Article

The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population

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Abstract

The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.

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... Participants completed four questionnaires that covered a wide range of depression and anxiety symptomatology. These comprised the Penn-State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; [20]), the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; [21,22]), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI form Y; [23]) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD; [24]); see Methods for more details. We report the mean and standard deviation of participants' scores on these questionnaires in S1 Table and compare these scores to those from individuals diagnosed with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) or Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), age and gender matched controls, and a community sample recruited for a prior study [25]. ...
... The full set of questionnaires administered included: the Penn-State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; [20]) the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; [21,22]), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI form Y; [23]), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD; [24]). ...
... During part 2, participants also filled out several more questionnaires tapping depression and anxiety symptomatology at the end of the session. These included the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; [21,22]), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; [23]), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD; [24]). At the end of part two, participants marked a box indicating whether they were willing to be contacted for part three. ...
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Individuals prone to anxiety and depression often report beliefs and make judgements about themselves that are more negative than those reported by others. We use computational modeling of a richly naturalistic task to disentangle the role of negative priors versus negatively biased belief updating and to investigate their association with different dimensions of Internalizing psychopathology. Undergraduate participants first provided profiles for a hypothetical tech internship. They then viewed pairs of other profiles and selected the individual they would prefer to work alongside out of each pair. In a subsequent phase of the experiment, participants made judgments about their relative popularity as hypothetical internship partners both before any feedback and after each of 20 items of feedback revealing whether or not they had been selected as the preferred teammate from a given pairing. Scores on latent factors of general negative affect, anxiety-specific affect and depression-specific affect were estimated using participants' self-report scores on standardized measures of anxiety and depression together with factor loadings from a bifactor analysis conducted previously. Higher scores on the depression-specific factor were linked to more negative prior beliefs but were not associated with differences in belief updating. In contrast, higher scores on the anxiety-specific factor were associated with a negative bias in belief updating but no difference in prior beliefs. These findings indicate that, to at least some extent, distinct processes may impact the formation of belief priors and in-the-moment belief updating and that these processes may be differentially disrupted in depression and anxiety. Future directions for enquiry include examination of the possibility that prior beliefs biases in depression might reflect generalization from prior experiences or global schema whereas belief updating biases in anxiety might be more situationally specific.
... Aiming at contributing to research reproducibility, we sought to address the controversy in the literature about the differential association between CYP2C19 enzyme activity, mood phenotype and hippocampus anatomy. Here, rather than using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [21] or the Beck Depression Inventory [22] that assess the current level of depression, we decided for an instrument with a lifetime perspective-the global assessment of functioning (GAF) [23], additionally to the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) [24] and a diagnostic label of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) according to the DSM-IV [23]. Along the same lines, given major demographic and brain imaging acquisition differences between testing and validation cohorts in the literature [3], we sample data from a single-center large-scale cohort with a representative age distribution. ...
... Lifetime (trait) anxiety scores were collected using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) [35]. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) [24] assesses the severity of depressive symptoms during the last week. Diagnoses and MDD characteristics across the lifetime were established according to the DSM-IV [23]. ...
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Given controversial findings of reduced depressive symptom severity and increased hippocampus volume in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, we sought to provide empirical evidence from a large-scale single-center longitudinal cohort in the community-dwelling adult population—Colaus|PsyCoLaus in Lausanne, Switzerland ( n = 4152). We looked for CYP2C19 genotype-related behavioral and brain anatomy patterns using a comprehensive set of psychometry, water diffusion- and relaxometry-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data (BrainLaus, n = 1187). Our statistical models tested for differential associations between poor metabolizer and other metabolizer status with imaging-derived indices of brain volume and tissue properties that explain individuals’ current and lifetime mood characteristics. The observed association between CYP2C19 genotype and lifetime affective status showing higher functioning scores in poor metabolizers, was mainly driven by female participants (ß = 3.9, p = 0.010). There was no difference in total hippocampus volume between poor metabolizer and other metabolizer, though there was higher subiculum volume in the right hippocampus of poor metabolizers (ß = 0.03, p FDR corrected = 0.036). Our study supports the notion of association between mood phenotype and CYP2C19 genotype, however, finds no evidence for concomitant hippocampus volume differences, with the exception of the right subiculum.
... Wang et al. Slaney et al., 1996) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1970) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) Individual-and Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale (Yu & Yang, 1987) Cross-sectional, quantitativecorrelational Achievement motivation, anxiety, depression, selfesteem, and perfectionism ...
... APS-R = Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (Slaney et al., 1996). CES-D = Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977). ...
Chapter
The psychological literature has explored various factors that can influence social relationships over the years. While perfectionism has received less attention from researchers than others, its direct relationship with certain aggressive behaviours has been established. The results of this synthesis review of 18 research articles shows that maladaptive perfectionism leads to lower self-esteem and is also linked to different types of aggressive behaviour (indirect, covert). In general, a perfectionism oriented toward achievement with high standards (self-directed and with reduced external pressures) relates to higher self-esteem and prosocial behaviour. However, these concepts interact in a more complex way than is immediately apparent, since self-esteem, maladaptive thoughts and consequent social behaviour will vary, depending on the dimension of perfectionism. For this reason, future research is needed to gather more data to investigate this interaction.
... As an ill-being measure, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) is a 20-item measure designed to assess depressive symptoms in the general population. The CES-D, as a screening tool, asked participants to rate how often over the past week they experienced depressive symptoms in a 4-point Likert scale, with scores ranging from 0 ('Rarely or none of the time (less than one day)' to 3 ('Most or all of the time (5-7 days)'). ...
... A summed score of 16 (or a mean score of 0.8) identifies individuals as being at risk for depression (Weissman et al., 1977). One of the most widespread measures of depression, the CES-D has been shown to yield adequate internal consistency, testretest reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and validity evidence (Devins et al., 1988;Radloff, 1977;Vilagut et al., 2016). The CES-D has been consistently, although not always, reported four-factor structures-depressed mood, somatic symptoms, interpersonal problems, and positive affect-across various populations (Eaton et al., 2004). ...
... CES-D is a 20-item self-report measure that assesses the presence of depression symptoms experienced over the past week [28]. Each item is measured on a 4-point Likert-type scale that indicates the frequency of depression symptoms ranging from 0=rarely or none of the time to 3=most or all of the times. ...
... Each item is measured on a 4-point Likert-type scale that indicates the frequency of depression symptoms ranging from 0=rarely or none of the time to 3=most or all of the times. A sum of scores is calculated for this measure [28]. ...
Article
Background: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with severe chronic medical conditions and premature mortality. Expanding the reach or access to effective evidence-based treatments to help persons with AUD is a public health objective. Mobile phone or smartphone technology has the potential to increase the dissemination of clinical and behavioral interventions (mobile health interventions) that increase the initiation and maintenance of sobriety among individuals with AUD. Studies about how this group uses their mobile phone and their attitudes toward technology may have meaningful implications for participant engagement with these interventions. Objective: This exploratory study examined the potential relationships among demographic characteristics (race, gender, age, marital status, and income), substance use characteristics (frequency of alcohol and cannabis use), and clinical variables (anxiety and depression symptoms) with indicators of mobile phone use behaviors and attitudes toward technology. Methods: A sample of 71 adults with AUD (mean age 42.9, SD 10.9 years) engaged in an alcohol partial hospitalization program completed 4 subscales from the Media Technology Usage and Attitudes assessment: Smartphone Usage measures various mobile phone behaviors and activities, Positive Attitudes and Negative Attitudes measure attitudes toward technology, and the Technological Anxiety/Dependence measure assesses level of anxiety when individuals are separated from their phone and dependence on this device. Participants also provided demographic information and completed the Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Lastly, participants reported their frequency of alcohol use over the past 3 months using the Drug Use Frequency Scale. Results: Results for the demographic factors showed a significant main effect for age, Smartphone Usage (P=.003; ηp2=0.14), and Positive Attitudes (P=.01; ηp2=0.07). Marital status (P=.03; ηp2=0.13) and income (P=.03; ηp2=0.14) were associated only with the Technological Anxiety and Dependence subscale. Moreover, a significant trend was found for alcohol use and the Technological Anxiety/Dependence subscale (P=.06; R2=0.02). Lastly, CES-D scores (P=.03; R2=0.08) and GAD symptoms (P=.004; R2=0.13) were significant predictors only of the Technological Anxiety/Dependence subscale. Conclusions: Findings indicate differences in mobile phone use patterns and attitudes toward technology across demographic, substance use, and clinical measures among patients with AUD. These results may help inform the development of future mHealth interventions among this population.
... Depressive and anxious symptoms The level of selfreported depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The CES-D is a self-report questionnaire designed to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms (Radloff, 1977;Weissman et al., 1977). The nineteen items of the CES-D were administered to all youth. ...
... The CES-D overall has been found to have good validity (r = 0.73-0.89), adequate test-retest reliability (r = 0.57), good internal consistency (α = 0.979) (Radloff, 1977;Weissman et al., 1977) in several studies. The sum of the thirteen items from the CES-D depression scale was utilized as the measure for youth depressive symptoms in this study (Munafo et al., 2008). ...
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Physical activity (PA) participation has been linked to broad health benefits including reduced risk of chronic diseases. PA participation is important in adolescence as it sets the precedent for continued engagement and improved long-term health. At baseline, adolescents have some of the lowest rates of physical activity. Subsequently obesity rates in youth have exponentially increased in the past few decades. The existing literature on predictors of youth PA focuses on various internal (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, chronic pain, Body Mass Index) and external (e.g., parental behaviors, risky behaviors) predictors. Some research suggested that internal predictors are more consistent predictors of youth PA, when compared to external predictors. The current study investigated the relationship between both internal and external factors (as well as both facilitators and inhibitors) and PA in youth. Two separate ordinal logistic regression models were utilized. Five internal variables (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self-esteem, pain, BMI) were significantly related to PA, whereas one of the three external variables were significantly related to PA (i.e., time with friends). Implications include determining important points of intervention to increase PA in youth.
... feelings of discrimination, direct support worker). Given that this is secondary data analysis, future research should consider validated measures such as the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff 1977). Furthermore, not all relevant socio-environmental correlates are included in the model. ...
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Background Physical activities are essential to the quality of life of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. To promote participation in physical activities, it is critical to identify changeable variables based on the socio-environmental approach. The purpose of this study is to explore the status of physical activity participation and its correlate for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities in South Korea. Methods A total of 416 people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (or their families) completed the Korean national survey. We examined (a) physical activity frequency, duration, types, and facilities; (b) correlates of physical activity participation; and (c) barriers to physical activity participation. Results Slightly over half of the respondents participated in regular physical activity in the past year almost every day for approximately an hour, mainly by walking and jogging. Hierarchical binary logistic regressions revealed positive correlations between physical activity participation and healthy eating habits, reduced depression and suicidal ideas, community outings, direct professional support, and less feelings of discrimination. Conclusions To promote physical activity participation among people with disabilities, personal and socioenvironmental variables should be considered.
... An example item of the Neuroticism subscale is: "Do you worry about things that might happen?". Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, Radloff, 1977), which consists of 20 items each answered on a 4-point Likert scale (ranging from 1= rarely or none of the time to 4= most or all of the time). An example item of the CES-D is: "I was bothered by things that usually don't bother me". ...
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Research on emotion dynamics as indices of emotion functioning has become muddled by conceptual confusion, methodological heterogeneity, and seemingly conflicting results. One way to address this chaos is the study of profiles of emotion dynamics across 12 emotions and how they differ between 246 adolescents. The interpretation of these dynamic profiles was guided by auxiliary variables including age, personality, depressive symptoms, and social experiences. Method: During 6 days, 246 adolescents (Mage=14.20, 65% female) rated 9 times daily the intensity of 12 emotions (cheerful, happy, energetic, joyful, content, relaxed, anxious, worried, irritable, insecure, down, and guilty), and their social experiences with family, friends, and classmates. Additional baseline measures included neuroticism, extraversion (JEPQR-S), and depressive symptoms (CES-D). A three-mode principal component analysis (3MPCA Tucker3-based) model was estimated on the person-specific dynamic parameters of emotional intensity (mean), variability (standard deviation), instability (mean squared successive difference), and inertia (autocorrelation). Results: The 3MPCA identified three emotion-mode components (positive affect, negative affect, and irritability), three dynamic-mode components (emotional intensity, lability, and inertia). Five individual-mode components captured interactions between these modes, of which positive affect explained most variation in the data. These emotion dynamic profiles correlated differently with social experiences. Additional 3MPCA model structures based on imputed data (correcting missing autocorrelations) and affect scale composites (low and high arousal positive and negative affect) showed strong resemblance. Conclusion: The identified emotion dynamic profiles capture meaningful interpersonal differences in adolescents’ emotional experiences and change. Future work should focus on irritability and positive affect as these were uniquely informative in adolescents’ emotional experiences.
... The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a self-rating tool developed by the National Institutes of Mental Health (Radloff) in 1977 to evaluate the current level of depression in community populations (Radloff, 1977). This scale has been translated and used in many countries and has good reliability and validity (Van de Velde et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Since December 2019, the COVID-19 has continued to rage, and epidemic prevention policies have limited contact between individuals, which may has a great influence on the income of individuals, exacerbate anxiety and depression, and cause serious mental health problems. The current study aims to examine the association between income and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic by using the data of 9,296 observations from the 2020 China Family Panel Studies. Employing ordinary least squares regression and two-stage least squares regression, we find the significant positive effect of income on Chinese mental health during this pandemic. In addition, the number of cigarettes smoked per day has significant negative effects on mental health. Education levelˎmarriage and exercise frequency have significant positive correlation with mental health. Furthermore, the impact of income on individuals of different groups is heterogeneous during this pandemic. The impact of income for well-educated individuals is less strong than their less-educated counterparts. People who exercise regularly respond less strongly to changes in income than those who do not exercise. Finally, individuals’ salary satisfaction and interpersonal relationship are shown to be the potential mechanism for the effect of income on Chinese mental health.
... These data were available from both studies. Depressive symptoms were assessed for sample descriptive purposes using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (50). These data were only available from sub-study 1. ...
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Brain structural abnormalities have been demonstrated in schizophrenia (SZ); these resemble those seen in typical aging, but are seen at younger ages. Furthermore, SZ is associated with accelerated global brain aging, as measured by brain structure-based brain predicted age difference (Brain-PAD). High heterogeneity exists in the degree of brain abnormalities in SZ, and individual differences may be related to levels of peripheral inflammation and may relate to cognitive deficits and negative symptoms. The goal of our study was to investigate the relationship between brain aging, peripheral inflammation, and symptoms of SZ. We hypothesized older brain-PAD in SZ vs. healthy comparison (HC) participants, as well as positive relationships of brain-PAD with peripheral inflammation markers and symptoms in SZ. We analyzed data from two cross-sectional studies in SZ ( n = 26; M/F: 21/5) and HC ( n = 28; 20/8) (22–64 years). Brain-PAD was calculated using a previously validated Gaussian process regression model applied to raw T1-weighted MRI data. Plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, Eotaxin, Fractalkine, IP10, IL6, IL10, ICAM1, IFNγ, MCP1, MIP1β, SAA, TNFα, VEGF, VCAM1) and cognitive and negative symptoms were assessed. We observed a higher brain-PAD in SZ vs. HC, and advanced brain age relative to chronological age was related to higher peripheral levels of TNFα in the overall group and in the SZ group; other inflammatory markers were not related to brain-PAD. Within the SZ group, we observed no association between cognitive or negative symptoms and brain-PAD. These results support our hypothesis of advanced brain aging in SZ. Furthermore, our findings on the relationship of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα with higher brain-PAD of SZ are relevant to explain heterogeneity of brain ages in SZ, but we did not find strong evidence for cognitive or negative symptom relationships with brain-PAD.
... These questions were used to filter out participants who did not answer the questionnaire seriously. The current study additionally served as screening for other studies and therefore contained the Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (Peeters et al., 1996), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Radloff, 1977), Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck et al., 1988), Fear Questionnaire (Marks and Mathews, 1979), Restraint scale (RS; Herman and Polivy, 1980), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q; Fairburn and Beglin, 2008), Emotional Eating Scale (Arnow et al., 1995), General Food Craving Questionnaire Trait (GFCQT; Nijs et al., 2007), Alcohol Use (Schippers et al., 2011), and Drinking Motivation Questionnaire (Cooper, 1994). ...
Article
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Reward and punishment sensitivity seem important traits in understanding behavior in general and psychopathology in particular. Though the definitions used for reward and punishment sensitivity differentiate between responsivity and motivation, the measures thus far used to assess these constructs do not. Further, specificity of the type of reward (e.g., drugs) and punishment (e.g., spiders) in questionnaires might result in measurement bias especially when examining the relationship with psychopathology. Therefore, we developed a stimulus-independent multidimensional questionnaire of reward and punishment sensitivity that differentiates between responsivity and motivation. This study addresses the psychometric qualities of this newly developed reward and punishment responsivity and motivation questionnaire (RPRM-Q). On the basis of exploratory ordinal factor analysis (N = 273) that was used to examine the quality of the initial pool of 39 items, the number of items was reduced to 18. Confirmatory ordinal factor analysis on the remaining items in an independent sample (N = 328) supported a 18-item four-factor model, and showed acceptable to good internal reliability. The relationship between the subscales of the RPRM- Q and often used questionnaires was examined in the combined sample (N = 601), which showed some first support for the ability of the new questionnaire to differentiate between responsivity and motivation to approach/avoid. The findings indicate that the RPRM-Q might be a helpful instrument to further test the relevance of punishment and reward sensitivity in psychopathology.
... During wave 1 of the TILDA study, symptoms of depression were assessed and analyzed using the CES-D tool published by Radloff in 1977 [10]. The self-reported CES-D tool provided high coefficients of reliability [11], which ranged between 0.85 and 0.91 when used among the elderly demographic of adults in Ireland. ...
... Participants with a history of psychotic disorders, substance abuse, or a prior learning disability will also be excluded. Additionally, participants diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder in the last two years by a mental health professional and those scoring greater than 19 on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [51] will be excluded from the study. Participants currently taking medications belonging to any of the following drug classes will be excluded: sedatives, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, sedative-hypnotics, anti-inflammatories, chemotherapies, and any drugs altering brain function or enhancing cognitive performance. ...
Article
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Background Mindfulness meditation is a form of mind–body intervention that has increasing scientific support for its ability to reduce age-related declines in cognitive functioning, improve affective health, and strengthen the neural circuitry supporting improved cognitive and affective health. However, the majority of existent studies have been pilot investigations with small sample sizes, limited follow-up data, and a lack of attention to expectancy effects. Here, we present the study design of a Phase I/II, efficacy trial—HealthyAgers trial—that examines the benefits of a manualized mindfulness-based stress reduction program in improving attentional control and reducing mind-wandering in older adults. Methods One hundred fifty older adults (ages 65–85 years) will be randomized into one of two groups: an eight-week mindfulness program or an eight-week, placebo-controlled, lifestyle education program. Behavioral and neuroimaging assessments are conducted before and after the training. Participants are then invited to booster sessions once every three months for a period of 12 months with post-intervention follow-up assessments conducted at 6-months and 12-months. The primary outcomes for the study are behavioral measures of attentional control and mind-wandering. Additional, secondary outcomes include network strength in an a priori defined neuromarker of attentional control, fluid and everyday cognition, emotion regulation strategy use, and markers of inflammation. Discussion This study will establish the efficacy of a group-based, low-cost mind–body intervention for the inter-related facets of attentional control and mind-wandering in older adults. Strengths of this study include a well-designed, placebo-controlled comparison group, use of web/mobile application to track study adherence, and longitudinal follow-up. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov (# NCT03626532 ). Registered August 4, 2018.
... These questionnaires are irrelevant to the current research question and will be elaborated on in a separate report. The questionnaires we used to determine vulnerability to ruminative thought are the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ) measuring repetitive negative thinking (Ehring et al., 2011), Rumination Response Scale (RRS) for accessing depressive rumination (Nolen-Hoeksema and Morrow, 1991), and the CES-D indicating the severity of depression (Radloff, 1977). To be able to select participants based on a single score, the total score (X) of the three questionnaires was calculated as the sum of the separately standardized score of each form: ...
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For a large proportion of our daily lives, spontaneously occurring thoughts tend to disengage our minds from goal-directed thinking. Previous studies showed that EEG features such as the P3 and alpha oscillations can predict mind-wandering to some extent, but only with accuracies of around 60%. A potential candidate for improving prediction accuracy is the Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP), which is used frequently in single-trial contexts such as brain-computer interfaces as a marker of the direction of attention. In this study, we modified the sustained attention to response task (SART) that is usually employed to measure spontaneous thought to incorporate the SSVEP elicited by a 12.5-Hz flicker. We then examined whether the SSVEP could track and allow for the prediction of the stickiness and task-relatedness dimensions of spontaneous thought. Our results show that the SSVEP evoked by flickering words was able to distinguish between more and less sticky thinking but not between whether a participant was on- or off-task. This suggests that the SSVEP is able to track spontaneous thinking when it is strongly disengaged from the task (as in the sticky form of off-task thinking) but not off-task thought in general. Future research should determine the exact dimensions of spontaneous thought to which the SSVEP is most sensitive.
... In regression analysis, it was adjusted for several sociodemographic and health-related factors: sex (male; female), age (in years), educational level (ISCED-97) [18] (low education; medium education; high education), marital status (married, living together with spouse; married, living separated from spouse; divorced; widowed; single), employment status (working; retired; other; not employed), self-rated health (ranging from 1 = very good to 5 = very bad), and number of self-reported chronic conditions, including (i) cardiac and circulatory disorders, (ii) bad circulation, (iii) joint, bone, spinal or back problems, (iv) respiratory problems, asthma or shortness of breath, (v) stomach and intestinal problems, (vi) cancer, (vii) diabetes, (viii) gall bladder, liver or kidney problems, (ix) bladder problems, (x) eye problems or vision impairment, (xi) ear problems or hearing problems (count score, ranging from 0 to 11). In sensitivity analysis, the main regression model was extended by adding depressive symptoms as a covariate (using the 15-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) [19], ranging from 0 to 45, with higher values reflecting more depressive symptoms). ...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify the link between Parkinson's disease (i.e., comparing individuals with Parkinson's disease and individuals without Parkinson's disease) and psychosocial outcomes (in terms of life satisfaction, optimism, loneliness, perceived social isolation and perceived autonomy). Methods: Cross-sectional data (wave 5) were used from the nationally representative German Ageing Survey (with n = 7832). Life satisfaction was quantified using the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Optimism was measured using the Brandstädter and Wentura tool. Perceived autonomy was quantified using the Schwarzer tool. Loneliness was quantified using the De Jong Gierveld tool. Perceived social isolation was quantified using the Bude and Lantermann tool. Physician-diagnosed Parkinson's disease served as the key independent variable. Results: Multiple linear regressions showed that individuals with Parkinson's disease reported significantly lower perceived autonomy (β = -0.30, p < 0.01) compared to individuals without Parkinson's disease. In contrast, they did not report worse psychosocial outcomes (in terms of life satisfaction, optimism, loneliness and perceived social isolation). Conclusion: Study findings showed a quite strong association between Parkinson's disease and perceived autonomy. Future research could elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
... Depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale (Radloff, 1977). This scale examines cognitive, affective, and somatic symptoms of depression by asking participants to rate how often they experienced each scale item (e.g., "I felt sad") over the past week on a 4-point scale ranging from 0 to 3. Scores were summed; higher CES-D scores indicate greater selfreported depression. ...
Article
Stress can lead to depression, in part because of activation of inflammatory mechanisms. It is therefore critical to identify resilience factors that can buffer against these effects, but no research to date has evaluated whether psychosocial resilience mitigates the effects of stress on inflammation-associated depressive symptoms. We therefore examined psychosocial resources known to buffer against stress in a longitudinal study of women with breast cancer ( N = 187). Depressive symptoms and inflammation were measured over a 2-year period extending from after diagnosis into survivorship. Cancer-related stress and psychosocial resources—social support, optimism, positive affect, mastery, self-esteem, and mindfulness—were measured after diagnosis. As hypothesized, women who reported having more psychosocial resources showed weaker associations between stress and depressive symptoms and weaker associations between stress and inflammation-related depressive symptoms. Results highlight the importance of psychosocial resilience by demonstrating a relationship between psychosocial resources and sensitivity to inflammation-associated depressive symptoms.
... Depressive symptoms were assessed with the self-reported Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale-Revised 20-item (CESD-R-20) [44,45]. The CESD-R-20 defines a score equal to or above 16 (out of 60) at risk for clinical depression. ...
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This paper explores the migration experiences, perceived COVID-19 impacts, and depression symptoms among Haitian migrants living in Santiago, Chile. Ninety-five participants from eight neighborhoods with a high density of Haitian migrants were recruited. Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Chi-squared tests were used to confirm univariate results. We found that 22% of participants had major depressive symptoms based on the CESD-R-20 scale, 87% reported major life changes due to COVID-19, and 78% said their migration plans had changed due to the pandemic. Factors associated with more depressive symptoms were being in debt (OR = 3.43) and experiencing discrimination (ORs: 0.60 to 6.19). Factors associated with less odds of depressive symptoms were social support (ORs: 0.06 to 0.25), change in migration plans due to COVID-19 (OR = 0.30), and planning to leave Chile (OR = 0.20). After accounting for relevant factors, planning to leave Chile is significantly predictive of fewer symptoms of depression. Haitian migrants living in Chile had a high prevalence of depression. Planning to leave Chile was a significant protector against depressive symptoms. Future studies should explore how nuanced experiences of uncertainty play out in migrants’ lives, mental well-being, and planning for their future.
... Participants across all groups reported moderate levels of anxiety throughout the study. On average, study participants did not report clinically significant depression, indicated by CES-D scores ≥ 16 [17]. Depression scores were the highest at hospital discharge and declined across 12-months. ...
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Background Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) survivorship results in unique issues in return to physical and psychological function. The purpose of the study was to compare recovery across the first year between SCA survivors and other arrhythmia patients who received a first-time implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for secondary prevention, participating in a social cognitive theory (SCT) intervention. Methods 168 (129 males, 39 females) who received an ICD for secondary prevention (SCA N = 65; other arrhythmia N = 103) were randomized to one of two study conditions: SCT intervention (N = 85) or usual care (N = 83). Outcomes were measured at baseline hospital discharge, 1, 3, 6, & 12 months: (1) Physical Function: Patient Concerns Assessment (PCA), SF-36 (PCS); (2) Psychological Adjustment: State Trait Anxiety (STAI), CES-D depression, SF-36 (MCS); (3) Self-Efficacy: Self-Efficacy (SCA-SE), Self-management Behaviors (SMB), Outcome Expectations (OE). Outcomes were compared over 12 months for intervention condition x ICD indication using general estimating equations. Results Participants were Caucasian (89%), mean age 63.95 ± 12.3 years, EF% 33.95 ± 13.9, BMI 28.19 ± 6.2, and Charlson Index 4.27 ± 2.3. Physical symptoms (PCA) were higher over time for SCA survivors compared to the other arrhythmia group ( p = 0.04), ICD shocks were lower in SCA survivors in the SCT intervention ( p = 0.01); psychological adjustment (MCS) was significantly lower in SCA survivors in the SCT intervention over 6 months, which improved at 12 months ( p = 0.05); outcome expectations (OE) were significantly lower for SCA survivors in the SCT intervention ( p = 0.008). Conclusions SCA survivors had greater number of physical symptoms, lower levels of mental health and outcome expectations over 12 months despite participation in a SCT intervention. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04462887.
... Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) (Radloff, 1977;Andresen, Malmgren, Carter, & Patrick, 1994). The CESD-10 has 10 items measured on a 4-point scale (0=not at all to 3=very much so). ...
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Two cross-sectional survey studies were conducted to examine the relationships between minority stressors, protective factors and mental health outcomes in lesbian, gay and bisexual people (LGB) in the United Kingdom (UK). A convenience sample of 156 LGB people in the UK participated in Study 1. Multiple regression analyses showed that victimization and sexuality-related identity threat were positively associated with anxiety and that identity resilience, social support and degree of outness were negative correlates; and that rejection was negatively associated with depression while identity resilience and social support were negative correlates. In Study 2, based on a convenience sample of 333 gay men, our structural equation model showed that ethnic minority status, lower identity resilience and higher identity threat were associated with greater distress; ethnic minority status was associated with less social support and more internalized homonegativity; being single was associated with less social support and more internalized homonegativity; identity resilience was positively associated with social support and negatively associated with internalized homonegativity; identity threat was associated with less social support and more internalized homonegativity; internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with social support; and social support was negatively associated with distress while internalized homonegativity was positively associated with distress. Findings show differential effects of particular stressors on particular mental health outcomes in LGB people and the significance of promoting identity resilience, social support and degree of outness as protective factors.
... 31 The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D ≥ 16) was used to determine high depressive symptoms. 32 Cognitive function was determined by the MMSE. 33 Physical function was evaluated with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) to test balance, repeated chair-stands, and walking speed. ...
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Background The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that liver disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the US, afflicting 4.5 million people in 2018, or approximately 1.7% of the American adult population. Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with liver disease among older Mexican Americans over 18 years of follow-up. Methods Non-institutionalized Mexican Americans aged ≥67 years (N = 1938) from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (1995/96-2012/13) were studied. Measures included socio-demographic variables, self-reported liver disease, language of interview, medical conditions, hand-grip strength, physical and cognitive function, depressive symptoms, and body mass index. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) of liver disease over time. Results The mean age at baseline was 74.9 ± 6.0 years and 58.4% were female. The prevalence of liver disease ranged from 2.4% to 8.4%. Over time, the odds ratio of reporting liver disease was 1.17 (CI = 1.12-1.22). Older age, Spanish interview, arthritis, diabetes, heart failure, cancer, and high scores on the Mini-Mental-State-Examination were factors associated with greater odds of reporting liver disease over time. Married participants reported lower odds of liver disease over time. Conclusions The prevalence of liver disease in this population was high, ranging from 2.4% to 8.4%. Diabetes, heart failure, arthritis, and cancer were risk factors for liver disease. Screening for liver function among patients with these morbidities may help prevent liver disease in this population with high rates of diabetes and obesity.
... Depression symptoms were measured with the six-item version of the Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), used in the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD; Hibell et al., 2009). When answering the questions, respondents were asked to think of the previous 3 months. ...
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Importance: Cigarette smoking and risky alcohol consumption co-occur and are undertreated. Nicotine receptor partial agonists and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) treat smoking but are unproven for alcohol, and clinical trials rarely include individuals with HIV, substance use, and mental health conditions. Objective: To compare the effects on drinking and smoking of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonists varenicline and cytisine with those of NRT. Design, setting, and participants: This 4-group randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from July 2017 to December 2020 in St Petersburg, Russia. Included participants were 400 individuals with HIV who engaged in risky drinking (≥5 prior-month heavy-drinking days [HDDs]) and daily smoking; they were followed up for 12 months after enrollment. Data were analyzed from May 2021 through June 2022. Interventions: Participants received alcohol and tobacco counseling, 1 active medication, and 1 placebo in 1 of 4 groups: active varenicline and placebo NRT (group 1), placebo varenicline and active NRT (group 2), active cytisine and placebo NRT (group 3), or placebo cytisine and active NRT (group 4). Main outcomes and measures: The primary outcome was number of prior-month HDDs at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence from alcohol at 3 months and smoking at 6 months. Results: Among 400 participants (263 [65.8%] men; mean [SD] age, 39 [6] years), 97 individuals (24.3%) used opioids and 156 individuals (39.1%) had depressive symptoms. These individuals had a mean (SD) CD4 count of 391 (257) cells/mm3, smoked a mean (SD) of 21 [8] cigarettes/d, and reported a mean (SD) of 9.3 (5.8) HDDs in the prior 30 days. At 3 months, the mean (SD) number of HDDs was decreased vs baseline across all groups (group 1: 2.0 [3.8] HDDs vs. 9.5 [6.1] HDDs; group 2: 2.1 [4.3] HDDs vs 9.3 [5.7] HDDs; group 3: 1.5 [3.3] HDDs vs 8.9 [5.0] HDDs; group 4: 2.4 [5.2] HDDs vs 9.6 [6.3] HDDs). There were no significant differences at 3 months between groups in mean (SD) HDDs, including group 1 vs 2 (incident rate ratio [IRR], 0.94; 95% CI, 0.49-1.79), 3 vs 4 (IRR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.30-1.18), and 1 vs 3 (IRR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.65-2.55). There were no significant differences at 6 months between groups in smoking abstinence, including group 1 vs 2 (15 of 100 individuals [15.0%] vs 17 of 99 individuals [17.2%]; odds ratio [OR],0.89; 95% CI, 0.38-2.08), 3 vs 4 (19 of 100 individuals [19.0%] vs 19 of 101 individuals [18.8%]; OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.46-2.17), and 1 vs 3 (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.35-1.78). Post hoc analyses suggested lower mean (SD) HDDs (eg, at 3 months: 0.7 [1.8] HDDs vs 2.3 [4.6] HDDs) and higher alcohol abstinence (eg, at 3 months: 30 of 85 individuals [35.3%] vs 54 of 315 individuals [17.1%]) among those who quit vs continued smoking. Conclusions and relevance: This study found that among individuals with HIV who engaged in risky drinking and smoking, varenicline and cytisine were not more efficacious than NRT to treat risky drinking and smoking but that behavior change rates were high in all groups. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02797587.
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Psychological distress (including depression and anxiety) is common in the first years of cancer diagnosis but can differ by country and region. The aim of the present paper was to review the prevalence of psychological distress among cancer patients in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. A systematic literature search was carried out using several databases (i.e., PubMed, PsychARTICLES, Embase, CINAHI, Web of Sciences, Plus, Scopus, and AHMED). Papers originally published in English language were taken into consideration if they (i) were published from 2010 to 2021 and (ii) reported the prevalence of psychological distress among patients with different types of cancer. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently employed psychometric instrument for anxiety and depression screening was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of anxiety (ranging from 7% to 88%) was wider than that of depression (ranging from 3% to 65.5%) among patients with different types of cancer and living in various countries in the SEA region. The overall prevalence rate of psychological distress among cancer patients from the SEA region was not fundamentally very different from that of general populations. These findings provide useful information for health professionals and cancer patients to understand the negative role of psychological distress in quality of life and health. The research findings demonstrate the importance of counselling for psychological distress among cancer patients as means of effectively resolving their psychological problems and ultimately improving the quality of oncology medical care. Clinical recommendations for cancer management should incorporate the early identification of (and therapy for) psychological distress , as well as their monitoring during treatment. K E Y W O R D S anxiety, cancer, depression, psychological distress, Southeast Asia
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The COVID-19 pandemic ushered in a bereavement crisis unparalleled in a generation, with devastating consequences for the mental health of those who lost a loved one to the virus. Using national survey data ( n = 2,000) containing detailed information about people’s experiences of pandemic-related stressors, coping resources, and mental health, in this study we examine whether and how three psychosocial coping resources—mastery, self-esteem, and social support—moderate the association between COVID-19 bereavement and psychological distress. We find that coping resources have both expected and unanticipated effects on the relationship between bereavement and mental health. Consistent with the stress process model, higher levels of mastery uniformly reduce the damaging effects of bereavement on depressive symptoms and anger, whereas self-esteem mitigates the positive association between losing a close tie to the virus and reports of anger. Contrary to the stress-buffering hypothesis, however, higher levels of perceived support exacerbate the positive associations between bereavement and each indicator of psychological distress. Our findings suggest that the putatively advantageous aspects of social support may be compromised, or even reversed, in the context of constrained social engagement. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for sociological research on the stress process.
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Objective: Covid-19 has resulted in changes to college students' daily lives due to recommendations to socially distance. Social distance is likely to affect youths' peer relationships at a time when these relationships remain important for development. Participants and Methods: The current study utilized survey data to examine perceived changes in peer relationships and the association with behavioral health among 275 college students (Mage = 18.69, SD =.72) during the fall/spring of 2020-2021. Results: Quantitative results indicated that participants reported significant perceived decreases in peer support but did not report significantly worse quality of closest friendships. Qualitative responses from an open-ended survey question supported these quantitative results suggesting that although many participants perceived decreases in quality of relationships, there was also the perception that friendships became closer. Participants who perceived decreased peer relationship support and quality were more likely to report depressive symptoms and loneliness when compared to participants who perceived no changes.
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Objective To assess the quality of life (QOL) and describe associated factors in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) living in a low-income population in West Africa. Methods This is was a cross-sectional study conducted from January 2017 to June 2018, in the department of cardiology of the University Teaching Hospital (CHU-Campus) in Lomé (Togo). Enrolled patients had stable chronic HF and have been hospitalized in the past 6 months; QOL was assessed using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire (MLHFQ). Results 171 patients were included (women = 40.9%, 33% unschooled, 75% without health insurance; 46.8% in NYHA class II). The prevalence of depression was 62%. The mean total score of MLHFQ was 37.2 ± 22.3. In univariate analysis, there was a positive correlation between the total score and the following factors: age (r= 0.33, p ˂0.0001), NYHA classes (r= 0.67, p ˂0.0001), number of rehospitalizations (r= 0.61, p ˂0.0001), number of comorbidities (r= 0.43, p ˂0.0001), and the depression score (r= 0.67, p ˂0.0001). After adjustments, positive correlation persisted with NYHA classes (p ˂0.0001), number of rehospitalizations (p= 0.02), and depression (p ˂0.0001). Conclusion The QOL of HF patients was moderately impaired and was comparable to values reported among high-income populations. Factors associated with poor quality of life were advanced NYHA classes, number of rehospitalizations, and depression.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological wellbeing of infant-toddler child care teachers in a mid-Atlantic city (n = 160; 69% African American, 98% women) and to explore associations with teaching intentions and quality. Using survey measures and classroom observations, we tested associations between teachers’ adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), depressive symptoms, work-related wellbeing (i.e., perceived organizational functioning and workload), intentions to continue teaching, and teaching quality. We found that infant-toddler teachers experienced similar levels of ACEs to Early Childhood Education (ECE) teachers in other studies. However, rates of depressive symptoms were relatively high in this sample (27% scored in the clinical range). Both ACEs and depressive symptoms were associated with teachers' work-related wellbeing. Notably, individual-level ACEs (e.g., household dysfunction and abuse) were associated with depressive symptoms and organizational wellbeing, whereas community ACEs (e.g., neighborhood safety) were not. Organizational wellbeing was significantly and positively associated with the number of years that infant-toddler teachers intended to continue working at their child care centers. Multilevel regression models indicated that community-level ACEs and current depressive symptoms were significantly associated with teachers’ engaged support for toddlers’ learning. When knowledge of child development was added to the model, depressive symptoms were no longer uniquely associated with engaged support for learning. However, community-level ACEs remained a significant correlate. These findings show that infant and toddler teachers may need more resources to support their psychological wellbeing so that they can support children in the classroom.
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Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease of unknown etiology which is characterized by the formation of granulomatous inflammation in various organs and tissues, most commonly in the lungs and lymph nodes. Glucocorticoids are the therapy of choice for the initial treatment of symptomatic disease, but their prolonged use is associated with significant toxicity. Alternative therapies that reduce glucocorticoid use are also available. Fatigue and depression are often present in patients with sarcoidosis. Their occurrence in practice is mostly underestimated, although it is related to a lower quality of life. As fatigue and depression cannot be assessed using objective measures, the use of validated questionnaires is recommended. They enable the detection and monitoring of fatigue and depression related to the underlying disease and may indicate the need for appropriate therapy.
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The purpose of this study was to provide basic data on the health by examining the effects of psychological well-being and depression on menopausal symptoms and the necessity of exercise in middle-aged women. This study is a cross-sectional study using a structured questionnaire. The respondent’s consent was obtained prior to data collection, and the investigation period runs from November 1, 2021 to November 30, 2021. The final analysis included 150 as respondents to the study. The tool developed by Yang was used for psychological well-being, the Korean integrated CES-D tool was used for depression, and the Menopause Symptom Index was used for menopausal symptoms. The differences and levels of psychological well-being, depression, and menopausal symptoms according to demographic and sociological characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA. The correlation between psychological well-being, depression, and menopausal symptoms was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation, and the effect on menopausal symptoms was analyzed by multiple regression. Because of this study, significant results were found in marital status, religion, economic level, regular exercise, hobbies, personality, and subjective health in the difference in psychological well-being according to general characteristics. In depression, significant results were found in marital status, education level, monthly income, living status, regular exercise, hobbies, stress, personality, and subjective health status. Moreover, age, frequent exercise, hobby, and subjective health all had a significant impact on menopausal symptoms. According to the findings of the regression analysis, the factors influencing menopausal symptoms were, in that order, depression and psychological well-being. Among the factors that showed significant results for menopausal symptoms, exercise is recommended as a factor that can alleviate menopausal symptoms due to individual lifestyle changes, so it is expected to contribute to reducing menopausal symptoms and improving quality of life.
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Background Noise is one of the most important environmental risk factors that adversely affects human health. Residential noise exposure has been associated with increased risk of anxiety and depression in the general population. However, limited study has been conducted in pregnant women. Objective To examine the associations of residential noise exposure with prenatal anxiety and depression. Methods Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Center for Epidemiological Survey Scale (CES-D) were used to assess the status of prenatal anxiety and depression for 2,018 pregnant women in Shanghai, China. Residential noise exposure was represented by a land use regression model. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the associations of noise exposure with prenatal anxiety and depression. Results The prevalence rates of prenatal anxiety and depression were 7.5% and 8.1%, respectively. The mean (± standard deviation) residential noise exposure during the whole pregnancy was 60.69 (± 3.31) dB (A). Higher residential noise exposure was associated with increased odds of both prenatal anxiety and depression. Compared with low level of noise exposure group (< 65 dB(A)), the odds of prenatal anxiety and depression increased 69% (OR=1.69, 95% CI, 1.01-2.82) and 71% (OR=1.71, 95% CI, 1.05-2.80) in higher noise exposure group (≥ 65 dB(A)), respectively. Stratified analyses showed that the associations were stronger among pregnant women with lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Residential noise exposure during pregnancy might be a risk factor for prenatal anxiety and depression.
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The present study examined the longitudinal measurement invariance of the Korean version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. For this purpose, two datasets from the Korean Welfare Panel Study were analyzed. Study 1 examined the data from the first four waves to determine the scale’s short-term longitudinal invariance. Study 2 extracted data every 3 years up to the 10th year, beginning with the first wave (waves 1, 4, 7, and 10) to examine the scale’s long-term longitudinal invariance. We analyzed 10,098 cases in Study 1 and 7,077 cases in Study 2. The results of Study 1 revealed that the scale had strict or residual measurement invariance, whereas the results of Study 2 indicated that the scale had strong or scalar measurement invariance. Overall, the Korean version of the CES-D-11 scale was shown to be a valid measure of depression that can be used to evaluate symptom changes over time.
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Background Human laboratory analogues of drinking behavior provide an efficient, cost-effective mechanistic evaluation of a medication signal on drinking. We developed a novel alcohol self-administration paradigm which models the ability to resist drinking and heavy drinking. Methods We compared a de-escalating schedule of monetary reinforcement (n=16, 50% female) to no schedule (n=16, 50% female) on the ability to resist drinking (i.e., latency to start drinking) and subsequent ad-libitum alcohol consumption of preferred alcoholic beverage in participants with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Participants completed two laboratory sessions designed to model the ability to resist drinking using stress (versus neutral, within-subject factor) as a prime for drinking. Results Participants consumed more alcohol with no schedule (74.2%) versus with the de-escalating reinforcement schedule (40.3%,). The de-escalating schedule reduced alcohol consumption by 49%. Eighty-one percent of participants drank heavily with no schedule and this was reduced with the schedule. Use of the de-escalating schedule also increased the latency to pour and sip the first drink. Participants poured and sipped alcohol faster following stress imagery (vs. neutral), had greater craving, and consumed more alcohol in the first 30 minutes. Conclusions Our novel alcohol self-administration model generated heavy drinking. Over 80% of participants without reinforcement consumed more than 2/3 of their preferred alcoholic beverage designed to increase blood alcohol levels to 0.12 mg% within a 2-hour window. Our model was sensitive to stress, and the de-escalating schedule highlighted stress effects on drinking. Thus, this model is ideal for a cross-over design to test medications for AUD.
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Depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and inflammation may contribute to this relationship. Pericardial fat, a highly metabolically active fat depot, is implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD, but its association with depressive symptoms is unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between depressive symptoms and pericardial fat over a three-year period. Participants were 543 healthy men and women (mean age = 62.9 years) without history or objective signs of coronary heart disease from the Whitehall II cohort. In men, depressive symptoms were positively associated with pericardial fat at baseline after adjustment for sociodemographics, waist to hip ratio and conventional cardiovascular risk factors. Inflammation, indexed by plasma interleukin 6 concentration, accounted for 17% of this association. Longitudinally, depressive symptoms did not predict pericardial fat three years later in men once baseline levels of pericardial fat were accounted for. No significant associations between depressive symptoms and pericardial fat were found in women. Overall, our findings suggest that greater pericardial fat might be a mechanism by which depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk for CVD in men, and inflammation may also lie on this pathway.
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Rationale Depression should be investigated not only as a psychiatric symptom but also as a social issue. This research responds to recent calls and contributes to an understanding of the role played by social factors in the route toward the development of depressive symptoms. Objective Our aim was to elaborate on the impact of poverty on depressive symptoms among Hong Kong's older people. To do this, we examined the potential of social support to both mediate and moderate the effect of poverty on symptoms of depression. Methods Three waves of data were collected from a sample of Hong Kong's older adults (N = 563). Poverty was assessed as being either income-poor, expenditure-poor, asset-poor, or as experiencing material deprivation. Social support was measured in terms of instrumental support, financial support, and informational support. Results When moderation and mediation were compared in the same model, only the role of moderation was identified as being significant. Instrumental support mitigated the effect of material deprivation on depression, while all three types of social support buffered the impact of expenditure-based poverty on depression. Conclusions Social support involves supplying coping resources to weaken the negative impacts of poverty rather than supplying social capital that the poor are deprived of. By its nature, the social support offered to the poor does not aim to provide them with the resources enjoyed by the rich, but to equip them with appropriate tools by which they can handle their own problems.
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Mood disorders complicated by suicidal ideation (SI) frequently present to the emergency department (ED) for care. Currently, patients with SI in the ED do not typically receive targeted interventions. Ketamine may have a role in treating SI within the ED because subanesthetic doses have rapid‐acting antidepressant and antisuicidal properties. This single‐arm, open‐label feasibility study enrolled 14 participants from the ED with acute SI who were awaiting voluntary admission to inpatient psychiatry to receive ketamine at 0.5 mg/kg, administered intravenously. Participants were assessed post administration to evaluate feasibility of administration in the ED and short‐term effectiveness. Feasibility was determined by acceptability by patients and physicians as well as tolerability and ability to recruit participants into the study. Efficacy was assessed based on changes in (1) self‐reported mood and (2) suicidal ideation pre‐ and postinfusion of ketamine. All patients reported severe depression and active SI at baseline. No serious adverse events were reported, and acceptability was rated highly by both participants and physicians (>70%). Two hours after receiving ketamine 0.5 mg/kg, the mean SI and somatic symptom burden were decreased compared to baseline (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), and the mean self‐reported mood was increased (P = 0.006). Improvements in mood and decreases in suicidality persisted at 6 hours. Overall, ketamine was well tolerated, considered feasible by both participants and physicians, and demonstrated short‐term efficacy. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the feasibility of ketamine administration in the ED, and larger randomized trials should be conducted to establish treatment recommendations for patients with SI in the ED.
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People’s viewing experience has changed dramatically in recent years, with the rise of new viewing behaviours such as binge-watching and binge-racing made possible by the new media era. This study looks at how binge-watching affects several aspects of life (physical and psychological), correlating it to depression and loneliness, to test whether it affects them psychologically in a helpful way or drags them down to worse situations. Between December 2020 and April 2021, 234 participants completed an online survey that included four credible scales: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Watching TV Series Motives Questionnaire, the Binge-watching Engagement and Symptoms Questionnaire and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Reaching out that most viewers watch alone and plan before entering the binge cycle, but not all of them could succeed in perceiving the impact of binge-watching left on them after ending their binging. The findings revealed that binge-watching is more prevalent among younger age. Additionally, there was a partial positive association between binge-watching and depression and loneliness. Furthermore, some TV viewing motives were positively associated with depression and loneliness.
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Background: Rape is a common traumatic event which may result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), yet few studies have investigated risk biomarkers in sexually traumatised individuals. Adiponectin is a novel cytokine within inflammatory and cardiometabolic pathways with evidence of involvement in PTSD. Objective: This prospective exploratory study in a sample of female rape survivors investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) and posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity, and the interaction of these SNPs of interest with childhood trauma in modifying the association with PTSS severity. Method: The study involved 455 rape-exposed black South African women (mean age (SD), 25.3 years (±5.5)) recruited within 20 days of being raped. PTSS was assessed using the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) and childhood trauma was assessed using a modified version of the Childhood Trauma Scale-Short Form Questionnaire. Eight ADIPOQ SNPs (rs17300539, rs16861194, rs16861205, rs2241766, rs6444174, rs822395, rs1501299, rs1403697) were genotyped using KASP. Mixed linear regression models were used to test additive associations of ADIPOQ SNPs and PTSS severity at baseline, 3 and 6 months following rape. Results: The mean DTS score post-sexual assault was high (71.3 ± 31.5), with a decrease in PTSS severity shown over time for all genotypes. rs6444174TT genotype was inversely associated with baseline PTSS in the unadjusted model (β = −13.6, 95% CI [−25.1; −2.1], p = .021). However, no genotype was shown to be significantly associated with change in PTSS severity over time and therefore ADIPOQ SNP x childhood trauma interaction was not further investigated. Conclusion: None of the ADIPOQ SNPs selected for investigation in this population were shown to be associated with change in PTSS severity over a 6-month period and therefore their clinical utility as risk biomarkers for rape-related PTSD appears limited. These SNPs should be further investigated in possible gene-gene and gene-environment interactions.
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Across adolescence and into young adulthood, as youth experience both normative developmental and stressful life changes, close and supportive relationships are essential for healthy adjustment. Supportive relationships may be especially important for protecting Mexican-origin youth from developing depressive symptoms and engaging in risky behaviors given the emphasis within Mexican culture on close relationships, especially in families. With longitudinal data, we examined the associations between Mexican-origin youth’s relationships with mothers, fathers, siblings, and best friends and their adjustment across adolescence and into young adulthood. Participants were 246 Mexican-origin families with a 7th grader (younger sibling) and at least one older sibling, a mother, and a father at Time 1 (T1). Youth participated in home interviews at T1 and again five (T2) and eight (T3) years later. At T1, younger siblings were 12.55 (SD = .60) and older siblings were 15.48 (SD = 1.57) years old. Findings indicated that, with sibling and friend characteristics in the models, mother and father acceptance and conflict were significantly linked to youth positive and negative adjustment, respectively. Both sibling conflict and, consistent with a “partners in crime” process (Slomkowski et al., 2001; p. 273), sibling intimacy (of younger adolescents only), were linked to risky behavior. Same-gender friend conflict also was linked to risky behavior, but neither sibling nor friend relationships were linked to depressive symptoms. Some relationship effects were moderated by gender and age. Together, our findings have implications for programs aimed at preventing adjustment problems.
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Older adults’ perceptions of receiving accommodation from their romantic partner were examined as indirectly predicting depressive symptoms and loneliness, via shared family identity. Older adults’ assessments of their own future and their romantic partner’s future were also examined as moderators. For older adults who perceived their own future as restricted, perceptions of accommodation positively predicted shared family identity, and shared family identity then negatively predicted depressive symptoms. This indirect association was nonsignificant for older adults who perceived their own future as average in duration. Ways to continue probing the moderating role of future time perspective are offered.
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Using a person-centered approach, this study explored the interrelationship between decent work and precarious work via a latent profile analysis (LPA). This investigation sought to replicate the latent profiles from Blustein and colleagues (2020) and extend the results by examining the role of individual lifetime experiences of macro-level factors (economic constraints and marginalization) as predictors and selected mental health indices (depression and anxiety) as outcomes of profile membership. Using a sample of 422 working adults in the U.S., the findings of the LPA yielded four profiles (indecent-precarious, low healthcare-low rights, highly decent, and vulnerability dominant), replicating four out of the five of the profiles identified in Blustein et al. Informed by psychology of working theory (PWT) and precarity theory, we assessed a structural model of the aforementioned predictors and outcomes in relation to profile membership. Consistent with theoretical expectations, economic constraints and marginalization positively predicted profiles that reflected greater instability and precarity. In addition, the profiles that reflected greater instability and precarity predicted both depression and anxiety. Implications for theory, counseling practice, public policy, and new directions in research are presented.
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Background Nociceptive pain modulation is related to psychological and psychiatric conditions. Evidence from clinical studies backs innate temperaments as potential precursors of mood symptoms and disorders, and pain sensitivity. Our study examines the modulation effect of affective temperaments on pain sensitivity in a general population adult sample, accounting for possible intervening mood symptoms, lifetime anxiety and depression, and pain treatments. Methods The sample is part of the CHRIS-AD study, Italy. Primary outcomes were the pain sensitivity questionnaire PSQ-total intensity score and the experimental pressure pain threshold (PPT). Affective temperaments were evaluated with the TEMPS-M. Lifetime depression, anxiety, current mood disorders, and treatments were self-reported via rating-scales. Directed acyclic graphs theory guided linear and mixed linear regression model analyses. Results Among 3804 participants (aged 18–65; response rate 78.4 %, females 53.3 %, mean age 38.4 years) for any given temperament, both the PSQ-total and the PPT were associated with temperament. The TEMPS-M four cyclothymic-related temperaments aligned on the pain-sensitive pole and the hyperthymic on the pain-resilient pole. The inclusion of current or lifetime mood symptoms, or pain drug use, as possible intervening pathways only partly diluted these associations, with stronger evidence for an effect of trait anxiety. Limitations The main limitations were the lack of experimental measures of suprathreshold pain intensity perception, and detailed information on affective disorders in the study population. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis of a biological dichotomous diathesis of affective temperaments towards pain sensitivity; hyperthymic suggesting protection, whereas cyclothymic suggesting predisposition.
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Purpose This review aimed to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of social media–based interventions for improving the quality of life, anxiety and depressive symptoms of patients with cancer at post-intervention and follow-up; (2) identify the essential features of social media–based interventions and (3) explore the covariates of the treatment effect. Methods All types of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Ten electronic databases, clinical trial registries and grey literature sources were searched from inception to 15 December 2021. Stata software was used to perform meta-analysis, subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses. Individual quality assessment and certainty of evidence were assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool version 1 and Grading of Recommendations Assessments, Development and Evaluation criteria, respectively. Results This review included 43 RCTs, which comprised 6239 patients with a total mean age of 49.71 years old from across 11 countries. Social media–based interventions significantly improved the quality of life (g = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.05–0.45) and anxiety symptoms (g = − 0.41, 95% CI = − 0.76–0.07) but not depressive symptoms. The essential features based on the subgroup analysis concluded that using a mobile device with a flexible frequency had a remarkably greater effect on the quality of life and anxiety symptoms than their counterparts. The meta-regression showed the covariate features, where having more social media features in interventions significantly improved the quality of life (β = 0.21, p = 0.01). The certainty of evidence was very low for all outcomes. Conclusions Participants who received social media–based interventions may experience an increase in quality of life and reduction in anxiety symptoms. Implications for cancer survivors Social media–based interventions may complement usual care in improving quality of life and anxiety symptoms.
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Background: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are a group of musculoskeletal disorders affecting the jaw. They are frequently associated with pain that can be difficult to manage and may become persistent (chronic). Psychological therapies aim to support people with TMDs to manage their pain, leading to reduced pain, disability and distress. Objectives: To assess the effects of psychological therapies in people (aged 12 years and over) with painful TMD lasting 3 months or longer. Search methods: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched six bibliographic databases up to 21 October 2021 and used additional search methods to identify published, unpublished and ongoing studies. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any psychological therapy (e.g. cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), behaviour therapy (BT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), mindfulness) for the management of painful TMD. We compared these against control or alternative treatment (e.g. oral appliance, medication, physiotherapy). Data collection and analysis: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We reported outcome data immediately after treatment and at the longest available follow-up. We used the Cochrane RoB 1 tool to assess the risk of bias in included studies. Two review authors independently assessed each included study for any risk of bias in sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, incomplete outcome data, selective reporting of outcomes, and other issues. We judged the certainty of the evidence for each key comparison and outcome as high, moderate, low or very low according to GRADE criteria. Main results: We identified 22 RCTs (2001 participants), carried out between 1967 and 2021. We were able to include 12 of these studies in meta-analyses. The risk of bias was high across studies, and we judged the certainty of the evidence to be low to very low overall; further research may change the findings. Our key outcomes of interest were: pain intensity, disability caused by pain, adverse events and psychological distress. Treatments varied in length, with the shortest being 4 weeks. The follow-up time ranged from 3 months to 12 months. Most studies evaluated CBT. At treatment completion, there was no evidence of a benefit of CBT on pain intensity when measured against alternative treatment (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.03, confidence interval (CI) -0.21 to 0.28; P = 0.79; 5 studies, 509 participants) or control (SMD -0.09, CI -0.30 to 0.12; P = 0.41; 6 studies, 577 participants). At follow-up, there was evidence of a small benefit of CBT for reducing pain intensity compared to alternative treatment (SMD -0.29, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.08; 5 studies, 475 participants) and control (SMD -0.30, CI -0.51 to -0.09; 6 studies, 639 participants). At treatment completion, there was no evidence of a difference in disability outcomes (interference in activities caused by pain) between CBT and alternative treatment (SMD 0.15, CI -0.40 to 0.10; P = 0.25; 3 studies, 245 participants), or between CBT and control/usual care (SMD 0.02, CI -0.21 to 0.24; P = 0.88; 3 studies, 315 participants). Nor was there evidence of a difference at follow-up (CBT versus alternative treatment: SMD -0.15, CI -0.42 to 0.12; 3 studies, 245 participants; CBT versus control: SMD 0.01 CI - 0.61 to 0.64; 2 studies, 240 participants). There were very few data on adverse events. From the data available, adverse effects associated with psychological treatment tended to be minor and to occur less often than in alternative treatment groups. There were, however, insufficient data available to draw firm conclusions. CBT showed a small benefit in terms of reducing psychological distress at treatment completion compared to alternative treatment (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.15; 6 studies, 553 participants), which was maintained at follow-up (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.13; 6 studies, 516 participants). For CBT versus control, only one study reported results for distress and did not find evidence of a difference between groups at treatment completion (mean difference (MD) 2.36, 95% CI -1.17 to 5.89; 101 participants) or follow-up (MD -1.02, 95% CI -4.02 to 1.98; 101 participants). We assessed the certainty of the evidence to be low or very low for all comparisons and outcomes. The data were insufficient to draw any reliable conclusions about psychological therapies other than CBT. Authors' conclusions: We found mixed evidence for the effects of psychological therapies on painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). There is low-certainty evidence that CBT may reduce pain intensity more than alternative treatments or control when measured at longest follow-up, but not at treatment completion. There is low-certainty evidence that CBT may be better than alternative treatments, but not control, for reducing psychological distress at treatment completion and follow-up. There is low-certainty evidence that CBT may not be better than other treatments or control for pain disability outcomes. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about alternative psychological therapeutic approaches, and there are insufficient data to be clear about adverse effects that may be associated with psychological therapies for painful TMD. Overall, we found insufficient evidence on which to base a reliable judgement about the efficacy of psychological therapies for painful TMD. Further research is needed to determine whether or not psychological therapies are effective, the most effective type of therapy and delivery method, and how it can best be targeted. In particular, high-quality RCTs conducted in primary care and community settings are required, which evaluate a range of psychological approaches against alternative treatments or usual care, involve both adults and adolescents, and collect measures of pain intensity, pain disability and psychological distress until at least 12 months post-treatment.
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In order to develop a Hebrew version of the Depression Adjective Check Lists (DACL) for use in research, the lists were translated by linguists and the adequacy of the translations determined. Reliability (split-half, alternate form, internal consistency, and test-retest) of translated lists E, F, and G were sufficiently high in the case of the first three and sufficiently low in the case of test-retest reliability of the state DACL. Concurrent validity was determined in three separate samples: correlations with (a)a 7-point self-rating scale of depression, (b)the MMPI-D Scale, (c)the Bradburn Scale of Psychological Well-being, the Cantril Self-anchoring Striving Scale, and the Katz Social Adjustment Symptom Subscale, and demographic variables. Magnitude of correlations were sufficiently high and in the expected direction. Also, correlations with part scores of the Bradburn Scale of Well-being demonstrated the discriminant validity of the Hebrew version of the DACL.
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The fact that there is a need for assessing depression, whether as an affect, a symptom, or a disorder is obvious by the numerous scales and inventories available and in use today.
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