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Relationship of Lat-Pull Repetitions and Pull-Ups to Maximal Lat-Pull and Pull-Up Strength in Men and Women

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Abstract

To determine the relationships among selected shoulder pulling strength and endurance maneuvers, college men (n = 35) and women (n = 23) were evaluated for 1-repetition maximum (1RM) lat-pull (LPmax), 1RM pull-up (PUmax), lat-pull repetitions-to-fatigue using 80% of 1RM (LPreps), and pull-up repetitions at 80% of 1RM (PUreps). PUmax was determined by adding to or counter-weighting the body mass to achieve one repetition. Men and women performed the 1RM with significantly more weight relative to body mass in the PUmax (1.16 +/- 0.15 and 0.73 +/- 0.09, respectively) than in the LPmax (0.93 +/- 0.17 and 0.55 +/- 0.11, respectively). The correlation between LPmax and PUmax was higher in men (r = 0.78; p < 0.01) than in women (r = 0.44; p > 0.05). Women performed significantly more PUreps (10.5 +/- 2.2) than men (8.1 +/- 1.9) but were equivalent to men in the LPreps (10.0 +/- 2.4 and 9.9 +/- 2.5, respectively). Men performed significantly more LPreps than PUreps, whereas the women were equivalent. Body composition components (lean body mass [LBM] and %fat) affected LPmax and PUmax to a greater degree in men than in women. Maximal strength performance in each lift in each sex could be predicted using the analogous muscular endurance exercise or body composition components.
... This is likely because the intensity of pull-ups is defined by the individual's body mass. Body mass and lean mass have been previously associated (negatively) with pull-up performance (Johnson et al., 2009;Sánchez Moreno et al., 2016). On average, body mass and composition, particularly when considering its distribution, are not the same between men and women (Tseng et al., 2014;Jagim et al., 2019;Huebner and Perperoglou, 2020). ...
... However, because men typically possess more upper-body lean mass, they have more relevant, functional mass to devote to pull-ups. Even when normalizing for body mass and lean mass (i.e., per kg), greater pull-up strength has been documented in men (Johnson et al., 2009). Women only equaled men when the load was perfectly equated (i.e., as a covariate) (Johnson et al., 2009), an inappropriate statistical procedure when natural differences between groups prevent random assignment (Weir and Vincent, 2005). ...
... Even when normalizing for body mass and lean mass (i.e., per kg), greater pull-up strength has been documented in men (Johnson et al., 2009). Women only equaled men when the load was perfectly equated (i.e., as a covariate) (Johnson et al., 2009), an inappropriate statistical procedure when natural differences between groups prevent random assignment (Weir and Vincent, 2005). Women might overcome this natural disadvantage by employing a "kipping" or "butterfly" technique and redirecting some of the work to the lower-body (Williamson and Price, 2021), but since both sexes are permitted this option, the gap between sexes remains. ...
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This study examined relationships between body composition and high-intensity functional training (HIFT) workout performance. Fifty-seven men (31.4 ± 6.9 years, 177.2 ± 7.5 cm, 84.7 ± 8.5 kg) and thirty-eight women (29.2 ± 6.4 years, 166.6 ± 6.1 cm, 66.5 ± 7.7 kg) with HIFT experience (≥6 months) reported completing “Fran” (21-15-9 repetitions of barbell thrusters and pull-ups) in 4.78 ± 2.22 min and 6.05 ± 2.84 min, respectively, and volunteered to complete dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessments. Participants were grouped by competition class (men, women, master’s men, master’s women) and percentile rank in “Fran” (≤25th percentile, 25–75th percentiles, ≥75th percentile). Two-way analyses of variance revealed expected differences ( p < 0.001) between men and women in non-bone lean mass (NBLM), fat-free mass index, and fat mass, and more NBLM (10.6–10.8 kg) and less fat mass (2.7–5.2 kg) in >75th percentile compared to other percentiles. Most body composition measures were significantly ( p < 0.05) related to performance in men and women but limited in master’s men; no relationships were seen in master’s women. “Fran” time was negatively correlated to NBLM and fat-free mass index in all percentile groups ( ρ = -0.37 to -0.64) and bone mineral characteristics for >25th percentile ( ρ = −0.41 to −0.63), and positively correlated to fat mass in 25–75th percentiles ( ρ = 0.33–0.60). No other relationships were seen in ≤25th percentile. The influence of body composition on “Fran” time appears to vary by both competition class and percentile rank. Though training to increase lean mass always seems relevant, reducing body fat only appears relevant in mid-skilled trainees and when it is outside healthy parameters.
... The previously described variables are typically determined under standardized conditions to compare strength endurance within and between individuals. In exercises with isoinertial loading (i.e., when exercising against a constant external load), research has promoted two different approaches to standardization: first, the absolute strength endurance can be tested against a fixed load, which is predominantly expressed in a unit of mass like kg or lbs (Anderson & Kearney, 1982;Hackett et al., 2022;Johnson et al., 2009;Ratamess et al., 2009;Schoenfeld et al., 2021;M. H. Stone et al., 2006; W. J. Stone & Coulter, 1994). ...
... Second, the relative strength endurance can be tested against a fixed percentage of a reference load. Typically, relative loads are expressed as a percentage of the individual's one-repetition maximum (1-RM) load or as a percentage of the individual's body mass (Anderson & Kearney, 1982;Hackett et al., 2022;Johnson et al., 2009;Ratamess et al., 2009;Schoenfeld et al., 2021;M. H. Stone et al., 2006; W. J. Stone & Coulter, 1994). ...
Thesis
The relationship between the applied load and the number of repetitions performed to momentary failure (i.e., the strength-endurance relationship) in a given exercise has repeatedly drawn the interest of researchers over the past decades. While this relationship was commonly assumed to be virtually identical across individuals and, thus, described by unified equations, there is evidence that it may actually differ between individuals. The present thesis aimed to investigate the concept of “strength-endurance profiles”, which describe the strength-endurance relationship on an individual level. The main objective was to identify a model function that yields good descriptive and predictive validity while being robust across test-retest trials. Since strength-endurance profiles require the completion of multiple repetitions-to-failure tests, the thesis further aimed to compare different strategies for data acquisition to evaluate whether they may be used interchangeably. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the individual strength-endurance relationship can be best represented by a 2-parameters exponential regression or a reciprocal regression function. Data acquisition should be completed in multiple separate sessions distributed across different days, rather than a single session with 22 min breaks in between repetitions-to-failure tests.
... Nevertheless, the nding that strength testing results vary largely between 1-RM procedures and over-as well as underestimate patients' strength depending on which method is used and which muscle group is tested, limits the comparability of studies using different 1-RM testing procedures. Findings from other studies suggest that the extent of misestimation of h1-RM procedures largely depends on the NOR achieved in the test [47][48][49][50][51][52]. Therefore, it can be assumed that even intraindividual values reported in studies are inaccurate. ...
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Purpose To prescribe resistance training (RT) using percentages of (%) maximal strength (Smax), it is prerequisite that (I) methods for testing Smax are valid and (II) the relationship between %Smax and the corresponding number of repetitions (NOR) is known. This has never been investigated in cancer survivors (CS) and was the purpose of the present study. Methods Twenty breast (58 ± 10y) and 20 prostate CS (68 ± 6y), 3.6 ± 2.4 months after primary therapy, completed one one-repetition maximum (1-RM) test, one hypothetical 1-RM (h1-RM) test and three RT sessions (three sets at six different strength machines (SM)). H1-RM was calculated using two commonly used equations (after Brzycki and Epley), resulting in three Smax values for each SM, which were then compared to each other (1-RM as a reference). Each RT session was performed at a different intensity (92%, 69% and 47% of 1-RM/h1-RM). CS performed repetitions to fatigue and the resulting NOR were compared to the predicted NOR. Results Smax values differed between 1-RM and h1-RM values for each SM and between h1-RM values for some SM. Differences between performed and predicted NOR occurred among all intensities and methods. Conclusion Different strength tests yield different results for Smax and a certain %1-RM/h1-RM does not necessarily correspond to a specific NOR in all individuals, which questions the use of (I) h1-RM tests for determining Smax and (II) prescribing RT intensities based on %1-RM/h1-RM which is still the most common method used for RT intensity prescription in healthy individuals and patient populations, including CS.
... However, in the literature, strength endurance and strength levels are usually measured with concentric exercises with rather small coordinative requirements. Further, strength endurance is generally defined as the maximum amount of repetitions with a submaximal weight performed to exhaustion [20]. In this study, strength endurance was specified as the maximum time a quasi-static position on rings could be maintained with a near-maximal resistance. ...
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In male elite gymnastics, lately, eccentric training is often used to improve the maximum specific strength of static elements on rings. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a three-week, gymnastic-specific, eccentric-isokinetic (0.1 m/s) cluster training with a change of stimulus after three of six training sessions (eccentric-isokinetic with additional load) on a computer-controlled training device on the improvement of the elements swallow and support scale on rings. Maximum strength and strength endurance in maintaining the static positions of ten international elite male gymnasts were determined on a weekly basis. After three weeks of training, specific maximum strength and strength endurance increased significantly (strength: swallow: +8.72%, p < 0.001; support scale: 8.32%, p < 0.0001; strength endurance: swallow: +122.36%; p = 0.02; Support Scale: +93.30%; p = 0.03). Consequently, top gymnasts can considerably improve ring-specific strength and strength endurance in only three weeks. The separate analysis of the effects of both eccentric-isokinetic training modalities showed that efficiency might even be increased in future training interventions. We suggest using this type of training in phases in which the technical training load is low and monitoring the adaptations in order to compile an individually optimized training after an intervention.
... To achieve muscle strength and endurance, physical tests were conducted in the following order: pull-ups in the bar with hands in pronation, 120-seconds sit-ups, 90-seconds push-ups (on the ground); and the cooper test (lasting 12 minutes) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness. The pull-up test provided a measure of upper-body pulling strength 38 and has been used previously for assessing police physical fitness. 39 Participants were asked to do as many pull-ups as possible with no time limit and the start position required hanging on the bar in a vertical position with hands shoulder-width apart using a pronated grip. ...
Article
Background: Combined training (CT) simultaneously associates aerobic and strength exercises. Worldwide, studies on CT´s on Police officers' physical fitness are scarce. This study aims to measure a 4-month CT program's impact in the Close Protection Unit of the Portuguese Elite Police. Methods: A pre-and post-test study included 32 participants (mean age 30.1±2.7 years old). Anthropometry, body composition, physical fitness, and blood pressure assessments were collected. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, 26.0) with a significance level at p≤0.05. Results: The main results showed an improvement in anthropometrics; aerobic capacity, strength, muscular endurance, and systolic blood pressure. However, a lean mass decrease, a fat mass increase, and worse results in other bioimpedance measures were observed. Conclusions: In this study, the poor body composition results may imply a closer look for health concerns, although physical fitness has improved. Thus, it might be suggested that a CT program is helpful to increase physical fitness in elite police officers. Yet, improvements for its future application can be suggested, namely to include and address hydration level, nutrition, and rest/sleep moments. Moreover, because a high physical fitness level is needed in these population throughout their lifespan, ministerial policies should develop specific training programs, that can reduce morbidity and premature mortality, and have a major cos-teffectiveness impact on public health.
... confirm that all three exercises may be adopted. during the pull-ups, notwithstanding this latter is gen-245 erally adopted for pulling strength [30]. Therefore, it 246 was expected that a relation between the exercises was 247 present. ...
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