physical and mental recovery is regarded as necessary for elite athletes (Mujika et al., 2018), the manipulation of training in these transition periods is scarcely investigated (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009;Ronnestad et al., 2014). To recover from the strenuous competition period, cyclists' training load is often drastically reduced for 2-3 weeks in the subsequent transition period (Lucia et al., 2000;Sassi et al., 2008). ...
... Maintaining a minimum of training load in periods of decreased training volume seems necessary to avoid performance decrements (Mujika, 1998;Bosquet et al., 2007), with highintensity training (HIT) playing a key role for maintenance of endurance performance (Neufer, 1989;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009;Ronnestad et al., 2014). Maintenance of fitness in the transition period might also be crucial for continuous improvement in the following seasons of elite athletes (Mujika et al., 1995). ...
... In addition, the participants were instructed to assess the subjective sleep quality in the morning after waking up using the Karolinska Sleep Diary (KSD) [24], which addresses the following points: [29]. In addition, non-failure training would be an especially interesting method in sport modalities in which there is a necessity to develop simultaneously strength, endurance and technical capacities due to its faster time course of recovery [30]. ...
Article
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Resistance training (RT) variables can affect sleep quality, strength recovery and performance. The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of RT leading to failure vs. non-failure on sleep quality (SQ), heart rate variability (HRV) overnight and one-repetition maximum (1-RM) performance 24 hours after training. Fifteen resistance-trained male athletes (age: 23.4 ± 2.4 years; height 178.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight: 78.2 ± 10.6 kg) performed two training sessions in a randomized order, leading to failure (4x10) or non-failure (5x8(10) repetitions), with 90 seconds for resting between sets at 75% 1-RM in bench press (BP) and half squat (HS). The day after, the participants completed the predicted 1-RM test for both exercises. In addition, the subjective and actigraphic SQ and HRV during sleep were measured after each training session. The day after the training protocol leading to failure, the 1-RM of BP (MD = 7.24 kg; -7.2%; p < 0.001) and HS (MD = 20.20 kg; -11.1%; p < 0.001) decreased. However, this parameter did not decrease after a non-failure RT session. No differences were observed between failure and non-failure training sessions on SQ and HRV; therefore, both types of training sessions similarly affected the SQ and the autonomic modulation during the night after the training session. This study provides an insight into the influence of different training strategies on SQ, strength performance and recovery after moderate- to high-demand training. This information could be useful especially for professional coaches, weightlifters and bodybuilders, due to the potential influence on the programming processes.
... For optimal competition preparation, athletes undergo specialised training programmes which emphasise effort durations and intensities that are race-specific (Oliveira Borges, Dascombe, Bullock, & Coutts, 2015;Zouhal et al., 2012). To quantify the training demands for these athletes, current practice involves the measurement of heart rate (HR), where intensity is classified into aerobic training zones (Bullock, Woolford, Peeling, & Bonetti, 2012;Garcia-Pallares, Garcia-Fernandez, Sanchez-Medina, & Izquierdo, 2010;García-Pallarés, Sánchez-Medina, Carrasco, Díaz, & Izquierdo, 2009). In high-performance settings, these aerobic training zones are delineated into a 3-or 5-zone intensity model using established physiological criteria such as the first and second blood lactate (BLa) thresholds (LT 1 and LT 2 ) (Bullock et al., 2012;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;Seiler, 2010). ...
Article
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This study examined the utility of novel measures of power output (PO) compared to traditional measures of heart rate (HR) and stroke rate (SR) for quantifying high-intensity sprint kayak training. Twelve well-trained, male and female sprint kayakers (21.3 ± 6.8 y) completed an on-water graded exercise test (GXT) and a 200-, 500- and 1000-m time-trial for the delineation of individualised training zones (T) for HR (5-zone model, T1-T5), SR and PO (8-zone model, T1-T8). Subsequently, athletes completed two repeat trials of a high-intensity interval (HIIT) and a sprint interval (SIT) training session, where intensity was prescribed using individualised PO-zones. Time-in-zone (minutes) using PO, SR and HR was then compared for both HIIT and SIT. Compared to PO, time-in-zone using HR was higher for T1 in HIIT and SIT (P < 0.001, d ≥ 0.90) and lower for T5 in HIIT (P < 0.001, d = 1.76). Average and peak HR were not different between HIIT (160 ± 9 and 173 ± 11 bpm, respectively) and SIT (157 ± 13 and 174 ± 10 bpm, respectively) (P ≥ 0.274). In HIIT, time-in-zone using SR was higher for T4 (P < 0.001, d = 0.85) and was lower for T5 (P = 0.005, d = 0.43) and T6 (P < 0.001, d = 0.94) compared to PO. In SIT, time-in-zone using SR was lower for T7 (P = 0.001, d = 0.66) and was higher for T8 (P = 0.004, d = 0.70), compared to PO. Heart rate measures were unable to differentiate training demands across different high-intensity sessions, and could therefore misrepresent the training load in such instances. Furthermore, SR may not provide a sensitive measure for detecting changes in intensity due to fatigue, whereas PO may be more suitable.
... It is generally accepted by coaches and sports scientists that endurance and strength training modes of exercise, when repeated over time, elicit distinct and competing adaptive mechanisms, including the genetic and molecular mechanisms of adaptation, that generate the specific exercise induced phenotype associated with long-term training. However, many factors, such as the volume and specifically the intensity of the training program, may influence to what extent any adaptation occurs, aerobic or otherwise [18]. Indeed, similar adaptations to high-intensity interval training are likely to occur via resistance/strength training to volitional failure. ...
Article
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Citation: Jurasz, M.; Boraczyński, M.; Laskin, J.J.; Kamelska-Sadowska, A.M.; Podstawski, R.; Jaszczur-Nowicki, J.; Nowakowski, J.J.; Gronek, P. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Incremental Cycling Exercise in Endurance-and Strength-Trained Athletes. Biology 2022, 11, 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11050643
... The bench press is often used to strengthen the upper body [44] and is often assessed in many sports' performance testing batteries [7,45]. However, the 1RM bench press test does not provide data on the force-time characteristics for better understanding of an athlete's force generating capacities. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article was to review the data on the relationship between multi-joint isometric strength test (IsoTest) force-time characteristics (peak force, rate of force development and impulse) and dynamic performance that is available in the current literature. Four electronic databases were searched using search terms related to IsoTest. Studies were considered eligible if they were original research studies that investigated the relationships between multi-joint IsoTest and performance of dynamic movements; published in peer-reviewed journals; had participants who were athletes or active individuals who participate in recreational sports or resistance training, with no restriction on sex; and had full text available. A total of 47 studies were selected. These studies showed significant small to large correlations between isometric bench press (IBP) force-time variables and upper body dynamic performances (r 2 = 0.221 to 0.608, p < 0.05) and significant small to very large correlation between isometric squat (ISqT) (r 2 = 0.085 to 0.746, p < 0.05) and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) (r 2 = 0.120 to 0.941, p < 0.05) force-time variables with lower body dynamic performances. IsoTest force-time characteristics were shown to have small to very large correlations with dynamic performances of the upper and lower limbs as well as performance of sporting movements (r 2 = 0.118 to 0.700, p < 0.05). These data suggest that IsoTest force-time characteristics provide insights into the force production capability of athletes which give insight into dynamic performance capabilities.
... These advancements offer innovative approaches to teaching and learning professionals within the life sciences field. For instance, Garcia-Pallares et al [10] and Tymcznska [11] discussed approaches in which instructors incorporate a course management system into life sciences professional training. In addition, Mantovani [12], Stansfield et al [13], and Barsom et al [14] addressed the potential to integrate virtual reality (VR) into training to enhance and improve learning experiences. ...
Article
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Background Every year, the life science field spends billions of dollars on educational activities worldwide. The continuing professional development of employees, especially in this field, encompasses great challenges. Emerging technologies appear to offer opportunity, but relatively little research has been done on the effectiveness of pedagogies and tools that have been used in the life sciences, and even less research has been devoted to understanding the potential power of emerging options that might determine the field’s future. Objective In collaboration with the Life Sciences Trainers & Educators Network (LTEN), this study investigated the current state of the pedagogies and tools currently adopted by corporate training professionals in the life sciences as well as the professionals’ perceptions of the impacts of emerging technologies on training. Methods This study adopted a mixed methods approach that included a survey and a follow-up interview. The survey consists of 18 broad questions with 15 subquestions in each of the five specific sectors of the life sciences field. Interviews were conducted by phone and lasted approximately 40 minutes, covering 18 questions designed to follow-up on findings from the survey items. Results Both survey and interview results indicated that the professionals were not satisfied with the status quo and that training and education in this field need to change. Most of the techniques and tools currently used have been used for some time. The professionals surveyed were not satisfied with the current techniques and tools and did not find them cost-effective. In addition, the respondents pictured the future of training in this field to be more engaging and effective. Conclusions This is the first study in a series designed to better understand education and training in the life sciences on a macro level, in order to build a foundation for progress and evolution of the future landscape. Next steps involve developing strategies for how to extend this vision throughout individual organizations.
... Prone bench pull (PBP) is an upper body pulling exercise that is commonly used for training the upper back muscles and testing of upper body pulling strength [5]. Studies have investigated the kinematics and kinetics of this exercise [18][19][20], as well as its relation to sports performance [21][22][23]. Although, the study by Uali et al. were required to perform prone bench pull 1 repetition maximum and isometric prone bench pull tests during the familiarization and actual testing sessions. Isometric prone bench pull was performed at 90° and 120° elbow angles. ...
Article
Isometric strength tests are gaining popularity in recent years. However, no study has validated any isometric strength tests to assess upper body pulling ability. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of isometric prone bench pull. Twenty-three resistance trained athletes (age: 26±4 years, height: 1.75±0.07 m, body mass: 78.6±11.5 kg) were required to perform prone bench pull 1 repetition maximum and isometric prone bench pull tests during the familiarization and actual testing sessions. Isometric prone bench pull was performed at 90° and 120° elbow angles. Peak force and rate of force development measures were highly reliable with intra-correlation coefficient between 0.881–0.987. Peak force obtained from isometric prone bench pull at both elbow angles showed large correlations to prone bench pull 1 repetition maximum (r=0.833–0.858, p<0.01). Linear regression equations to predict 1RM performance from isometric prone bench pull peak force produced an estimated 1RM with a standard error of only 3–6% of the average prone bench pull 1 repetition maximum. The current findings show that isometric prone bench pull is a reliable test and can be used to predict prone bench pull performance.
... This sticking region is thought to coincide with a poor mechanical force position, where the length and moment arms of the muscles involved are such that their capacity to exert force is reduced (McLaughlin and Madsen, 1984;van den Tillaar et al., 2012). To account for this biomechanical limitation, most studies have employed a full ROM in the concentric phase of the BP lift to maximize gains in functional performance of upper body ( García-Pallarés et al., 2009;Ga- vanda et al., 2018;Gorostiaga et al., 2006). However, some authors have reported similar (Massey et al., 2004) or even higher strength gains (Mookerjee and Ratamess, 1999) when training at partial ROM. ...
Article
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This study aimed to analyze the influence of range of motion (ROM) on main biomechanical parameters of the bench press (BP) exercise: i) load-velocity relationship by mean (MV) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV), ii) one-repetition maximum strength (1RM); iii) contribution of the propulsive and braking phases, and iv) presence of the sticking region key parameters (first peak barbell velocity: Vmax1, minimum velocity: Vmin and second peak barbell velocity: Vmax2). Forty-two strength-trained males performed a progressive loading test, starting at 20 kg and gradually increasing the load in 10 kg until MPV ≤ 0.50 m·s-1 and 5 down to 2.5 kg until 1RM, in three different ROMs: full ROM (BPFULL), two-thirds (BP2/3) and one-third (BP1/3). While significant differences were detected in the velocity attained against loads between 30-95% 1RM (BPFULL, BP2/3 and BP1/3, p < 0.05), both MV and MPV showed a very close relationship to %1RM for the three BP variations (R2 = 0.935-0.966). The contribution of the braking phase decreased progressively until it completely disappeared at the 80%, 95% and 100% 1RM loads in BP1/3, BP2/3 and BPFULL, respectively. The 1RM increased as the ROM decreased (BPFULL < BP2/3 < BP1/3, p < 0.05). Despite the three bio-mechanical parameters that define the sticking region on the velocity time curves were only observed in BPFULL variation, in 54.5% of the cases the subjects started their BP2/3 displacement before reaching the position at which the Vmin occurs in their BPFULL exercise. The complete or partial presence of the sticking region during the concentric action of the lift seems to underlie the differences in the 1RM strength, load-velocity profiles and the contribution of the propulsive phase in the BP exercise at different ROMs.
... Recent studies have also observed greater functional and specific performance improvements in medium to long distance athletes (e.g. rowing, cross-country skiing, cycling) after RT including the SQ exercise García-Pallarés, Sánchez-Medina, Carrasco, Díaz, & Izquierdo, 2009;Rønnestad, Hansen, Hollan, & Ellefsen, 2015;Ronnestad & Mujika, 2014). ...
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The choice of the optimal squatting depth for resistance training (RT) has been a matter of debate for decades and is still controversial. In this study, fifty-three resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of four training groups: full squat (F-SQ), parallel squat (P-SQ), half squat (H-SQ), and Control (training cessation). Experimental groups completed a 10-week velocity-based RT programme using the same relative load (linear periodization from 60% to 80% 1RM), only differing in the depth of the squat trained. The individual range of motion and spinal curvatures for each squat variation were determined in the familiarization and subsequently replicated in every lift during the training and testing sessions. Neuromuscular adaptations were evaluated by one-repetition maximum strength (1RM) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) at each squatting depth. Functional performance was assessed by countermovement jump, 20-m sprint and Wingate tests. Physical functional disability included pain and stiffness records. F-SQ was the only group that increased 1RM and MPV in the three squat variations (ES = 0.77–2.36), and achieved the highest functional performance (ES = 0.35–0.85). P-SQ group obtained the second best results (ES = 0.15–0.56). H-SQ produced no increments in neuromuscular and functional performance (ES = −0.11–0.28) and was the only group reporting significant increases in pain, stiffness and physical functional disability (ES = 1.21–0.87). Controls declined on all tests (ES = 0.02–1.32). We recommend using F-SQ or P-SQ exercises to improve strength and functional performance in well-trained athletes. In turn, the use of H-SQ is inadvisable due to the limited performance improvements and the increments in pain and discomfort after continued training.
... Endurance training based on individual physiological events is effective to enhance training responsiveness and maximize cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular, and functional adaptations (40). This training method requires determining individualized intensities corresponding to physiological milestones, such as the maximal oxygen uptake (VȮ 2 max) and the lactate/aerobicanaerobic thresholds (13,16,34,36,37). An accurate identification of these individual milestones will depend on the testing procedures (4,18,19). ...
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This study was designed to validate a new short track test (Track(1:1)) to estimate running performance parameters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal aerobic speed (MAS), based on a laboratory treadmill protocol and gas exchange data analysis (Lab(1:1)). In addition, we compared the results with the University of Montreal Track Test (UMTT). Twenty-two well-trained male athletes (VO2max 60.3 ± 5.9 ml·kg−1·min−1; MAS ranged from 17.0 to 20.3 km·h−1) performed 4 testing protocols: 2 in laboratory (Lab(1:1)-pre and Lab(1:1)) and 2 in the field (UMTT and Track(1:1)). The Lab(1:1)-pre was designed to determine individuals' Vpeak and set initial speeds for the subsequent Lab(1:1) short ramp graded exercise testing protocol, starting at 13 km·h−1 less than each athlete's Vpeak, with 1 km·h−1 increments per minute until exhaustion. The Track(1:1) was a reproduction of the Lab(1:1) protocol in the field. A novel equation was yielded to estimate the VO2max from the Vpeak achieved in the Track(1:1). Results revealed that the UMTT significantly underestimated the Vpeak (−4.2%; bias = −0.8 km·h−1; p < 0.05), which notably altered the estimations (MAS: −2.6%, bias = −0.5 km·h−1; VO2max: 4.7%, bias = 2.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). In turn, data from Track(1:1) were very similar to the laboratory test and gas exchange methods (Vpeak: −0.6%, bias = <0.1 km·h−1; MAS: 0.3%, bias = <0.1 km·h−1; VO2max: 0.4%, bias = 0.2 ml·kg−1·min−1, p > 0.05). Thus, the current Track(1:1) test emerges as a better alternative than the UMTT to estimate maximal running performance parameters in well-trained and highly trained athletes on the field.
... It is valid to state the influence of endurance and neuromuscular changes across periodized training cycle. A periodized strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase seems to be effective for improving both cardiovascular and neuromuscular markers of highly trained top-level athletes (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2010;Garcia-Pallares, Sanchez-Medina, Carrasco, Diaz, & Izquierdo, 2009). To avoid the influence of different periodized training cycle, the athletes in our study were recruited in the same period. ...
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Information regarding the aerobic power on canoe slalom performance is scares. Moreover, the comparison of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) via specific and non-specific ergometer for slalom kayakers may improve training prescription and controlling over Olympic cycles. Lastly, it is still unknown to what extent the VO2max delimitate the high performance in this sport. To test this perspective, a highly qualified sample is desired. In overall statistics, Slovakian athletes gathered 14 Olympic medals over the last sixteen years. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to compare the aerobic power of Olympic medallists and Non-Olympic Slovakian kayakers via specific and non-specific evaluations from Beijing 2008 to Rio 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Forty-two male canoe slalom athletes from Slovak national team were evaluated between the years 2006 and 2016. Slovakian athletes were tested for specific (i.e. paddling ergometer) and non-specific (i.e. treadmill) incremental protocols for VO2max determination. Over the last three Summer Olympic Games, the VO2max of Slovakian Olympic medallists was consistently lower than most of the Slovakian team. Moreover, disregarding the medallist characteristic or the moment, Slovakian kayakers presented higher VO2max on treadmill (57.7±6.8 mL. kg-1. min-1) when compared to paddle ergometer (46.9±6.5 mL. kg-1. min-1) (p=0.000;
... Interestingly, previous studies which analysed the effect of PUFAs on strength performance and the inflammatory and muscle damage response after eccentric exercise used untrained participants. However, this fatty acid would be an especially interesting aid in sports modalities (i.e., endurance athletes) which need to develop several capacities simultaneously due to their faster time course of recovery [22]. Thus, taken together, the current findings and those of previous studies support the idea of DHA + EPA intake during long periods of supplementation to obtain an effective ergogenic effect on inflammation, muscle damage markers and strength performance. ...
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This study aimed to analyse the effect of 10 weeks of a highly concentrated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) + eicosapentaenoic (EPA) supplementation (ratio 8:1) on strength deficit and inflammatory and muscle damage markers in athletes. Fifteen endurance athletes participated in the study. In a randomized, double-blinded cross-over controlled design, the athletes were supplemented with a re-esterified triglyceride containing 2.1 g/day of DHA + 240 mg/day of EPA or placebo for 10 weeks. After a 4-week wash out period, participants were supplemented with the opposite treatment. Before and after each supplementation period, participants performed one eccentric-induced muscle damage exercise training session (ECC). Before, post-exercise min and 24 and 48 h after exercise, muscle soreness, knee isokinetic strength and muscle damage and inflammatory markers were tested. No significant differences in strength deficit variables were found between the two conditions in any of the testing sessions. However, a significant effect was observed in IL1β (p = 0.011) and IL6 (p = 0.009), which showed significantly lower values after DHA consumption than after placebo ingestion. Moreover, a significant main effect was observed in CPK (p = 0.014) and LDH-5 (p = 0.05), in which significantly lower values were found after DHA + EPA consumption. In addition, there was a significant effect on muscle soreness (p = 0.049), lower values being obtained after DHA + EPA consumption. Ten weeks of re-esterified DHA + EPA promoted lower concentrations of inflammation and muscle damage markers and decreased muscle soreness but did not improve the strength deficit after an ECC in endurance athletes.
... The authors of this review believe that the duration of these studies is too short to support the efficacy of periodization when the core concepts are centered around the yearlong plan and phasic adaptations. The details of each study (author, year, subject, design, and duration) are listed in Table 3 Garcia-Pallares et al. [143] 2009 11 male world-class, flat-water kayak paddlers (all of whom were finalists at the World Championships, including two Olympic gold-medalists) All subjects followed the same strength and endurance program with special emphasis on prioritizing the sequential development of specific physical fitness components in each training phase ...
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Over the past several decades, periodization has been widely accepted as the gold standard of training theory. Within the literature, there are numerous definitions for periodization, which makes it difficult to study. When examining the proposed definitions and related studies on periodization, problems arise in the following domains: (1) periodization has been proposed to serve as the macro-management of the training process concerning the annual plan, yet research on long-term effects is scarce; (2) periodization and programming are being used interchangeably in research; and (3) training is not periodized alongside other stressors such as sport (i.e., only resistance training is being performed without the inclusion of sport). Overall, the state of the literature suggests that the inability to define periodization makes the statement of its superiority difficult to experimentally test. This paper discusses the proposed definitions of periodization and the study designs which have been employed to examine the concept.
... It is generally accepted by coaches and sports scientists that endurance and strength training modes of exercise, when repeated over time, elicit distinct and competing adaptive mechanisms, including the genetic and molecular mechanisms of adaptation, that generate the specific exercise induced phenotype associated with long-term training. However, many factors, such as the volume and specifically the intensity of the training program, may influence to what extent any adaptation occurs, aerobic or otherwise [18]. Indeed, similar adaptations to high-intensity interval training are likely to occur via resistance/strength training to volitional failure. ...
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Citation: Jurasz, M.; Boraczyński, M.; Laskin, J.J.; Kamelska-Sadowska, A.M.; Podstawski, R.; Jaszczur-Nowicki, J.; Nowakowski, J.J.; Gronek, P. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Incremental Cycling Exercise in Endurance-and Strength-Trained Athletes. Biology 2022, 11, 643. https://doi.
... [7,8]). Likewise, a longer recovery period of 6-8 h, applied in cycling, running, or rowing, equally improved performance [62][63][64][65]. Recovery between sessions may depend on athletes' level, individual characteristics, and the intensity or duration of the first session, whichever it is (SWIM or RT). ...
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Dry-land resistance exercise (RT) is routinely applied concurrent to swimming (SWIM) training sessions in a year-round training plan. To date, the impact of the acute effect of RT on SWIM or SWIM on RT performance and the long-term RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training outcome has received limited attention. The existing studies indicate that acute RT or SWIM training may temporarily decrease subsequent muscle function. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT may induce similar physiological alterations. Such alterations are dependent on the recovery duration between sessions. Considering the long-term effects of RT-SWIM, the limited existing data present improvements in front crawl swimming performance, dry-land upper and lower body maximum strength, and peak power in swim turn. Accordingly, SWIM-RT training order induces swimming performance improvements in front crawl and increments in maximum dry-land upper and lower body strength. Concurrent application of RT-SWIM or SWIM-RT training applied within a training day leads in similar performance gains after six to twelve weeks of training. The current review suggests that recovery duration between RT and SWIM is a predisposing factor that may determine the training outcome. Competitive swimmers may benefit after concurrent application with both training order scenarios during a training cycle.
... Concurrent training is complex in that both swim training and resistance training impose different acute stresses on the body that elicit distinct adaptations. In particular, the concurrent development of both muscular strength/power and aerobic endurance from resistance training and swimming training respectively can lead to conflicting neuromuscular adaptations (Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009). In the current study, participants were primarily middle to long distance swimmers, who performed nine in-water sessions weekly (HF: 45.5 ± 17.7 km and VF: 53 ± 20.0 km per week). ...
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Background The block phase in the swimming start requires a quick reaction to the starting signal and a large take-off velocity that is primarily horizontal in direction. Due to the principle of specificity of training, there is a potential benefit of performing a greater proportion of horizontal force production exercises in a swimmers’ dry-land resistance training sessions. Therefore, the purpose of this pilot study was to provide an insight into the effects of a horizontal- (HF) vs vertical-force (VF) training intervention on swim start performance. Methods Eleven competitive swimmers (six males (age 20.9 ± 1.8 years, body mass 77.3 ± 9.7 kg, height 1.78 ± 0.05 m) and five females (age 21.4 ± 2.0 years, body mass 67.5 ± 7.4 kg, height 1.69 ± 0.05 m)) completed 2 weekly sessions of either a horizontal- or vertical-force focused resistance training programme for 8 weeks. Squat jump force-time characteristics and swim start kinetic and kinematic parameters were collected pre- and post-intervention. Results Across the study duration, the swimmers completed an average of nine swimming sessions per week with an average weekly swim volume of 45.5 ± 17.7 km (HF group) and 53 ± 20.0 km (VF group), but little practice of the swim start per week ( n = 9). Within-group analyses indicated a significant increase in predicted one repetition maximum (1RM) hip thrust strength in the HF group, as well as significant increases in grab resultant peak force but reductions in resultant peak force of the block phase for the VF group. No significant between-group differences in predicted 1RM hip thrust and back squat strength, squat jump force-time and swim start performance measures were observed after 8 weeks of training. Significant correlations in the change scores of five block kinetic variables to time to 5 m were observed, whereby increased block kinetic outputs were associated with a reduced time to 5 m. This may be indicative of individual responses to the different training programmes. Discussion The results of this current study have been unable to determine whether a horizontal- or vertical-force training programme enhances swim start performance after an 8-week training intervention. Some reasons for the lack of within and between group effects may reflect the large volume of concurrent training and the relative lack of any deliberate practice of the swim start. Larger samples and longer training duration may be required to determine whether significant differences occur between these training approaches. Such research should also look to investigate how a reduction in the concurrent training loads and/or an increase in the deliberate practice of the swim start may influence the potential changes in swim start performance.
... 4,6 Comprehensive testing of the VO 2 max, oxygenation of muscles involved, and anaerobic threshold of sprint kayakers should aid in monitoring the development of performance and adjusting training appropriately. To assess these physiological and other performance parameters [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] as well as to prescribe training intensity, 9,[13][14][15] different incremental on-water and ergometer testing protocols are applied in canoeing and kayaking. The physiological responses (ie, oxygen uptake, peripheral oxygenation, blood lactate) between ergometer and on-water testing in relation to actual competitive performance in elite kayakers are unknown. ...
Article
Purpose: (1) To compare various physiological indicators of performance during a 5 × 1500-m incremental kayak test performed on an ergometer and on-water and (2) to analyze the relationships between these indicators and the actual competition performance of elite sprint kayakers, aiming to provide information to coaches for evaluating and planning training on-water. Methods: A total of 14 male and female German elite sprint kayakers performed an incremental test both on an ergometer and on-water. The tissue saturation index of the musculus (m.) biceps brachii, oxygen consumption, ratings of perceived exertion, and levels of blood lactate were measured and compared with actual racing times. In addition, power output was monitored during ergometer testing only. Results: Oxygen consumption during the fourth (P = .02; d = 0.32) and final (fifth; P < .001; d = 0.32) steps of incremental testing was higher on-water than on the ergometer. The tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii was approximately 21% higher at the end of the ergometer test (P = .002; d = 1.14). During the second (P = .01; d = 0.78), third (P = .005; d = 0.93), and fourth stages (P = .005; d = 1.02), the ratings of perceived exertion for ergometer kayaking was higher. During the final step, power output was most closely correlated to 200- (r = .88), 500- (r = .93), and 1000-m (r = .86) racing times (all Ps < .01). Conclusions: During high-intensity kayaking on an ergometer or on-water, the oxygen consumption and tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii differ. Furthermore, at moderate to submaximal intensities, the ratings of perceived exertion were higher for ergometer than for on-water kayaking. Finally, of all parameters assessed, the power output during ergometer kayaking exhibited the strongest correlation with actual racing performance.
... 4,6 Comprehensive testing of the VO 2 max, oxygenation of muscles involved, and anaerobic threshold of sprint kayakers should aid in monitoring the development of performance and adjusting training appropriately. To assess these physiological and other performance parameters [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12] as well as to prescribe training intensity, 9,[13][14][15] different incremental on-water and ergometer testing protocols are applied in canoeing and kayaking. The physiological responses (ie, oxygen uptake, peripheral oxygenation, blood lactate) between ergometer and on-water testing in relation to actual competitive performance in elite kayakers are unknown. ...
Article
Purpose: (1) To compare various physiological indicators of performance during a 5 × 1500-m incremental kayak test performed on an ergometer and on-water and (2) to analyze the relationships between these indicators and the actual competition performance of elite sprint kayakers, aiming to provide information to coaches for evaluating and planning training on-water. Methods: A total of 14 male and female German elite sprint kayakers performed an incremental test both on an ergometer and on-water. The tissue saturation index of the musculus (m.) biceps brachii, oxygen consumption, ratings of perceived exertion, and levels of blood lactate were measured and compared with actual racing times. In addition, power output was monitored during ergometer testing only. Results: Oxygen consumption during the fourth (P = .02; d = 0.32) and final (fifth; P < .001; d = 0.32) steps of incremental testing was higher on-water than on the ergometer. The tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii was approximately 21% higher at the end of the ergometer test (P = .002; d = 1.14). During the second (P = .01; d = 0.78), third (P = .005; d = 0.93), and fourth stages (P = .005; d = 1.02), the ratings of perceived exertion for ergometer kayaking was higher. During the final step, power output was most closely correlated to 200- (r = .88), 500- (r = .93), and 1000-m (r = .86) racing times (all Ps < .01). Conclusions: During high-intensity kayaking on an ergometer or on-water, the oxygen consumption and tissue saturation index of the m. biceps brachii differ. Furthermore, at moderate to submaximal intensities, the ratings of perceived exertion were higher for ergometer than for on-water kayaking. Finally, of all parameters assessed, the power output during ergometer kayaking exhibited the strongest correlation with actual racing performance.
... For example, the DL and BP are 2 of the 3 key exercises in powerlifting, whereas the PBP and the SP are frequently trained by, among other athletes, kayakers, swimmers, fighters, or throwers. 31,32 The inclusion of these 5 multijoint exercises allowed the present study not only to examine the effects of the different programming models on each of them but also to study the possible synergies and interrelationships generated during a comprehensive RT routine. Likewise, the RT routine we used could have generated an optimal hormonal and metabolic environment to maximize the adaptations, 10 which might have been attenuated in traditional interventions made up by only 1 or 2 RT exercises. ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the strength and athletic adaptations induced by 4 programming models. Methods: Fifty-two men were allocated into 1 of the following models: linear programming (intensity increased while intraset volume decreased), undulating programming (intensity and intraset volume were varied in each session or set of sessions), reverse programming (intensity decreased while intraset volume increased), or constant programming (intensity and intraset volume kept constant throughout the training plan). All groups completed a 10-week resistance-training program made up of the free-weight bench press, squat, deadlift, prone bench pull, and shoulder press exercises. The 4 models used the same frequency (2 sessions per week), number of sets (3 per exercise), interset recoveries (4 min), and average intensity throughout the intervention (77.5%). The velocity-based method was used to accurately adjust the planned intensity for each model. Results: The 4 programming models exhibited significant pre-post changes in most strength variables analyzed. When considering the effect sizes for the 5 exercises trained, we observed that the undulating programming (mean effect size = 0.88-2.92) and constant programming (mean effect size = 0.61-1.65) models induced the highest and lowest strength enhancements, respectively. Moreover, the 4 programming models were found to be effective to improve performance during shorter (jump and sprint tests) and longer (upper- and lower-limb Wingate test) anaerobic tasks, with no significant differences between them. Conclusion: The linear, undulating, reverse, and constant programming models are similarly effective to improve strength and athletic performance when they are implemented in a real-context routine.
... Taking into account the inequality of disciplines, as well as the typology of efforts in competition, canoeing can be classified as an endurance sport, in which good aerobic capacity, aerobic efficiency at the anaerobic threshold, and lactic anaerobic capacity, especially lactate tolerance, are required to obtain a good performance (Fry and Morton, 1991;Faina et al., 1997). Therefore, canoeing is a sport where strength and endurance are developed together to optimize the athlete's performance (Bishop et al., 2002;Garcia-Pallares et al., 2009), factors that entail a greater training load, which can have an impact on the psychological aspect of athletes (Isorna Folgar et al., 2019). ...
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The main objective of performance sport is to obtain achievements at the highest level through the adequate development of the athlete. The scientific literature demonstrates the fundamental role played by the inclusion of certain psychological variables in the training plan. This study examined the psychological profile of kayak polo players through the variables of burnout, optimism, and mood in the hours prior to the competition, relating these to each other and to some sociodemographic data. A sample of 86 canoeists, 60 men (69.8%) and 26 women (30.2%), with an age measurement of 24.4 ± 9.1 years belonging to the first male and female kayak polo division, completed the POMS-29, the LOT-R, and the IBD-R. Athletes' levels of optimism were found to be significantly correlated with mood. Optimism also influenced emotional exhaustion. In addition, seniority and internationality were decisive factors in the level of optimism and mood achieved.
... In particular, the concurrent development of muscular hypertrophy, strength and power from resistance training compared to the development of aerobic and anaerobic endurance from swimming training can lead to conflicting neuromuscular adaptations. 17 Furthermore, the volume of swim training undertaken weekly is considerably greater than the dry-land resistance training sessions. Typically, swimmers engage in nine to ten in-water pool sessions weekly, with each session lasting one and a half to two hours. ...
Article
This study aimed to (1) track changes in body composition, lower body force-time characteristics, and swim start performance over a competitive season, and (2) investigate the intra-individual associations between changes in body composition and lower body force-time characteristics to swim start performance in five high performance swimmers (three males, two females). Over a ∼12-month period, body composition, lower body force-time characteristics and swim start performance were assessed at three time points via DXA scan, squat jump and swim start performance test (start times to 5 and 15 m and several kinematic and kinetic outputs). Throughout a competitive season of concurrent swimming and dry-land resistance training, improvements in lower body lean mass and squat jump force-time characteristics were observed. However, changes in start times varied between athletes. Total body and lower body lean mass both displayed large negative correlations with the time spent in the entry and propulsive underwater phases ( r = –0.57 to –0.66), along with a large positive correlations with glide time ( r = 0.56–0.53). Additionally, lower body lean mass exhibited large to very large positive correlations with the flight phase ( r = 0.70–0.73). Overall, these findings provide some insight into the potential magnitude of change in body composition, lower body force-time characteristics and swim start performance in high performance swimmers within a season. The large to very large correlations between increased lower body lean mass and SJ force-time metrics to improvements in aspects of start performance may provide useful information to coaches and sports scientists.
... Previous studies have associatedVO 2 recovery kinetics with survival and disease severity, in addition to serving as an index of functional capacity in subsets of apparently healthy individuals and in clinical population subsets [10, 14,27]. Associations of performance fatigability withVO 2 off-kinetics following peak and submaximal exercise has also been demonstrated [39]. ...
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Background The severity of performance fatigability and the capacity to recover from activity are profoundly influenced by skeletal muscle energetics, specifically the ability to buffer fatigue-inducing ions produced from anaerobic metabolism. Mechanisms responsible for buffering these ions result in the production of excess carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that can be measured as expired CO 2 ( $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 ) during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of select assessment procedures for use in planning and carrying out interventional studies, which are larger interventional studies investigating the relationships between CO 2 expiration, measured during and after both CPET and submaximal exercise testing, and performance fatigability. Methods Cross-sectional, pilot study design. Seven healthy subjects (30.7±5.1 years; 5 females) completed a peak CPET and constant work-rate test (CWRT) on separate days, each followed by a 10-min recovery then 10-min walk test. Oxygen consumption ( $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ O 2 ) and $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 on- and off-kinetics (transition constant and oxidative response index), excess- $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 , and performance fatigability severity scores (PFSS) were measured. Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Results All subjects that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and consented to participate in the study completed all exercise testing sessions with no adverse events. All testing procedures were carried out successfully and outcome measures were obtained, as intended, without adverse events. Excess- $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 accounted for 61% of the variability in performance fatigability as measured by $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ O 2 on-kinetic ORI (ml/s) ( R ² =0.614; y = 8.474 x − 4.379, 95% CI [0.748, 16.200]) and 62% of the variability as measured by PFSS ( R ² =0.619; y = − 0.096 x + 1.267, 95% CI [−0.183, −0.009]). During CPET, $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 -off ORI accounted for 70% ( R ² =0.695; y = 1.390 x − 11.984, 95% CI [0.331, 2.449]) and $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 -off Kt for 73% of the variability in performance fatigability measured by $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ O 2 on-kinetic ORI (ml/s) ( R ² =0.730; y = 1.818 x − 13.639, 95% CI [0.548, 3.087]). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that utilizing $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ CO 2 measures may be a viable and useful addition or alternative to $$ \dot{\mathrm{V}} $$ V ̇ O 2 measures, warranting further study. While the current protocol appeared to be satisfactory, for obtaining select cardiopulmonary and performance fatigability measures as intended, modifications to the current protocol to consider in subsequent, larger studies may include use of an alternate mode or measure to enable control of work rate constancy during performance fatigability testing following initial CPET.
... Strength training is an integral component in the physical preparation of sprint kayakers, and improvement in muscular strength has been associated with improved kayaking performance [1][2][3]. For example, McKean and Burkett [3] reported that a 6.5-13% increase in 1 repetition maximum bench press and a 2.3-10% increase in 1 repetition maximum pull up coincided with improvement of 1% in kayaking time. ...
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Performing isometric strength training (IST) can enhance various sports performance. This study compared the effects of including IST on sprint kayaking performance as compared to traditional strength training. Twenty sprint kayaking athletes (age 22±4 y, stature 1.71±0.09 m, body mass 72.0±11.4 kg) performed a 200-m kayak ergometer time trial (200mTT), isometric squat (IsoSqT), isometric bench press (IsoPress) and isometric prone bench pull (IsoPull) during the pre- and post-tests. Athletes were randomly assigned to ei-ther traditional strength training (TRAD) or IST group. Both groups performed similar strength training program twice a week for six weeks. However, half the volume for squat, bench press and prone bench pull were replaced by IsoSqT, IsoPress and IsoPull, respectively, for the IST group. IsoSqT was performed at 90o knee angle, while IsoPress and IsoPull were performed at 90o and 120o elbow angles, respectively. Each isometric contraction was performed with maximum intensity and sustained for three seconds. A significant main time effect was observed for 200mTT (P<0.001, ƞ²p=0.68) and all isometric strength measures (P=0.001–0.032, ƞ²p=0.24–0.76) except rate of force development at 0-90 ms (RFD90) obtained from IsoSqT120 and IsoPress90. Group main effect was ob-served in RFD90 obtained from IsoSqT120 and IsoPull120 (P=0.003–0.004, ƞ²p=0.37–0.39). Time x Group interaction was observed for 200mTT (P=0.027, ƞ²p=0.68), peak force obtained from IsoSqT90, IsoPress90, and IsoPull120 (P=0.004–0.006, ƞ²p=0.36–0.38) and RFD90 obtained from IsoSqT120 and IsoPull120 (P=0.012–0.015, ƞ²p=0.28–0.30). Inclusion of IST resulted in greater improvement for sprint kayaking and strength performances then TRAD alone.
... (Stöggl & Sperlich, 2015). Dakle, što se u trenažnom procesu više uvažavaju vrednosti individualnih biomarkera, koncept trenažnih jedinica je efikasniji, i u definisanju zona opterećenja i u dizajnu ostalih metodskih odrednica treninga, te je posledično veća adaptacija sportiste i njegovo postignuće (García-Pallarés et al., 2009;Wolpern et al., 2015). (Bhambhani, Buckley, & Susaki, 1997;Miura et al., 1998;Moalla et al., 2005). ...
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Cardiorespiratory performance is one of the most important determinants of success in sports activities. In order to better prepare for sports challenges, the athletes must be exposed to appropriate training which should be based on individualized physiological parameters during activity. Even though training intensity can be determined in many different ways, the endurance training intensity is often quantified by the lactate thresholds obtained from the blood sampling or the ventilator thresholds obtained from the gas exchange. These data represent delayed indirect indicators of an increased anaerobic ATP resynthesis. The muscle oximetry, based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), represents non-invasive method that enables the information about the changes in oxygenation in hemoglobin, and potentially represents a very suitable technique to detect a critical exercise threshold directly in the exercising muscle.
... Muscle size is a determinant of muscle strength during single-joint and multi-joint movements [1][2][3][4] . During the assessment of sports performance, power output determined by muscle strength and joint velocity are important for determining the optimal load for resistance and power training [5][6][7][8][9] . Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to assess muscle size and found to significantly correlate with joint power in single-joint 10 and multi-joint movements 1 . ...
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Background: Recently, there have been rising demands on the specifics of functional load testing, which should with its motor structure correspond or at least draw near the sport specialization. However, evaluation of specific forms of diagnostics is very pure in canoe slalom. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare a physiological response based on results in graded functional test when paddling in a single canoe (C1) and results reached in the standardized arm crank ergometrics. Methods: The research sample consisted of 6 elite Czech single canoeists, members of Czech senior national team and the Czech national team up to 23 years. Their average weight was 79.7±6.6 kg, height 183.4±6.6 cm and age 23.6±3.9 years.Results: When comparing the result values of physiological indicators measured in both functional tests, we have found out significant differences (statistical and substantive) in variables: VO2peak (p=0.00; 15.1%), VEpeak (p=0.06, 11.1%), HR (p=0.02; 5.7%), RR (p=0.18; 9.3%), VT (p=0.00; 18.8%) and RER (p=0.26; 4.0%). With the exception of respiratory rate, significantly lower values of all physiological variables were found in on-water testing (C1). Although there was a strong correlation between the VO2peak indicators (r=0.79, p=0.06) found between paddling and crank ergometrics, this relationship cannot be considered significant (p=0.06) due to the small research sample. Conclusions: To evaluate on-water testing and to determine the external validity of arm crank ergometrics for C1 diagnostics, it is necessary to test a bigger research sample. Therefore, it is a pilot study. However, the results indicate that the physiological load requirements in the C1 category are different from those of the kayak category (K1). Although C1 paddlers reached similar VO2peak values in the arm crank ergometrics as kayakers, in the on-water test they reached about 10 ml.kg.min-1 lower oxygen uptake compared to kayakers (Busta, Bílý, Suchý, & Kovářová, 2017).
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Thesis
Die Arbeit beleuchtet den Einsatz algorithmischer Datenbearbeitungen bei sportwissenschaftlichen Spiroergometrien aus praktischen und theoretischen Gesichtspunkten. Die aktuelle Verbreitung von algorithmischen Datenbearbeitungen aus Breath-by-Breath Untersuchungen wird über die Ergebnisse eines Fragebogens und einer systematischen Literaturübersicht dargestellt. Zudem erfolgt die Analyse der durch Algorithmen verursachten Messwertvarianzen der Sauerstoffaufnahme in diskontinuierlichen Belastungsuntersuchungen, bei Jugendlichen und im submaximalen Belastungsbereich.
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Background: Block periodization (BP) has been proposed as an alternative to traditional (TRAD) organization of the annual training plan for endurance athletes. Objective: To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to evaluate the effect BP of endurance training on endurance performance and factors determinative for endurance performance in trained- to well-trained athletes. Methods: The PubMed, SPORTdiscus and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to August 2019. Studies were included if the following criteria were met: 1) the study examined a block-periodized endurance training intervention; 2) the study had a one-, two or multiple group-, crossover- or case-study design; 3) the study assessed at least one key endurance variable before and after the intervention period. A total of 2905 studies were screened, where 20 records met the eligibility criteria. Methodological quality for each study was assessed using the PEDro scale. Six studies were pooled to perform meta-analysis for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal power output (Wmax) during an incremental exercise test to exhaustion. Due to a lower number of studies and heterogenous measurements, other performance measures were systematically reviewed. Results: The meta-analyses revealed small favorable effects for BP compared to TRAD regarding changes in VO2max (standardized mean difference, 0.40; 95% CI=0.02, 0.79) and Wmax (standardized mean difference, 0.28; 95% CI=0.01, 0.54). For changes in endurance performance and workload at different exercise thresholds BP generally revealed moderate- to large-effect sizes compared to TRAD. Conclusion: BP is an adequate, alternative training strategy to TRAD as evidenced by superior training effects on VO2max and Wmax in athletes. The reviewed studies show promising effects for BP of endurance training; however, these results must be considered with some caution due to small studies with generally low methodological quality (mean PEDro score =3.7/10).
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Introduction - The body of scientific literature on sports and exercise continues to expand. The summer and winter Olympic games will be held over a 7-month period in 2021–2022. Objectives - We took this rare opportunity to quantify and analyse the main bibliometric parameters (i.e., the number of articles and citations) across all Olympic sports to weigh and compare their importance and to assess the structure of the “sport sciences” field. The present review aims to perform a bibliometric analysis of Olympic sports research. Methods - We searched 116 sport/exercise journals on PubMed for the 40 summer and 10 winter Olympic sports. A total of 34,038 articles were filtered for a final selection of 25,003 articles (23,334 articles on summer sports and 1,669 on winter sports) and a total of 599,820 citations. Results and Discussion - Nine sports (football (soccer), cycling, athletics, swimming, distance & marathon running, basketball, baseball, tennis, and rowing) were involved in 69% of the articles and 75% of the citations. Football was the most cited sport, with 19.7% and 26.3% of the total number of articles and citations, respectively. All sports yielded some scientific output, but 11 sports (biathlon, mountain biking, archery, diving, trampoline, skateboarding, skeleton, modern pentathlon, luge, bobsleigh, and curling) accumulated a total of fewer than 50 publications. While ice hockey is the most prominently represented winter sport in the scientific literature, winter sports overall have produced minor scientific output. Further analyses show a large scientific literature on team sports, particularly American professional sports (i.e., baseball, basketball, and ice hockey) and the importance of inclusion in the Olympic programme to increasing scientific interest in “recent” sports (i.e., triathlon and rugby sevens). We also found local/cultural influence on the occurrence of a sport in a particular “sport sciences” journal. Finally, the relative distribution of six main research topics (i.e., physiology, performance, training and testing, injuries and medicine, biomechanics, and psychology) was large across sports and reflected the specific performance factors of each sport.
Purpose: The aim of the following case study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 30-week concurrent strength and endurance training program designed to prepare a trained H4 male handcyclist (aged 28 y, bilateral, above knee amputee, and body mass 65.6 kg) for a 1407-km ultra-endurance handcycling challenge. Methods: This observational case study tracked selected physiological measures, training intensity distribution, and total training load over the course of a 30-week concurrent training protocol. Furthermore, the athlete's performance profile during the ultra-endurance challenge was monitored with power output, cadence, speed, and heart rate recorded throughout. Results: Findings revealed considerable improvements in power output at a fixed blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol·L-1 (+25.7%), peak aerobic power output (+18.9%), power-to-mass ratio (+18.3%), relative peak oxygen uptake (+13.9%), gross mechanical efficiency (+4.6%), bench press 1-repetition maximum (+4.3%), and prone bench pull 1-repetition maximum (+14.9%). The athlete completed the 1407-km route in a new handcycling world record time of 89:55 hours. Average speed was 18.7 (2.1) km·h-1; cadence averaged 70.0 (2.6) rpm, while average power output was 67 (12) W. In terms of internal load, the athlete's average heart rate was 111 (11) beats per minute. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate how a long-term concurrent strength and endurance training program can be used to optimize handcycling performance capabilities in preparation for an ultra-endurance cycling event. Knowledge emerging from this case study provides valuable information that can guide best practices with respect to handcycling training for ultra-endurance events.
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Background High resistance training enhances muscular strength, and recent work has suggested an important role for metabolite accumulation in this process. Objective To investigate the role of fatigue and metabolite accumulation in strength gains by comparing highly fatiguing and non-fatiguing isotonic training protocols. Methods Twenty three healthy adults (18–29 years of age; eight women) were assigned to either a high fatigue protocol (HF: four sets of 10 repetitions with 30 seconds rest between sets) to maximise metabolic stress or a low fatigue protocol (LF: 40 repetitions with 30 seconds between each repetition) to minimise changes. Subjects lifted on average 73% of their 1 repetition maximum through the full range of knee extension with both legs, three times a week. Quadriceps isometric strength of each leg was measured at a knee joint angle of 1.57 rad (90°), and a Cybex 340 isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the angle-torque and torque-velocity relations of the non-dominant leg. Results At the mid-point of the training, the HF group had 50% greater gains in isometric strength, although this was not significant (4.5 weeks: HF, 13.3 (4.4)%; LF, 8.9 (3.6)%). This rate of increase was not sustained by the HF group, and after nine weeks of training all the strength measurements showed similar improvements for both groups (isometric strength: HF, 18.2 (3.9)%; LF, 14.5 (4.0)%). The strength gains were limited to the longer muscle lengths despite training over the full range of movement. Conclusions Fatigue and metabolite accumulation do not appear to be critical stimuli for strength gain, and resistance training can be effective without the severe discomfort and acute physical effort associated with fatiguing contractions.
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D. BISHOP, D. BONETTI, and B. DAWSON. The influence of pacing strategy on V̇O2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1041-1047, 2002. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating pacing strategy on V̇O2 and kayak ergometer performance in well-trained paddlers. Methods: Eight well-trained kayak paddlers (500-m time = 115-125 s) first performed a graded exercise test for determination of V̇O2max and lactate (La-) parameters. On subsequent days and in a random, counterbalanced order, subjects performed a 2-min, kayak ergometer test using either an all-out start or even pacing strategy. Results: There was a significantly greater peak power (747.6 ± 152.0 vs 558.3 ± 110.1 W) and average power (348.5 ± 47.6 vs 335.5 ± 44.8 W) using the all-out start strategy, when compared with the even-paced strategy. There was however, no significant difference between the two pacing strategies for peak V̇O2, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak [La-], or posttest pH. Using the all-out start, total V̇O2 was significantly greater (7.3 ± 0.8 vs 6.9 ± 0.8 L). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that 2-min kayak ergometer performance is significantly greater following an all-out start strategy when compared with an even-paced strategy. The improved performance appears to be attributable to faster V̇O2 kinetics, without a significant change in the total AOD (although the AOD distribution was altered).
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MILLET, G. P., B. JAOUEN, F. BORRANI, and R. CANDAU. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and V̇O2 kinetics. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 8, pp. 1351-1359, 2002. Purpose: It has been suggested that endurance training influences the running economy (CR) and the oxygen uptake (V̇O2) kinetics in heavy exercise by accelerating the primary phase and attenuating the V̇O2 slow component. However, the effects of heavy weight training (HWT) in combination with endurance training remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of a concurrent HWT+endurance training on CR and the V̇O2 kinetics in endurance athletes. Methods: Fifteen triathletes were assigned to endurance+strength (ES) or endurance-only (E) training for 14 wk. The training program was similar, except ES performed two HWT sessions a week. Before and after the training period, the subjects performed 1) an incremental field running test for determination of V̇O2max and the velocity associated (VV̇O2max), the second ventilatory threshold (VT2); 2) a 3000-m run at constant velocity, calculated to require 25% of the difference between V̇O2max and VT2, to determine CR and the characteristics of the V̇O2 kinetics; 3) maximal hopping tests to determine maximal mechanical power and lower-limb stiffness; 4) maximal concentric lower-limb strength measurements. Results: After the training period, maximal strength were increased (P < 0.01) in ES but remained unchanged in E. Hopping power decreased in E (P < 0.05). After training, economy (P < 0.05) and hopping power (P < 0.001) were greater in ES than in E. V̇O2max, leg hopping stiffness and the V̇O2 kinetics were not significantly affected by training either in ES or E. Conclusion: Additional HWT led to improved maximal strength and running economy with no significant effects on the V̇O2 kinetics pattern in heavy exercise.
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Thirty-five healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of four training groups that performed high-intensity strength and endurance training (C; n = 9), upper body only high-intensity strength and endurance training (UC; n = 9), high-intensity endurance training (E; n = 8), or high-intensity strength training (ST; n = 9). The C and ST groups significantly increased one-repetition maximum strength for all exercises (P < 0.05). Only the C, UC, and E groups demonstrated significant increases in treadmill maximal oxygen consumption. The ST group showed significant increases in power output. Hormonal responses to treadmill exercise demonstrated a differential response to the different training programs, indicating that the underlying physiological milieu differed with the training program. Significant changes in muscle fiber areas were as follows: types I, IIa, and IIc increased in the ST group; types I and IIc decreased in the E group; type IIa increased in the C group; and there were no changes in the UC group. Significant shifts in percentage from type IIb to type IIa were observed in all training groups, with the greatest shift in the groups in which resistance trained the thigh musculature. This investigation indicates that the combination of strength and endurance training results in an attenuation of the performance improvements and physiological adaptations typical of single-mode training.
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The impact of adding heavy-resistance training to increase leg-muscle strength was studied in eight cycling- and running-trained subjects who were already at a steady-state level of performance. Strength training was performed 3 days/wk for 10 wk, whereas endurance training remained constant during this phase. After 10 wk, leg strength was increased by an average of 30%, but thigh girth and biopsied vastus lateralis muscle fiber areas (fast and slow twitch) and citrate synthase activities were unchanged. Maximal O2 uptake (VO2max) was also unchanged by heavy-resistance training during cycling (55 ml.kg-1.min-1) and treadmill running (60 ml.kg-1.min-1); however, short-term endurance (4-8 min) was increased by 11 and 13% (P less than 0.05) during cycling and running, respectively. Long-term cycling to exhaustion at 80% VO2max increased from 71 to 85 min (P less than 0.05) after the addition of strength training, whereas long-term running (10 km times) results were inconclusive. These data do not demonstrate any negative performance effects of adding heavy-resistance training to ongoing endurance-training regimens. They indicate that certain types of endurance performance, particularly those requiring fast-twitch fiber recruitment, can be improved by strength-training supplementation.
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Elite flat-water kayak paddlers were characterized with regard to body composition, muscle strength and endurance for upper-body exercise. Furthermore, maximal oxygen uptake was measured during three types of exercise: treadmill running, arm cranking and outdoor paddling. Blood samples for subsequent lactate analysis were collected not only after maximal exercises but also during training sessions and post 1000 m racing. In comparison with other groups of athletes known to exhibit great upper-body muscle strength, kayakers were found to possess high values for shoulder strength, endurance and anaerobic capacity. Total body maximal oxygen uptake averaged (+/- SD) 5.36 +/- 0.25 l X min-1. The values for arm cranking and paddling were 4.30 +/- 0.29 l X min-1 and 4.67 +/- 0.16 l X min-1. High blood lactate levels were noticed under training conditions and post competition (11.0-17.5 mmol X l-1). Taken together, the present study suggests success in flat-water kayak racing to require great upper-body muscle strength, anaerobic capacity and endurance in addition to high aerobic power.
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A review of the current research on the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training indicates modest support for the model proposed in this article. However, it is clear that without a systematic approach to the investigation of the phenomenon there is lack of control and manipulation of the independent variables, which makes it difficult to test the validity of the model. To enhance the understanding of the interference phenomenon, it is important that researchers are precise and deliberate in their choice of training protocols. Clear definition of the specific training objectives for strength (muscle hypertrophy or neural adaptation) and aerobic power (maximal aerobic power or anaerobic threshold) are required. In addition, researchers should equate training volumes as much as possible for all groups. Care needs to be exercised to avoid overtraining individuals. There should be adequate recovery and regeneration between the concurrent training sessions as well as during the training cycle. The model should be initially tested by maintaining the same protocols throughout the duration of the study. However, it is becoming common practice to use a periodised approach in a training mesocycle in which there is a shift from high volume and moderate intensity training to lower volume and higher intensity. The model should be evaluated in the context of a periodised mesocycle provided the investigators are sensitive to the potential impact of the loading parameters on the interference phenomenon. It may be that the periodised approach is one way of maintaining the training stimulus and minimising the amount of interference. The effects of gender, training status, duration and frequency of training, and the mode of training need to be regarded as potential factors effecting the training response when investigating the interference phenomenon. Other experimental design factors such as unilateral limb training or training the upper body for one attribute and the lower body for another attribute, may help establish the validity of the model.
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High resistance training enhances muscular strength, and recent work has suggested an important role for metabolite accumulation in this process. To investigate the role of fatigue and metabolite accumulation in strength gains by comparing highly fatiguing and non-fatiguing isotonic training protocols. Twenty three healthy adults (18-29 years of age; eight women) were assigned to either a high fatigue protocol (HF: four sets of 10 repetitions with 30 seconds rest between sets) to maximise metabolic stress or a low fatigue protocol (LF: 40 repetitions with 30 seconds between each repetition) to minimise changes. Subjects lifted on average 73% of their 1 repetition maximum through the full range of knee extension with both legs, three times a week. Quadriceps isometric strength of each leg was measured at a knee joint angle of 1.57 rad (90 degrees ), and a Cybex 340 isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the angle-torque and torque-velocity relations of the non-dominant leg. At the mid-point of the training, the HF group had 50% greater gains in isometric strength, although this was not significant (4.5 weeks: HF, 13.3 (4.4)%; LF, 8.9 (3.6)%). This rate of increase was not sustained by the HF group, and after nine weeks of training all the strength measurements showed similar improvements for both groups (isometric strength: HF, 18.2 (3.9)%; LF, 14.5 (4.0)%). The strength gains were limited to the longer muscle lengths despite training over the full range of movement. Fatigue and metabolite accumulation do not appear to be critical stimuli for strength gain, and resistance training can be effective without the severe discomfort and acute physical effort associated with fatiguing contractions.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of concurrent strength and endurance training (SE) (2 plus 2 days a week) versus strength training only (S) (2 days a week) in men [SE: n=11; 38 (5) years, S: n=16; 37 (5) years] over a training period of 21 weeks. The resistance training program addressed both maximal and explosive strength components. EMG, maximal isometric force, 1 RM strength, and rate of force development (RFD) of the leg extensors, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris (QF) throughout the lengths of 4/15–12/15 (L f) of the femur, muscle fibre proportion and areas of types I, IIa, and IIb of the vastus lateralis (VL), and maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) were evaluated. No changes occurred in strength during the 1-week control period, while after the 21-week training period increases of 21% (p<0.001) and 22% (p<0.001), and of 22% (p<0.001) and 21% (p<0.001) took place in the 1RM load and maximal isometric force in S and SE, respectively. Increases of 26% (p<0.05) and 29% (p<0.001) occurred in the maximum iEMG of the VL in S and SE, respectively. The CSA of the QF increased throughout the length of the QF (from 4/15 to 12/15 L f) both in S (p<0.05–0.001) and SE (p<0.01–0.001). The mean fibre areas of types I, IIa and IIb increased after the training both in S (p<0.05 and 0.01) and SE (p<0.05 and p<0.01). S showed an increase in RFD (p<0.01), while no change occurred in SE. The average iEMG of the VL during the first 500 ms of the rapid isometric action increased (p<0.05–0.001) only in S. V̇O2max increased by 18.5% (p<0.001) in SE. The present data do not support the concept of the universal nature of the interference effect in strength development and muscle hypertrophy when strength training is performed concurrently with endurance training, and the training volume is diluted by a longer period of time with a low frequency of training. However, the present results suggest that even the low-frequency concurrent strength and endurance training leads to interference in explosive strength development mediated in part by the limitations of rapid voluntary neural activation of the trained muscles.
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The object of this study was to investigate the changes in physical parameters produced during an in-season resistance training (RT) and detraining (DT, or RT cessation) in 16 high level team handball players (THPs). Apart from normal practice sessions, THPs underwent 12 weeks of RT. Subjects performed 3 sets of 3-6 reps with a load of 70-85% concentric 1 repetition maximum bench press (1RMBP), 3 sets of 3-6 reps with a load of 70-95% of 4 repetition maximum parallel squats (4RMPS), plus vertical jumps and sprints. The 1RMBP, 4RMPS, speed over 30 m (S30), jump (countermovement jump height [CMJ]; CMJ with additional weights [20kg and 40kg], and ball throw velocity (BTv) were tested before the experimental period (T1), after 6 weeks (T2), and after the 12-week experimental period (T3). Immediately after these 12 weeks, THPs started a 7-week DT period, maintained normal practices. The CMJ and the BTv were the only parameters evaluated during DT. The most important gains (p < 0.001) in S30 were obtained between T1-T2 and T1-T3. The BTv improved significantly (p < 0.001) only between T1-T2 and T1-T3. The most relevant increases (p < 0.001) in jumping performance took place between T1-T2 and T1-T3. The 1RMBP showed significant increases (p < 0.001) only between T1-T2 and T1-T3. The 4RMPS increased significantly between all testing trials. After the DT, THPs showed no significant losses in CMJ performance. However, they declined significantly in BTv (p = 0.023). The results suggest that elite THPs can optimize important physical parameters over 12 weeks in-season and that 7 weeks of DT, although insufficient to produce significant decreases in CMJ, are sufficient to induce significant decreases in BTv. It is concluded that after RT cessation THPs reduced BTv performance.
Article
Drinkwater, E.J., T.W. Lawton, R.P. Lindsell, D.B. Pyne, P.H. Hunt, and M.J. McKenna. Training leading to repetition failure contributes to bench press strength gains in elite junior athletes. J. Strength Cond. Res. 19(2):382-388. 2005. The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of training leading to repetition failure in the performance of 2 different tests: 6 repetition maximum (6RM) bench press strength and 40-kg bench throw power in elite junior athletes. Subjects were 26 elite junior male basketball players (n 12; age = 18.6 +/- 0.3 years; height = 202.0 +/- 11.6 cm; mass = 97.0 +/- 12.9 kg; mean SD) and soccer players (n = 14; age = 17.4 +/- 0.5 years; height = 179.0 +/- 7.0 cm; mass = 75.0 +/- 7.1 kg) with a history of greater than 6 months' strength training. Subjects were initially tested twice for 6RM bench press mass and 40-kg Smith machine bench throw power output (in watts) to establish retest reliability. Subjects then undertook bench press training with 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks, using equal volume programs (24 repetitions X 80-105% 6RM in 13 minutes 20 seconds). Subjects were assigned to one of two experimental groups designed either to elicit repetition failure with 4 sets of 6 repetitions every 260 seconds (RF4x6) or allow all repetitions to be completed with 8 sets of 3 repetitions every 113 seconds (NF8x3). The RF4X6 treatment elicited substantial increases in strength (7.3 +/- 2.4 kg, + 9.5%, p < 0.001) and power (40.8 +/- 24.1 W, + 10.6%, p < 0.001), while the NF8X3 group elicited 3.6 +/- 3.0 kg (+ 5.0%, p < 0.005) and 25 +/- 19.0 W increases (+ 6.8%, p < 0.001). The improvements in the RF4x6 group were greater than those in the repetition rest group for both strength (p < 0.005) and power (p < 0.05). Bench press training that leads to repetition failure induces greater strength gains than nonfailure training in the bench press exercise for elite junior team sport athletes.
Article
The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and 10wer body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on free- weight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5×10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6×8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5×10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6×8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3×6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3×4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4×5 (Group × Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1,2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1,2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper. and 10wer body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes.
Article
D. BISHOP, D. BONETTI, and B. DAWSON. The influence of pacing strategy on V̇O2 and supramaximal kayak performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 1041–1047, 2002. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of manipulating pacing strategy on V̇O2 and kayak ergometer performance in well-trained paddlers. Methods: Eight well-trained kayak paddlers (500-m time = 115-125 s) first performed a graded exercise test for determination of V̇O2max and lactate (La−) parameters. On subsequent days and in a random, counterbalanced order, subjects performed a 2-min, kayak ergometer test using either an all-out start or even pacing strategy. Results: There was a significantly greater peak power (747.6 ± 152.0 vs 558.3 ± 110.1 W) and average power (348.5 ± 47.6 vs 335.5 ± 44.8 W) using the all-out start strategy, when compared with the even-paced strategy. There was however, no significant difference between the two pacing strategies for peak V̇O2, accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD), peak [La−], or posttest pH. Using the all-out start, total V̇O2 was significantly greater (7.3 ± 0.8 vs 6.9 ± 0.8 L). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that 2-min kayak ergometer performance is significantly greater following an all-out start strategy when compared with an even-paced strategy. The improved performance appears to be attributable to faster V̇O2 kinetics, without a significant change in the total AOD (although the AOD distribution was altered).
Article
The body of knowledge is the sum total of our human understanding of the world around us. Studies in the area of strength and conditioning make up one of the many fields of knowledge, and strength and conditioning professionals must understand how our understanding is created to successfully use it to optimize their professional practices, approaches, and exercise prescriptions.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine how different training modes would influence blood levels of growth hormone (hGH) and selected physiological parameters. Three training groups were established: LIFT, in which subjects trained with free weights and a Universal Gym three times per week with three sets at six to eight repetitions per lift (75 percent of one-repetition maximum) for 10 weeks; RUN, in which subjects ran at 75 percent of HR max three times per week; and COMBO, in which subjects underwent both LIFT and RUN training. Resting hGH levels were determined before and after training, and the hGH response to a single bout of exercise was determined at one, four, eight and 10 weeks. Each subject was tested for one-repetition (1 RM) strength in the bench and leg press during weeks one and 10 of training. Resting and exercise response blood samples were taken from an anticubital vein and centrifuged, and the serum was analyzed for hGH by radioimmunoassay techniques. The results of the hormonal measurements indicate that except for a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the resting levels of hGH in the LIFT group, training did not alter hGH levels at rest. The 10 weeks of exercise training did not change the basic hGH response to a single bout of exercise in the LIFT and COMBO groups, but did shift the hGH peak of RUN subjects from four to eight minutes by the eighth week of training. The non-hormonal factors affected were: [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max of RUN and COMBO was significantly higher (p < 0.05) above LIFT; LBM and upper body strength of LIFT and COMBO was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) than RUN; and significant gains (p < 0.05) in lower body strength occurred only in LIFT, The data indicate that 10 weeks of exercise training does not significantly alter the basic hGH response to a single bout of exercise, but can influence the appearance of the hormonal peak. The results also show that a training program involving both running and lifting can produce the same gains in [latin capital V with dot above]O2 max and upper body strength as single-activity programs, but does not produce lower body strength gains. (C) 1991 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study examined the effects of manipulating volume and intensity on strength and power in experienced male athletes. Subjects (N = 22) were tested for maximum strength in the squat and bench press lifts, vertical jump (VJ), lean body mass (LBM), and neural activation levels (IEMG). They trained 3 days a week for 12 weeks according to a linear periodization model (n = 8), an undulating periodization model (n = 5), or a nonperiodized control model (n = 9). Training volume and relative intensity were equated for all groups. Maximal squat, bench press, and LBM all improved significantly in each group, and changes in maximal strength correlated significantly with changes in LBM. IEMG levels were generally unchanged and did not correlate with changes in strength. The VJ increased significantly through training, but there were no differences between groups. Changes in VJ were not significantly correlated with changes in squat, LBM, or IEMG levels. The results indicate that in short-term training using previously trained subjects, no differences in maximal strength are seen when training volume and relative intensity are equated. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Variation or periodization of training is an important concept in designing weight-training programs. To date, the majority of studies examining periodization of weight training have used a traditional strength/power training model of decreasing training volume and increasing training intensity as the program progresses. The majority of these studies have used males as subjects and do support the contention that periodized programs can result in greater changes in strength, motor performance, total body weight, lean body mass, and percent body fat than nonperiodized programs. However, studies are needed examining why periodized training is more beneficial than nonperiodized training. Studies are also needed examining the response of females, children, and seniors to periodized weight-training programs and the response to periodized models other than the traditional strength/power training model. (C) 1999 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
The present investigation compared the effects of three selected mesocycle-length weight training programs using partially equated volumes on upper and lower body strength. Ninety-two previously weight-trained males were tested at five intervals (T1 through T5) on freeweight bench press and parallel back squat strength before, during, and after 16 weeks of training. Groups 1 and 2 trained with programs consisting of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM and 6x8-RM at 83.3% of 1-RM, respectively, while keeping the amount of sets, repetitions, and training resistance (relative intensity) constant. Group 3 trained with a periodization program involving 4 weeks of 5x10-RM at 78.9% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 6x8-RM with 83.3% of 1-RM, 4 weeks of 3x6-RM with 87.6% of 1-RM, and 4 weeks of 3x4-RM with 92.4% of 1-RM. Group 4 served as a non-weight-training control group. A 4x5 (Group x Test) MANOVA with repeated measures on test revealed that pretest normalized bench press and squat strength values were statistically equal when the study began. For the bench press at T2, results revealed that Groups 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from Group 4 but not from each other. At T3, T4, and T5, Group 3 demonstrated significantly different strength levels in the bench press from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Groups 1 and 2 were not significantly different from Group 4. For the squat exercise at T2, T3, and T4, Groups 2 and 3 were significantly different from Groups 1 and 2 but not from each other. At T5, Group 3 was significantly different from Groups 1, 2, and 4. Group 2 was significantly different from Groups 1 and 4, and Group 1 was only significantly different from Group 4. It was concluded that a mesocycle-length weight training program. incorporating periodization is superior in eliciting upper and lower body strength gains when compared to programs with partially equated volumes. (C) 1993 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
This study compared the effects of three preseason training programs on endurance, strength, power, and speed. Subjects were divided into four groups: the endurance (E) group completed a running endurance program 4 days [middle dot] week-1; the strength (S) group trained 3 days [middle dot] week-1; the S+E group combined S and E training programs 5 days [middle dot] week-1; the control (C) group did not train. After 8 weeks, the E and S+E groups had similar gains in endurance running performance, the S group had no change, while the C group showed a decline. No strength gains were noted in the C or E groups, but strength gains were made in the S+E and S groups. Power (vertical jump performance) and speed (20-m sprint time) gains were noted only for the S group. These findings show that training for strength alone results in gains in strength, power, and speed while maintaining endurance. S+E training, while producing gains in endurance and upper body strength, compromises gains in lower body strength and does not improve power or speed. (C) 1994 National Strength and Conditioning Association
Article
Impairment in strength development has been demonstrated with combined strength and endurance training as compared with strength training alone. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combining conventional 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 strength and endurance training on the compatibility of improving both [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak and strength performance simultaneously. Sedentary adult males, randomly assigned to one of three groups (N = 10 each), completed 10 wk of training. A strength-only (S) group performed eight weight-training exercises (4 sets/exercise, 5-7 repetitions/set), an endurance-only (E) group performed continuous cycle exercise (50 min at 70% heart rate reserve), and a combined (C) group performed the same S and E exercise in a single session. S and C groups demonstrated similar increases (P < 0.0167) in 1RM squat (23% and 22%) and bench press (18% for both groups), in maximal isometric knee extension torque (12% and 7%), in maximal vertical jump (6% and 9%), and in fat-free mass (3% and 5%). E training did not induce changes in any of these variables. [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak (ml[middle dot]kg-1min-1) increased (P < 0.01) similarity in both E (18%) and C (16%) groups. Results indicate 3 d[middle dot]wk-1 combined training can induce substantial concurrent and compatible increases in [latin capital V with dot above]O2peak and strength performance. (C)1995The American College of Sports Medicine