An in-vivo study of the efficacy and safety of ethno-veterinary remedies used to control cattle ticks by rural farmers in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

Department of Livestock and Pasture Sciences, University of Fort Hare, P/Bag X 1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa.
Tropical Animal Health and Production (Impact Factor: 0.82). 05/2009; 41(7):1569-76. DOI: 10.1007/s11250-009-9348-1
Source: PubMed


Ticks feed on blood, are vectors of tick-borne diseases and cause considerable skin damage to livestock. They are commonly controlled using commercial acaricides, which are expensive to the rural farmers, causing them to resort to alternative tick control methods. The objective of this study was to assess the acaricidal properties and safety of some materials (Ptaeroxylon obliquum, Aloe ferox, Lantana camara, Tagetes minuta, Used engine oil and Jeyes fluid, used by rural farmers to control cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 52 cattle were divided into 13 experimental groups with 4 cattle in each. Jeyes fluid at 76.8% concentration and Used engine oil had an efficacy that was almost similar to that of the positive control Ektoban (Cymiazol 17.5 and cypermethrin 2.5%). Extracts of L. camara at 40% concentration had an efficacy of 57% while A. ferox, P. obliquum and T. minuta were not effective. The test materials had no irritation effect on rats. The study revealed that the materials rural farmers use as acaricides vary in their efficacy in controlling ticks.

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    • "Oils themselves are known as pesticides of arthropods, mainly via suffocation, when the oil moves into the spiracles ; they may also act as an oviposition repellent or even as a cell-disruption agent (Vincent et al., 2003; Najar- Rodríguez et al., 2008). Therefore, some farmers apply oil to their cattle to control ticks (Hlatshwayo and Mbati, 2005; Moyo et al., 2009). More thorough testing of mineral oil toxicity to ticks showed a variable influence, depending on tick stage (Polar et al., 2005; Camargo et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of eggs laid by females placed on ground sprayed with conidia in water with canola or mineral oils.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Veterinary Parasitology
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    • "Cytotoxic constituents (pentacyclic triterpenoids) active against various cancer cell lines reported from leaves (Litaudon et al., 2009); pentacyclic triterpenoids (lantadenes and their esters) present in the plant reportedly demonstrated in vivo tumor inhibitory potential on squamous cell carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by 12-O- tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (Sharma et al., 2008; Kaur et al., 2008); anti-tumor component verbascoside isolated from the plant, which has been attributed to inhibition of protein kinase C from rat brain (Herbert et al., 1991). Plant extract reported to be efficacious in controlling cattle ticks (Moyo et al., 2009). Nematicidal activity demonstrated against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita by various pentacyclic triterpenoids obtained from aerial parts of the plant – pomolic acid, lantanolic acid, lantoic acid, camarin, lantacin, camarinin, and ursolic acid (Begum et al., 2008); nematicidal properties demonstrated for lantanilic acid, camaric acid, and oleanolic acid isolated from methanolic extract of aerial parts of the plant, notably the last compound also has anti-plasmodial properties (Qamar et al., 2005); nematicidal properties demonstrated for lantanoside, linaroside, and camarinic acid isolated from aerial parts (Begum et al., 2000 "
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    ABSTRACT: Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2011 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we examined the anti-tick properties of the essential oil of Tagetes minuta L. (Asteraceae: Asterales) against Hyalomma rufipes ticks. We obtained the essential oil of T. minuta by hydro-distillation of a combination of fresh flowers, leaves and soft stems, and analysed these by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-linked mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil had a high percentage of monoterpenes and the major compounds identified were cis-ocimene (28.5%), beta-ocimene (16.83%) and 3-methyl-2-(2-methyl-2-butenyl)-furan (11.94%). Hyalomma rufipes adults displayed a significant (P < 0.05) dose repellent response to the essential oil of T. minuta. Probit analysis indicated a repellent EC50 of T. minuta essential oil for male ticks to be 0.072 mL/mL (CI 0.053 mL/mL to 0.086 mL/mL) and 0.070 mL/mL (CI 0.052 mL/mL to 0.084 mL/mL) for female ticks. There were no significant differences in repellent responses between male and female ticks. The oil also significantly (P < 0.05) delayed moulting of 60% of H. rufipes engorged nymphs. These results suggest that T. minuta may be a potential source of anti-tick agents.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research
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