Article

The Design of Goal-Based Scenarios

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Abstract

Outside school, people typically learn during their experiences while addressing desired goals. The Goal-Based Scenario (GBS) framework describes computer-based learning environments that exploit this simple fact. In this article, we propose a structure and a set of design criteria for learn-by-doing environments that enable students to work towards desired goals. A key issue we address is the content to be taught by GBSs. Because skills are the form of knowledge that, when applied, enable students to achieve valued goals, we argue that GBSs should be designed to teach a set of target skills required to achieve a specified goal. Two programs we built prior to specifying GBSs but motivated by many of the same ideas will be analyzed according to the proposed principles. We conclude by briefly describing tools currently under development to facilitate the construction of GBSs.

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... Teaching with cases is a widely utilized instructional strategy in many domains, including medicine, business, and teacher education. Cases integrate learning, memory, and reasoning by focusing on the concrete rather than the abstract (Kolodner 1993) while providing a context for learning and representing experience in a narrative format (Schank;Fano;Bell;Jona 1993). For example, as opposed to teaching about how one goes about collecting items from a list in a grocery store and then paying for them at the checkout counter, case-based learning would provide the learner with a story (case) of how someone actually performed the task, their subsequent success or failure, and any lessons learned. ...
... Teaching with cases is a widely utilized instructional strategy in many domains, including medicine, business, and teacher education. Cases integrate learning, memory, and reasoning by focusing on the concrete rather than the abstract (Kolodner 1993) while providing a context for learning and representing experience in a narrative format (Schank;Fano;Bell;Jona 1993). For example, as opposed to teaching about how one goes about collecting items from a list in a grocery store and then paying for them at the checkout counter, case-based learning would provide the learner with a story (case) of how someone actually performed the task, their subsequent success or failure, and any lessons learned. ...
... Teaching with cases is a widely utilized instructional strategy in many domains, including medicine, business, and teacher education. Cases integrate learning, memory, and reasoning by focusing on the concrete rather than the abstract (Kolodner 1993) while providing a context for learning and representing experience in a narrative format (Schank;Fano;Bell;Jona 1993). For example, as opposed to teaching about how one goes about collecting items from a list in a grocery store and then paying for them at the checkout counter, case-based learning would provide the learner with a story (case) of how someone actually performed the task, their subsequent success or failure, and any lessons learned. ...
... Each of these influencers was examined when creating this model, and game mechanisms that support them were identified. These mechanics were primarily informed by the learning principles from the foundational text by Gee, What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy, and the literature on good instructional design practices [39][40][41]. The social learning theory proposes that individuals can acquire new behaviors by learning and imitating the behaviors of people with significant influences in their lives. ...
... • Multiple routes: Giving learners multiple options to explore empowers them and provides opportunities for replaying content. Showing different consequences of actions is powerful feedback [40,41]. ...
... Players have an opportunity to turn back the clock and repeat scenes until they navigate them successfully ( Figure 7), thereby learning from productive failures as well as successes. Repeated attempts also produce a sense of challenge and develop player persistence as well as repeated exposure to the learning material and relevant cues [41]. This incremental learning prompts learners to think back to the simulated situations when faced with analogous ones in the real world. ...
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Background Adolescents in North America are severely affected by the opioid crisis, yet there are limited educational resources for educating teens about prescription opioid safety and misuse. Empirical literature lacks evidence regarding teen education about prescription opioid safety through serious games and lacks conceptual models and frameworks to guide the process of game development for this purpose. Objective This study aims to conceptualize and design a serious game prototype to teach teens about prescription opioid safety and propose a conceptual framework for developing a serious game to educate youth about safe and responsible use of prescription opioids. Methods The initial steps of the project comprised of the formulation of an integrated conceptual framework that included factors from health behavior models and game development models. This was followed by the formal process of serious game development, which resulted in a game prototype. The assessment of the game prototype was done through group discussions, individual interviews, and questionnaires with adolescents following gameplay. Field notes were used to keep track of the responses from the group discussions. Content and thematic analyses were used to analyze field notes and responses to the open-ended questionnaire, which were then used to refine the game prototype. Results A total of 10 playtests with over 319 adolescents and emerging young adults (AYAs) in community settings such as middle schools, high schools, and colleges were conducted by the project team between March and June 2019. The AYAs provided feedback on the initial game prototype using questionnaires administered through Qualtrics or in-person on paper. Preliminary feedback suggested that the teens found the game objectives, outcomes, and design appealing. Overall, the game was perceived as realistic, and learning outcomes seemed achievable. Suggestions for improvement included the need for additional direction on gameplay, clearer instructions, concise dialog, and reduced technical problems in the gameplay. Conclusions We propose a conceptual framework for developing a serious game prototype to educate youth about prescription opioid safety. The project used a theory-driven conceptual framework for the development of a serious game targeting the prevention of adolescent opioid misuse and garnered preliminary feedback on the game to improve the quality of gameplay and the prototype. Feedback through informal assessments in community settings suggests that the youth and their families are interested in a game-based approach to learn about prescription opioid safety in homes and schools. The next steps include modifications to the game prototype based on feedback from the community, integration of learning analytics to track the in-game behaviors of players, and formal testing of the final prototype.
... • A realistic / convincing scenario • Taking into account all possible situations that can occur, placing these possible situations in the scenario • Providing the details that the learner will need in the decision-making process In the design of the tasks involved in the contents of the scenario, the following must be observed [30]: ...
... This study was carried out to evaluate pupils' experiences of flow in a virtual reality game by examining their comments. When the VR game was developed, properties of VR environments used in education [12], key points in the scenario for software [6], criteria for tasks [30] and flow theory elements [10] were taken into consideration. ...
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... This view is in line with the views of Heath and McLaughlin (1994, p.487) who regard an authentic learning activity as "learning from experience." In another research, this is called the process of discovery in authentic learning activities (Schank, 1994). Lombardi (2007) and Nicaise et al.(2000) add that the aspect of collaborative learning among the students, mentors and the community should be present in authentic learning activities. ...
... I gained new vocabularies when speaking with the lecturers and senior students (Reflection, Student TVW) With this experience, there was a learning process through discovery (Heath & McLaughlin, 1994;Schank, 1994). This experience has opened their horizon to continue to inquire more and more and to study more and more which is another aspect of authentic learning (Rule, 2006).For example, two students commented, "I realized that I have to improve my pronunciation." ...
Article
One of the major constraints of the teaching of English as a foreign language (EFL) is the deficient opportunities to apply the lessons students learn in the classroom in a meaningful context. Students may have a lot of knowledge about the language but may not be able to apply the knowledge in real life communication. Students who study EFL in conventional classrooms will suffer the most. This paper discusses a practical framework for teachers of EFL who would like to alter their traditional classes, which mostly happen in the classroom, to authentic learning activities or activities that promote real-life applications of knowledge, which happen in real-world situations. I showcased in detail the implementation of the framework in one EFL course at the English Education Program of a private university in Indonesia. I also discussed the drawbacks, possible solutions as well as the pedagogical implications with some students’ excerpts of their reflections toward the activities to support the discussion.
... This may be a consequence of focusing on the therapeutic needs of the end-user rather than the manufacturing needs of the interprofessional collaborators early on in the project. According to goal-based scenario design 22 , students will direct their efforts towards what the apparent goal is. In presenting students with a needs assessment of a particular end-user, the interprofessional collaboration may tacitly become a design project because engineering students will focus on designing a product to meet those needs. ...
... Similarities between learning environments and real life experiences facilitate the transferability of learning (Geusgens et al., 2007;Nejati, 2020). The similarity between training and goal situations has been known as the goal based scenario learning (Campbell & Monson, 1994;Schank et al., 1994). ...
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Stimuli characteristics ha a decisive role in our perception and cognition. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of dimension of stimuli, two-dimensional (2D) versus three-dimensional (3D), on perception and working memory. In the first experiment, using the method of eye tracking, a higher blink rate, pupil size, and the number of saccade for three compared to 2D stimuli revealed a higher perceptual demand of 3D stimuli. In the second experiment, visual search task shows a higher response time for 3D stimuli and an equal performance with 2- and 3D stimuli in spatial working memory task. In the third experiment, four working memory tasks with high and low cognitive and perceptual load revealed 3D stimuli are memorized better in the both low and high load of working memory. We can conclude that 3D stimulus, compared 2D, imposes a higher load on perceptual system, but it is memorized better. It could be concluded that the phenomenon of filtering should occur in the early perceptual system for preventing overload.
... The role of simulations and scenarios to immerse learners in situations that reflect day-today reality has been studied for several decades (J. Biggs, 1996;Kolb & Kolb, 2009;Schank, Fano, Bell, & Jona, 1994). However, it has only recently gained traction in design for workbased learning. ...
Conference Paper
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Digital simulations and scenario-based learning programmes are widely accepted as an effective educational approach where experiential learning is key. However, there is an acknowledged need to improve the narrative design of these educational interventions to make them both engaging for the learner and aligned with learning goals. This study turns for guidance to the expertise of narrative designers for games, where storytelling for interactive narrative has a long history of testing, iterating and perfecting. A collection of proven techniques described by game narrative practitioners will inform creative writing efforts to craft prototypes to test the transferability of those techniques to interactive narratives in a healthcare education context.
... Each of the pen parts has distinct attributes that either match or conflict with the qualities the market research subjects requested, allowing for 1,953,125 different pen designs, and the user must engage in the nontrivial task of selecting the parts that would best reflect the desires of the target market. By placing the user in a goal-based "embodied story", or a narrative where the visitor is interactively playing the central role, the intent is to motivate and engage the visitor and to encourage a lengthier involvement in the game 17 . Another strategy to lengthen the visitor interaction time draws from current theories on the impact of affect. ...
... While EERs seem to be a new instructional approach of promoting situated problem solving, its foundations are not. Approaches such as anchored instruction [33][34][35] or goal-based scenarios [36,37] have already implemented applied problem solving within learning environments that are close to what now are promoted as EERs. ...
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Game-based learning is becoming increasingly popular in education. The playful experience especially promises a high degree of students’ motivation. In this research, we examine the influence of sequential scaffolding within a digital educational escape room game. Escape rooms are usually games where players have to escape from a room within a given time limit by completing different tasks and quests. Therefore, we developed an educational virtual escape room for biology classes, focusing on the topic of sex education. In an experiment, we modified this learning environment and developed two different conditions: in one escape room, scaffolding was implemented using sequential learning aids; in the other escape room, which was assigned to the control group, no additional learner support was provided. The main objective of this quantitative research is to measure the escape room’s impact on learning and cognitive load. In addition, motivation, flow experience and experience of immersion are analyzed. A comparison between the two escape rooms shows that additional scaffolding does not significantly increase cognitive load or have any effect on learning. Results show that motivation and knowledge acquisition can be successfully supported by using game-based learning with escape rooms.
... For our purposes, the case-based learning approach was chosen to provide context for learning. 7 Goal-based scenarios are used as instructional tools because the contextualization they provide promotes the best and most connected learning as the learners actively pursue a meaningful problem solving goal that leverages contextualized knowledge. The role-playing aspect of learning using scenarios supports understanding and learning the circumstances where the new knowledge is useful (as compared to when the material is presented without the role-playing component). ...
... Bunlar; öğrenme hedefleri, misyon, kapak hikayesi, rol, senaryo işlemleri, kaynaklar ve geribildirimdir. Bu yönteme göre, bir tasarım yapılmak istendiğinde bütün işlem adımları göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır (Schank, Fano, Jona & Bell, 1993 Geliştirilecek bu mobil sistemin öğrencilerin ilgilerini canlı tutacağı düşünülmüştür. ...
Thesis
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This study examines the potential of virtual reality applications developed for headmounted displays as effective course support materials. Designed case, a type of formative research, was utilized. The study included two pilot implementations and one implementation. In the first pilot implementation Oculus Rift DK2, in the second pilot implementation Samsung Gear VR SM-R323 and in the implementation Oculus Rift DK2 and VR Box 2.0 goggles were used. Five students participated in each pilot. The implementation consisted of 96 students, 32 students per experimental groups (experimental 1 and experimental 2) and a comparison group. Experimental group 1 participated in theoretical lectures and virtual reality applications, experimental group 2 participated only in virtual reality applications, and the comparison group participated only in theoretical lectures. Fire knowledge test was applied to all students before and after the implementation. Additionally, “Presence Questionnaire in Virtual Environments” and “Three-Dimensional Virtual Learning Environments Evaluation Scale” were applied to experimental groups. In addition, students’ and lecturers’ opinions about virtual reality applications were obtained through semi-structured interviews. After the implementation, the achievement of the experimental and comparison groups increased statistically. The highest increase was found in experimental group 1 and the lowest increase was found in the comparison group. Virtual reality applications have created a high level of presence for all students in the experimental groups. The participants expressed positive opinions about virtual reality applications. It was concluded that virtual reality applications could be used as an effective course support material in formal learning environments.
... Second, students may lack the skills and pay inadequate attention to abstraction of concepts from experience (Lai, Yang, Chen, Ho, Liang & Wai, 2007). We postulate that there are two ways to overcome these hurdles: (a) by adopting Squire's (2006) and Schank, Fano, Bell and Jona's (1994) goalbased approach to participatory simulations premised on constructivist theory, and (b) by scaffolding. The important aspects of the goal-based approach are to focus on the learning goals that should be intrinsically motivating and the role that the learner plays. ...
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This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage, concrete experience, observation and reflection, abstract conceptualization, and testing in new situations. Goal-based and scaffolding approaches to participatory simulations are integrated into the design to enhance students' experiential learning. Using the SPSML framework, students can experience the following: (1) learning in augmented reality by playing different participatory roles in mobile simulations in the micro-world on a mobile device, and (2) interacting with people in the real world to enhance understanding of conceptual knowledge. An example of the SPSML-based system was implemented and evaluated. The experimental results show that the system was conducive to the students' experiential learning and motivation. Moreover, the students who learned with the proposed approach gained significantly higher accuracy rates in performing the more complicated sorting algorithm.
... By placing the user in a goal-based "embodied story", or a narrative where the visitor is interactively playing the central role, the intent is to motivate and engage the visitor and to encourage a lengthier involvement in the game. 17 Page 11.305.6 Another strategy to lengthen the visitor interaction time draws from current theories on the impact of affect. ...
... Eine gemeinsame Forschungs-, Lehr-und Lern-Strategie verknüpft die vier Teilprojekte und soll sich sowohl inhaltlich als auch methodisch durch den Lernwerkstatt-bzw. La-| 229 van Merriënboer 1997; van Merriënboer et al. 2002), Goal-based-Scenario-Ansatz (z.B. Schank et al. 1993Schank et al. /1994Schank et al. 1999), forschendes Lernen ( Durch eine enge Kooperation mit der Universitätsbibliothek (siehe Winkler et al. 2016) bietet sich die Möglichkeit, EduSpaces über die Onlinepräsenz der Bibliothek sowie über die räumlichen Verflechtungen -so befindet sich die Lernwerkstatt seit 2015 in den Räumen der Universitätsbibliothek -sichtbar zu machen. Wenn die jeweiligen Sammlungen (Quellen, Materialien etc.) und die entsprechende Forschungsliteratur in den EduSpaces systematisch erfasst, katalogisiert und präsentiert werden, stehen sie nicht nur den Studierenden, sondern auch der Öffentlichkeit zur Verfügung. ...
Chapter
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Der Band stellt die Frage nach der spezifischen Fachlichkeit in verschiedenen Lernwerkstätten: Was ist „die Sache“, die in Lernwerkstätten behandelt wird? Welchen Stellenwert hat „die Sache“ vor dem Hintergrund einer pädagogischen Begleitung? Wie wird „der Sache“ aus pädagogischer Sicht begegnet? Wie beeinflusst eine fachliche Sache den pädagogischen Umgang in Lernwerkstätten? Lernwerkstattarbeit muss sich diesem doppelten Anspruch stellen, um Kindern die Begegnung mit Sachen bildungswirksam zu ermöglichen. In den Beiträgen dieses Bandes beschreiben die AutorInnen ihre Fokussierung auf „die Sache“ in ihren Lernwerkstätten aus verschiedenen fachlichen, didaktischen und pädagogischen Blickwinkeln. (DIPF/Orig.)
... As our video of the complete complex skill of collaboration has a runtime of thirteen minutes, we also consider Keller's Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (ARCS) model to foster the learner's motivation (Keller, 1987). Motivation may be of importance for self-regulation of complex multimedia learning, as it may mediate the cognitive load impact of the VER as well as foster whole-task learning (Leutner, 2014;Mayer, 2014a;Park et al., 2014;Schank, Fano, Bell, & Jona, 1994;Vollmeyer & Rheinberg, 2006). The Four Component Instructional Design metholdology (4C/ID) presents guidelines for developing complex skill instruction (Van Merriënboer & Kester, 2014). ...
Thesis
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Organizations characterized by rapid technological changes and complex expertise benefit from employees with complex (21st century) skills. Development of complex (21st century) skills (such as collaboration, presentation, and information literacy) requires insight into the learner's progress and should be seen as an ongoing, iterative process. Education in these skills is explicitly needed (Brand-Gruwel & Gerjets, 2008). Complex (21st century) skills in secondary education are applied across subjects (math, language, history) and domains (healthcare, ICT). Dutch schools recognize the importance of learning complex (21st century) skills and design learning tasks for acquiring complex (21st century) skills to prepare learners for their future lives (Onderwijsraad, 2014). An often-used instrument for schools to gain insight into complex (21st century) skills is the text-based rubric. A text-based rubric can be an effective instrument for learning and assessing complex (21st century) skills, as they provide a detailed description of subskills and associated mastery levels of a complex skill (Jonsson & Svingby, 2007; Panadero, Tapia, & Huertas, 2012)learning and self-efficacy in interaction with two other independent variables (type of instructions and feedback. However, learners still experience difficulties understanding what the mastery of a complex (21st century) skill entails (in terms of behavior) when using textual rubrics. It can be challenging to express dynamic and contextual (aspects of) behavior into words (Ackermans, Rusman, Brand-Gruwel, & Specht, 2017). For example, learning to ride a bicycle can be described in words, but textually describing the interaction between balance, steering, and speed may be challenging. Adding videos showing modeling examples can help to get a better understanding of the skill. In the Viewbrics project, two Dutch schools for pre-university education in collaboration with the Open University, investigated whether the integration of video-modeling examples with textual rubrics (leading to a ‘video-enhanced rubric’) within an online formative assessment methodology (precipitated in the Viewbrics online tool), could offer a more efficient and effective solution for formatively assessing and learning complex skills. The Viewbrics online tool is a digital 360-degree formative assessment instrument, which embeds a 5-step formative assessment method. First, learners get a clearer picture of what it is they are meant to be learning. Second, learners go 'into the real world' to practice a skill. Third, learners self-assess their performance using rubrics. Fourth, a 'skill performance feedback wheel' visualizes teacher and peers’ feedback on learners’ (sub-)skills. Fifth, learners describe, based on the analysis of feedback, their future learning goals. We chose to limit the complex (21st century) skills addressed by the Viewbrics online tool to collaboration, presentation, and information literacy together with the participating schools. These three skills could easily be assessed in existing project-based education and illustrate the wide range of complex (21st century) skills. In the Viewbrics project, the effect of the Viewbrics online tool (and its formative assessment methodology) on learners' mental model of a skill, complex skill performance, and (quantity and quality of) feedback, compared to learners in the standard curriculum was studied. Additionally, the effects of using video-enhanced rubrics versus textual rubrics within the methodology were studied. Results are described in this thesis.
... In this way, learning is contextualised around the problem. This kind of contextualisation brings meaning to the learning process (Schank et al., 1994) and is known to be advantageous for later recall because events are encoded explicitly in memory stores alongside a rich array of cues (Roediger et al., 2007). As learners traverse the knowledge gap and grapple with the dissonance arising from what is known and unknown in the context of a new problem, they are obliged to continuously monitor and evaluate their understanding of both the issue at hand and the range of strategies that are to be implemented (Marra et al., 2014). ...
Article
Universities can foster inclusive innovation by establishing a learning and innovation ecology that assists students to pioneer new ways of addressing societal challenges. The paper examines learning by solving as a means of capacitating students with skills for inclusive innovation. Using a platform of engaged scholarship along with design thinking as a problem-solving methodology in a master’s level course, a case study is presented that addresses the experience of Deaf patients at a public healthcare facility in South Africa. The course bridged the gap between theory and practice, facilitated experiential learning, enabled students to handle complex challenges and enabled productive collaboration. The approach empowers students with a skill set for addressing contemporary social challenges, and resonates with the concept of the ‘developmental university’, which has the mandate of addressing the needs of the society in which it is located.
... Much of what we discussed at the CELDA conference in October 2008 in Freiburg is already dated in a technological as well as a pedagogical sense and will in a few years be hardly more than a historical footnote like the Jasper Woodbury Series (Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1997) or the goal-based scenarios (Schank et al., 1994). We believe that the days of preprogrammed online courses are numbered, in which the learner -as in the classical paradigm of programmed instruction -is viewed more as an audience than as an active constructor. ...
... A wide range of studies highlights the fact that learning processes improve with meaningful activities related to problem-solving (Escudero 1989, Evensen andHmelo 2000), concretely through a process called 'learning by doing' (Schank et al. 1994), in which the focus is on the learner's own learning process. As noted by Adell and Sales (1999), "those students who perceive their learning as being the result of their own activity have a higher likelihood of succeeding and of finishing their studies than those who feel that control resides outside of themselves, who depend on luck, the system, the arbitrariness of the teacher or on circumstances outside of their control" (5-6). ...
Article
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In recent years the demand for online postgraduate courses has grown significantly (MECD 2016; OCDE 2017) -as, concomitantly, has academic interest in analysing distance education teaching practices in order to optimise online students' learning. In this study we address this subject with a twofold objective: to identify the benefits and drawbacks of these virtual learning environments, and to outline prospective ways to improve the teaching and learning process in said environments. This study has been carried out in UNIBA (Centro Universitario Internacional de Barcelona), an affiliate institution of the Universidad de Barcelona (Spain) which offers five master's degrees and an undergraduate course. These programmes cover different fields of knowledge and have up to 1400 students from 25 different countries (principally in Europe and America) per academic year. In this paper we lay out the results of a qualitative study in which a content analysis (Cohen, Manion and Morrison 2007; Creswell 2012) was carried out on two types of data: students' access profiles (identification data, professional and educational background and students' reasons for enrolling in these programmes) and student and teacher satisfaction questionnaires. The findings show, on the one hand, that overcoming space and time barriers is one of the main benefits of these online programmes, along with an enrichment of the interaction between teachers and students from different cultures and contexts. On the other hand, they show that some of the competences included in the Dublin Descriptors (2004) are difficult to achieve, a difficulty which represents an avenue for further research. One of the measures to be taken is the creation of online collaborative spaces which allow for the fruitful use of digital tools, and the promotion of simulated practices or problem-based learning, where learners' autonomy is encouraged.
... Un Goal-based Scenario (GBS) possède un but pédagogique, une mission, une histoire, un rôle à jouer, des opérations, des ressources et un feedback [112], [114]. Le GBS a été retenu pour ses bénéfices apportés dans l'apprentissage relevés dans diverses études et son fort lien avec la méthode d'apprentissage d'EIC. ...
Thesis
L’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère est impacté par les technologies immersives et les plateformes communicationnelles devenues accessibles pour créer des expériences d’apprentissage se rapprochant de la réalité. Cette étude a pour objectif d’explorer les environnements d’apprentissage virtuels en vidéos 360° pour l’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère en identifiant, d’une part, les ramifications pédagogiques et les fonctionnalités qu’ils peuvent intégrer et, d’autre part, évaluer leur acceptation et leur usage auprès d’un public cible. Pour y répondre, une approche de design science a été adoptée pour la conception, le prototypage et l’évaluation préliminaire de l’Interactive Immersion Learning System 360° (IILS360°). Conceptualisée sous la forme d’un cas d’étude, et sur la base de méthodes de recherches qualitatives, cette étude a impliqué des enseignants et des apprenants de l’école d’anglais English in Context. IILS360° a d’abord intégré des fonctionnalités proposées par les enseignants, puis évolué de manière itérative grâce à des tests pilotes suivis de focus groups. Enfin, le modèle UTUAT2 a été employé lors d'un focus group pour l’évaluation préliminaire de l’acceptation et de l’usage d’IILS360°. Il en résulte que le Situated Learning se prête bien à un environnement d’apprentissage virtuel en vidéo 360° qui vise à supporter l’apprentissage d’une langue étrangère. L’expression orale, soutenue par la reconnaissance automatique de la parole (Speech-to-text), souhaitée par les enseignants et apprenants, apporte une expérience d’apprentissage plus interactive et plus complète. ILLS360°, qui contient des fonctionnalités techno-pédagogiques hautement interactives et immersives, est évalué positivement par des apprenants. Toutefois, l’utilisation d’un visiocasque portable est peu confortable et contraignante dans son usage. De plus, l’ergonomie au sein d’un environnement immersif et le guidage sont des points clés à respecter. Des recherches ultérieures sont à mener dans les trois domaines liés à cette étude. Des environnements d’apprentissage virtuels en vidéo 360° sont à concevoir et à implémenter pour déterminer d’autres applications possibles. L'évaluation de l’acceptation et de l’usage de vidéos 360° dans un but pédagogique est à poursuivre de manière quantitative. Enfin, l’efficacité de l’apprentissage apportée par ce type d’environnement d’apprentissage virtuel est à déterminer.
... Die Bearbeitung der Lerninhalte erfolgt selbstbestimmt in einer individuellen Reihenfolge, wobei die Lernenden auf Wunsch Empfehlungen und Rückmeldungen durch die virtuelle Lernbegleitung erhalten. Die Gestaltung der Lernaufgaben ist eingebettet in eine Narration in Anlehnung an das Problemlöseparadigma, an den Ansatz Goal-Based-Scenarios von Schank (Schank et al., 1993) und an das Instruktionsparadigma Events of Instruction von Gagné (Flynn, 1992). Das Motivationsdesign wird mittels Gamification umgesetzt. ...
Conference Paper
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Ältere Generationen haben meist kaum Erfahrungen mit digitalen Technologien, jedoch wird deren digitale Souveränität zunehmend relevanter für deren Teilhabe in der heutigen Gesellschaft. Seit Einführung der digitalen Patientenakte (ePA) in 2021 sind Angebote für Seniorinnen und Senioren zum Aufbau digitaler Kompetenzen demnach noch wichtiger, damit auch diese Personengruppe souverän auf ihre Gesundheitsdaten zugreifen und mit diesen umgehen kann. Das ePA-Coach-Projekt zielt auf die Entwicklung einer E-Learning Plattform für ältere Menschen ab und soll zum kompetenten und selbstbestimmten Umgang mit der ePA befähigen. In diesem Kurzbeitrag stellen wir den aktuellen Stand des zielgruppengerechten E-Learning-Konzepts vor, das mithilfe des DO-ID-Modells entwickelt wurde und unter anderem einen Gamification-Ansatz sowie eine personalisierte virtuelle Lernbegleitung umfasst
... They make decisions about choosing and managing a team, while receiving feedback that lets them learn from mistakes in a safe environment. 29 The goal of this study was to characterize COALESCE (teamscience.net) usage and users, and to evaluate whether completing the modules improves team science knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy about team science skills. ...
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Introduction The National Academies of Sciences (NAS) emphasize the need for interdisciplinary team science (TS) training, but few training resources are available. COALESCE, an open-access tool developed with National Institutes of Health support and located at teamscience.net , is considered a gold standard resource but has not previously been evaluated. COALESCE launched four learning modules in 2011. The Science of TS (SciTS) module, an interactive encyclopedia, introduces foundational concepts. Three scenario-based modules simulate TS challenges in behavioral, clinical, and basic biomedical sciences. This study examined user characteristics, usage patterns, and effects of completing the four modules on TS knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Methods Repeated measures ANOVA tested for pre-post changes in performance and compared learning by users with biomedical versus other disciplinary backgrounds. Results From 2011 through 2017, the site attracted 16,280 new users who engaged in 6461 sessions that lasted more than 1 min. The modal registrant identified as working in a biomedical field (47%), in an academic institution (72%), and expressed greater interest in the practice than the SciTS (67%). Those completing pre- and post-tests ( n = 989) showed significant improvement in knowledge, attitudes, and skills after taking all scenario-based modules ( p < 0.005); knowledge and attitudes were unchanged after the SciTS encyclopedia. Biomedical and other health professionals improved comparably. Conclusion Evaluation of the TS training tool at teamscience.net indicates broad dissemination and positive TS-related outcomes. Site upgrades implemented between 2018 and 2020, including adding five new modules, are expected to increase the robustness and accessibility of the COALESCE training resource.
... The fact that students spend their time outside school by doing activities related to their academic success has positive effects on their academic success (Yohalem, Tolman, & Wilson, 2003). In order for these activities to be effective, they must be designed according to the needs of the student; otherwise, they are only a waste of time for successful students (Schank, Fano, Bell, & Jona, 1994). Just as the teaching in school is designed according to the learning goals, the education and training activities carried out by the student outside of school should be determined in line with these goals. ...
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One of the most important goals of education is to ensure that students are academically successful. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors ensuring success and causing failure of students in educational environments. In the research, single survey model, one of the survey models, was used. Extreme or deviant (outlier) sampling method, which is one of the purposeful sampling methods determined within the scope of the research, was used. The study group of the study consists of 21 students who are in the 11th grades of a secondary education institution and who are either successful or unsuccessful in academia. For this purpose, interview method, one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The data of the research were collected using semi-structured interview questions and analyzed by induction method. The answers obtained from the students were written and analyzed first by content analysis and then by descriptive analysis. It was detected that individual factors, teacher attitude factor, family influence factor and out-of-school support factors were effective in achieving of successful students. It was also detected that unsuccessful students' academic failure was caused by difficulty of lessons, teacher attitude, friend effect and other factors. As a result of the research; suggestions were made on how the success and failure factors identified can be reflected positively and effectively on the education and training environment. Eğitimin en önemli amaçlarından biri öğrencilerin akademik olarak başarılı olmasını sağlamaktır. Bu çalışmanın amacı eğitim öğretim ortamlarındaki öğrencilerin başarılarını sağlayan ve başarısızlıklarına sebep olan faktörleri araştırmaktır. Araştırmada tarama modellerinden tekil tarama modeli kullanılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında belirlenen amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden aşırı/aykırı durum örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu bir ortaöğretim kurumunun 11. sınıflarında yer alan ve akademik olarak başarılı ya da başarısız olan 21 öğrenciden meydana gelmektedir. Araştırmanın verileri yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme soruları kullanılarak toplanmıştır ve tümevarım yöntemiyle analiz edilmiştir. Görüşme kapsamında uzman görüşleri doğrultusunda araştırmacı tarafından geliştirilen yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme soruları öğrencilere sorulmuştur. Öğrencilerden elde edilen cevaplar yazılmış ve önce içerik analiziyle daha sonra ise betimsel analizle incelenmiştir. Başarılı öğrencilerin başarı sağlamalarında "bireysel faktör, öğretmen tutumu faktörü, aile etkisi faktörü ve okul dışı destek faktörlerinin etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Başarısız öğrencilerin akademik başarısızlığına "derslerin zorluğu, öğretmen tutumu, arkadaş etkisi ve diğer" faktörlerin sebep olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırmanın sonucunda; tespit edilen başarı ve başarısızlık faktörlerinin eğitim öğretim ortamına olumlu ve etkin bir biçimde nasıl yansıtılabileceğine dair önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
... This means that, while DBR provides guidelines and recommendations in conducting design-research, it is flexible enough to be adapted to domain-specific context like co-design. Examples of adaptations DBR can be seen in design frameworks such as goal-based scenarios (Schank, Fano, Bell, & Jona, 1994), anchored instruction (Bransford, Sherwood, Hasselbring, Kinzer, & Williams, 1990), and knowledge integration (Linn, Davis, & Bell, 2004) This research has followed the DBR methodology to make sure design tasks, roles and artefacts used through the design process are specific enough for analysis during the iteration phase. Because in co-design for LA there is a lack of understanding between the roles, design tasks and artefacts as explained in section 2.3. ...
Thesis
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Learning Analytics (LA) is a new promising field that is attracting the attention of education providers and a range of stakeholders including teachers, learning designers, academic directors and data scientists. Researchers and practitioners are interested in learning analytics as it can provide insights from student data about learning processes, learners who may need more help, and learners’ behaviours and strategies. However, problems such as low educator satisfaction, steep learning curves, misalignment between the analytics and pedagogical approaches, lack of engagement with learning technologies and other barriers to learning analytics development have already been reported. From a human-centred design perspective, these problems can be explained due to the lack of stakeholders’ involvement in the design of the LA tools. In particular, learners and teachers are commonly not considered as active agents of the LA design process. Including teachers, learners, developers and other stakeholders as collaborators in the 𝘤𝘰-𝘥𝘦𝘴𝘪𝘨𝘯 of LA innovations can bring promising benefits in democratising the LA design process, aligning analytics and pedagogy, and meeting stakeholders’ expectations. Yet, working in collaboration with stakeholders to design LA innovations opens a series of questions that are addressed in this thesis in order to contribute to closing the gap for effective co-design of LA innovations. The questions addressed in this thesis are the following: 1. How can co-design techniques assist in the integration of diverse stakeholders in the LA design process? 2. What are the roles of the co-design practitioner/researcher in the LA design process? 3. What are the challenges in engaging stakeholders in the LA design process? Based on co-design principles, and following a Design-Based Research process, this thesis explores the critical challenge of engaging educators and students, the non-technical stakeholders who are often neglected, but who should ultimately be the main beneficiaries of LA innovations. In this research work, three case studies have been used to test, analyse and verify various co-design techniques in diverse learning contexts across a university to generate a co-design toolkit and recommendations for other co-design practitioners: i) learners and educators engaged in simulation-based healthcare scenarios, ii) learners, educators and other stakeholders in a Data Science Masters program , and iii) educators interested in providing personalised feedback at scale. This thesis presents three contributions to knowledge for effectively collaborating with educational stakeholders in the LA co-design process: 1. Inspired by archetypal challenges reported in classic and contemporary co-design literature, and in current LA research, the thesis identifies, exemplifies and reflects on five key challenges for LA co-design: power relationships, surveillance, learning design dependencies, asymmetric teaching/learning expertise, and data literacy. 2. By adopting and adapting well established co-design techniques, across the three case studies, the thesis provides empirical evidence of how these techniques can be used in LA co-design, reflecting on their affordances, and providing guidance on their usage. These detailed findings are distilled into a 𝘓𝘦𝘢𝘳𝘯𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘈𝘯𝘢𝘭𝘺𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘴 𝘊𝘰-𝘥𝘦𝘴𝘪𝘨𝘯 𝘗𝘭𝘢𝘺𝘣𝘰𝘰𝘬, published under an open license to assist adoption and improvements. 3. Recognising the importance of the co-design practitioner in ensuring that the design process is participatory, the thesis documents and discusses the key functions and skills that this position requires. The role is further complicated when the practitioner is not only a 𝘧𝘢𝘤𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘰𝘳 serving a project, but also a 𝘳𝘦𝘴𝘦𝘢𝘳𝘤𝘩𝘦𝘳 of co-design. This motivates guidelines on the role of the co-design practitioner/researcher when working with stakeholders, and simultaneously studying the LA co-design process, tools and methods.
... A significant amount of theoretical content is covered in the course, and typical example and homework problems have fairly weak connections to real-world problems. Because concepts presented without contextualization or application have little meaning to students [9], the project was developed to provide a meaningful student-centered learning experience, which has been shown to better anchor knowledge and improve concept retention [1], [10]. This work was also motivated by the need to create a fully defined project package that can be used by all faculty teaching the course, including adjuncts. ...
... CBR is widely employed in e-learning systems and Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) [2]. J. L. Kolodner [3] distinguished between two types of CBR-inspired approaches to education: Goal-Based Scenarios [4] where learners achieve missions in simulated worlds thus confronting themselves with the real world, and Learning By Design [5] in which learners design and build working devices to obtain feedback. CBR is actually well-suited to the latter type of system [6], as well as to other tools from AI [7] and Distributed AI (DAI) systems [8] such as Genetic Algorithm (GA) [9], Artificial Neural Network (ANN) [10] and MAS [11]. A. Baylari and G. A. Montazer focused on the adaptation of tests to obtain a personalised estimation of a student's level [10]. ...
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Cultural-historical didactics is explained as psychologically based didactics and presented in its essential characteristics, starting from its theoretical grounding. This approach and the relations thereby produced in comparison to educational‐theoretical didactics of Wolfgang Klafki are discussed as a contribution most useful to solve current problems of the classroom.
Book
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The book presents reflections on the centrality of Design in the discipline of Technology of Architecture and on the need to adapt the design method to the innovation of thought implemented by the research world. The theme of the Innovation in the Method of Technological Design is an interesting challenge that in this volume has been addressed considering the complexity of the levels of thematic depth, opening up to critical reflections, proposals for tools and illustration of case studies that show the breadth, relevance and multidimensionality of this issue. The era of digital and information technology have significantly influenced the way of doing and thinking in architecture and this evolution of design thinking takes on different connotations in training or professional practice. In the volume, it is transversally observable as the degree of innovation is to be found in the contents (ideas, techniques and procedures), as well as in the tools. The need to adapt the design method to the innovation of thought, carried out and encouraged by the world of research, obliges us to rethink the existing contents and training paths that must generate it and to privilege the didactic experiences in which the traditional procedure (frontal teaching, individual study, profit examination) is passed. Since the labour market rewards those who demonstrate their ability to control the design process with creativity and predictability, concreteness and feasibility, sensitivity and respect for the transforming environment, the book proposes the centrality of the technological project, based on a technical culture, since it is able to guarantee the correct use of resources and an appropriate management of the transformation process. New paradigms of regenerative architecture, ‘cradle to cradle’ approach, methodological approach to the design of shelters in archaeological sites, building with water, materials for digital production in architecture are interesting design experiments wisely described: the development of such a debate can also lead to useful contributions to the development of technological thinking.
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This article refers to the background of Education and educational technology; To understand, they are theoretical-explanatory links in the teaching-learning process in today’s networked society. The configuration of the learning environment and the development of experiences that generate learning by integrating the monitoring of real-time experiences into ecosystems that guide the learning outcomes common to all and desirable. The epistemological approach is an “alternative” proposed by [1], it facilitates the construction of new knowledge and the method is a research action of analysis the exchange of mixed studies mediated by mHealth in the thematic of the pathological oral anatomy. Data were obtained through focus groups to students; The data analysis was performed in MaxQd v 2018 from the analysis categories. The results are organized according to the analysis categories for students, a saber: dialogue; interaction with teachers, interaction with peers, perceived learning; Mediation with applications.
Chapter
Providing experiential training in complex tasks on an any-time anywhere basis—whether for individual or team tasks—often requires simulating interaction with non-player characters (NPCs): co-workers, superiors, subordinates, opponents, subjects, stakeholders, consultants, tutors, peers etc. Simulating all aspects of human behavior is overwhelmingly complex. Pursuing full human simulation is also needlessly costly and distracts from the task at hand, which is providing a learner with prompts and reactions supporting experiences that promote mastery of learning objectives and appropriate transfer. The question then is, What techniques can be used to create relevantly realistic NPC agents to support desired learning outcomes? Rather than advance a one-size-fits-all silver bullet for instructional system NPC modeling, we advocate a flexibly configurable bag-of-tools approach. Using example systems that the authors have worked on, we discuss several different approaches to building NPCs for pedagogical effect. Choices of technologies to employ should be based on application requirements, considering issues such as: (1) content/authoring costs—both for achieving short term capability and for longer-term maintenance and scalability; (2) pedagogical approaches; and (3) relevant aspects of realism in behavior and interaction methods.
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Bu araştırmanın genel amacı; Hedef Temelli Senaryo Öğrenme (HTSÖ) tasarımı ile geliştirilmiş Scratch öğretim programının 6. Sınıf öğrencilerinin BİD becerilerine ve problem çözme ve programlama ünitesi erişilerine etkisinin farklı değişkenlere göre incelenmesi ve bu geliştirilen programın öğretmen görüşlerine göre değerlendirilmesidir. Araştırmada yapı olarak karma yöntemin keşfedici ardışık desen müdahale modeli kullanılmış, bu kapsamda hem nicel desenler hem de nitel desenler işe koşulmuştur. Araştırmanın nicel boyutunda 2X3 (deney, kontrol grubu X ön test, son test ve kalıcılık testi) yarı-deneysel model kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nitel boyutunda ise eylem araştırması deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın nicel örnekleminde tabaka örneklem kullanılarak Milas ilçesindeki sosyoekonomik düzeylerin farklı üç ortaokulun 6.sınıf öğrencileri oluşturmuştur. Nitel çalışma grubunda ise bu okullarda görevli, gönüllü üç bilişim öğretmeni ve 6. Sınıf öğrencisi 19 kişi oluşturmuştur. Uygulama kapsamında bilişim teknolojileri öğretmenlerine problem çözme ve programlama ünitesinin öğretiminin iyileştirilmesine yönelik uygulayıcı öğretmen eğitimi düzenlenmiştir. Bu eğitim sonrası deney ve kontrol gruplarında 8 haftalık müdahale programı uygulanmıştır. Bu programda deney grubu öğrencilerine HTSÖ ile tasarımlanmış öğretim programı uygulanırken, kontrol grubuna ise mevcutta kullanılan MEB programı uygulanmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Bilgi İşlemsel Düşünme Öz Değerlendirme (BİDÖD) Ölçeği, Scratch Projesi Değerlendirme Dereceli Puanlama Anahtarı, Akademik Başarı Testi, ve Nitel veri toplama araçları kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada BİDÖD ölçeği ve akademik başarı testi müdahale programının öncesinde, sonrasında ve programın bitişinden 6 hafta sonrada kalıcılığı belirlemek için kullanılmıştır. Nicel veri analizinde tekrarlı ölçümlerde çok değişkenli kovaryans analizi testi (MANCOVA), Friedmann testi ve betimsel istatistiki araçlar kullanılmış, nitel verilerin analizinde de içerik analizi ve betimsel analiz teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularında; HTSÖ ile öğrenim gören deney grubu öğrencileri ile kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin akademik başarı son test ve kalıcılık testi puanlarında deney grubu lehine anlamlı fark bulunmuştur. Çalışmada bu durum farklı değişkenler içinde kontrol edilmiştir. Bu değişkenler sosyoekonomik okul düzeyi, cinsiyet ve ekran kullanım sıklığıdır. Bulguların bu değişkenlere göre farklılaştığı görülmüştür. Deney ve kontrol grubu öğrencilerinin BİD öz değerlendirme ölçeği son test ve kalıcılık testi ortalama puanlarına göre olan anlamlı fark bulunmazken, test puanları arasında deney grubunun puanlarının farklılaştığı ve yalnızca soyutlama alt ölçeği puanlarına göre gruplar arasında anlamlı farkın olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Scratch proje değerlendirme dereceli puanlama anahtarı puanlarına göre de deney grubunun puanlarının kontrol grubuna göre daha yüksek olduğu, bu durumun aracın alt boyutları olan programlama, BİD, proje geliştirme ve görsel tasarım boyutlarında da daha yüksek olduğu, sosyoekonomik üst düzey okul öğrencilerinin puanlarının da tüm alt boyutlarda diğer okullardan daha yüksek puan elde ettiği belirlenmiştir. Öğrenci ve öğretmenlerin HTSÖ’ ye yönelik görüşlerinde bu yöntemi geleneksel yöntemlere göre çok daha etkili bulduklarını, süreçte hem öğretmenin hem de öğrencinin daha aktif olduğunu, ilgi, motivasyon sorunu yaşamadıklarını, bu derste öğrendikleri bilgileri gerçek hayatta da kullanabileceklerini ifade ederek olumlu görüşler belirtmişlerdir.
Article
Transfer of learning has gained prominence in the literature, considering that students’ ability to transfer learning to solve real-world problems is increasingly expected. This study analyzes the relationship between transfer of learning and the development of soft skills based on the use of specialized software in a game-based course that is part of an accounting curriculum. To meet the objective, a survey with senior students was realized. The results were analyzed based on descriptive and inferential statistics using Stata®. Findings bring fresh and sustained evidence of accounting majors, using the business game software, being able to deal with real world issues in a controlled environment. They were also able to develop soft skills, predominantly collaboration and adaptability. Tests indicated that the development of skills for the accounting professional in the 21st century can be driven by transfer of learning and that the business game course has strongly contributed to this development. These results pose potential to contribute to the development of educational institutions, faculty and students, as it shows that skills and knowledge acquired and transferred throughout the course reflect on a better prepared professional to face typical business issues in the real world.
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Institutionelle Bildung ist für autistische Lernende mit vielgestaltigen und spezifischen Hindernissen verbunden. Dies gilt insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit Inklusion, deren Relevanz nicht zuletzt durch das Übereinkommen der Vereinten Nationen über die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderung gegeben ist. Diese Arbeit diskutiert zahlreiche lernrelevante Besonderheiten im Kontext von Autismus und zeigt Diskrepanzen zu den nicht immer ausreichend angemessenen institutionellen Lehrkonzepten. Eine zentrale These ist hierbei, dass die ungewöhnlich intensive Aufmerksamkeit von Autist*innen für ihre Spezialinteressen dafür genutzt werden kann, das Lernen mit fremdgestellten Inhalten zu erleichtern. Darauf aufbauend werden Lösungsansätze diskutiert, welche in einem neuartigen Konzept für ein digitales mehrgerätebasiertes Lernspiel resultieren. Eine wesentliche Herausforderung bei der Konzeption spielbasierten Lernens besteht in der adäquaten Einbindung von Lerninhalten in einen fesselnden narrativen Kontext. Am Beispiel von Übungen zur emotionalen Deutung von Mimik, welche für das Lernen von sozioemotionalen Kompetenzen besonders im Rahmen von Therapiekonzepten bei Autismus Verwendung finden, wird eine angemessene Narration vorgestellt, welche die störungsarme Einbindung dieser sehr speziellen Lerninhalte ermöglicht. Die Effekte der einzelnen Konzeptionselemente werden anhand eines prototypisch entwickelten Lernspiels untersucht. Darauf aufbauend zeigt eine quantitative Studie die gute Akzeptanz und Nutzerfreundlichkeit des Spiels und belegte vor allem die Verständlichkeit der Narration und der Spielelemente. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt liegt in der minimalinvasiven Untersuchung möglicher Störungen des Spielerlebnisses durch den Wechsel zwischen verschiedenen Endgeräten, für die ein innovatives Messverfahren entwickelt wurde. Im Ergebnis beleuchtet diese Arbeit die Bedeutung und die Grenzen von spielbasierten Ansätzen für autistische Lernende. Ein großer Teil der vorgestellten Konzepte lässt sich auf andersartige Lernszenarien übertragen. Das dafür entwickelte technische Framework zur Realisierung narrativer Lernpfade ist ebenfalls darauf vorbereitet, für weitere Lernszenarien, gerade auch im institutionellen Kontext, Verwendung zu finden.
Chapter
In this monograph we have examined evidence for the existence of an instructional design construct, the message. We have provided several historical cases that show that the message construct has been used by instructional designers for over 70 years, although due to shifting fashions in technology and learning theory it has not been specifically identified.
Chapter
Fake news is an increasing problem for many areas of the social life, prominently for politics and democracy. Falling for fake news is largely due to deficient cognitive processing of online news, which we address as fake news illiteracy. One of the many ways of combating fake news consists of training media literacy with a focus on online news. Currently, there are few examples of fake news literacy training approaches. Against the background of a brief research overview on the cognitive processing of online news, we aim to generate and propose ideas for approaches to online fake news literacy training. To achieve this, we exploit the expertise and creativity of graduate students of educational sciences who were asked to design and carry out such pilot programs. This study provides an analysis and overview of 12 successfully conducted training programs, focusing on the cognitive processing aspects they address, intervention types, instructional designs, and the use of technologies. We conclude by pointing out productive directions of this development and suggesting corresponding educational technology development.
Chapter
Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching and learning materials that are licensed to provide everyone the access to engage with them in several manners, such as adapting and reusing it. This work aims at developing an OER to support PhD candidates’ learning of research methods in Technology-enhanced Learning (TEL) as part of the Doctoral Education in Technology-enhanced Learning (DE-TEL) project. A survey was conducted by the DE-TEL project to collect information on the practices and challenges of doctoral education in TEL and to find out the topics that are relevant to the area but have few educational materials available. Preliminary results reveal that 103 PhD candidates from 25 different countries answered the survey. The main topic of their research in TEL is computing or information technology applied to learning, and the most relevant research method is design-based research. For this reason, a prototype of the OER module about design-based research is being designed and developed first. This paper presents the first outline of the prototype using the H5P tool, an open source and free to use tool that enables authors to create, share and reuse interactive HTML5 content, without the need for any technical skills. Then, this module is going to be piloted and evaluated by PhD candidates, so that the complete OER can be planned and created, encompassing the most relevant research methods to doctoral programs in TEL.
Thesis
Driven by constant improvements of machine-learning algorithms, advances in computer power and large amounts of data, artificial intelligence (AI) has become an integral part of many technological innovations shaping most people’s daily life. AI is an interdisciplinary science combining computer science, mathematics, robotics, linguistics, and philosophy. However, also psychologists with their expertise in statistics as much as their knowledge regarding human perception and behavior can contribute valuable insights to the development of innovative, useful and beneficial AI systems. This study investigated to what extent psychology students currently accept and use AI technology and aimed at promoting curiosity and enthusiasm among psychologists towards AI technology by the means of an online class. Therefore, an AI acceptance model based on established technology acceptance models was designed and tested. Based on the model, a one-week online training was designed to address perceived knowledge, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use to foster a more positive attitude towards AI and a higher intention to use AI.
Chapter
This chapter will make a connection between game genres, game characteristics, and constructivist teaching structures. Constructivist teaching structures, like open learning environments and anchored instruction, have the same aims as serious games – to facilitate higher order learning skills and knowledge. However, constructivist teaching structures are not games and serious games are grappling with how to design games and keep the fun and learning in perfect balance. Making connections between game genres and characteristics (where much of the fun resides) and teaching structures (where much of the learning resides) will highlight commonalities that can be taken advantage of in the design of good serious games – where learning and fun are in perfect balance.
Chapter
With the recent widespread use of computer and web technologies, web-based tools have been developed to mediate collaboration and facilitate knowledge construction. However, how to effectively design these tools to stimulate and maintain productive knowledge construction remains a challenge. This chapter describes a virtual learning-by-doing environment where students take the role of consultants to investigate the cause of recurring pipe corrosion in a paper processing company. We illustrate how the learning environment is designed to provide both pedagogical and technological support to collaborative knowledge construction. Our goal is to provide an example and offer guidance to professionals and educators who are interested building such virtual environments.
Chapter
Interactive scenarios are embedded in many e-simulations and can assist learning by providing authentic and engaging student experiences. While software exists for constructing and delivering interactive scenarios, planning and storyboarding for the latter can be difficult. This chapter illustrates a systematic approach to planning interactive scenario-based exercises and tying them into a lesson plan prior to constructing the electronic version. Constraints and barriers to using interactive scenarios in a university setting include lack of training or knowledge of pedagogy by academics and conflicting demands on their time. Strong institutional support is required to embed interactive scenarios within the learning culture.
Chapter
This chapter will make a connection between game genres, game characteristics, and constructivist teaching structures. Constructivist teaching structures, like open learning environments and anchored instruction, have the same aims as serious games – to facilitate higher order learning skills and knowledge. However, constructivist teaching structures are not games and serious games are grappling with how to design games and keep the fun and learning in perfect balance. Making connections between game genres and characteristics (where much of the fun resides) and teaching structures (where much of the learning resides) will highlight commonalities that can be taken advantage of in the design of good serious games – where learning and fun are in perfect balance.
Chapter
This chapter explores the challenge of balancing narrative development and instructional design in the creation of an electronic game-based learning environment. Narrative is a key factor in successful commercial games. The hero’s journey is explained and proposed as a model narrative structure for developing educational role-playing games and informing instructional design. Opportunities to embed various instructional strategies within the hero’s journey structure are presented.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to share experiences involved in designing, developing, and implementing e-simulation software for achieving scenario-based learning objectives. It does this by focusing on our work with Scenario Based Learning-Interactive (SBLi), a software tool developed at The University of Queensland, Australia to provide lecturers and teachers with an easy-to-use tool for creating and deploying interactive multi-media scenarios on the Web or CD. While a number of authoring tools are capable of creating simple, interactive scenarios, SBLi has been developed to provide a tool with the functionality and transparency that allows scenario authors to easily create and modify complex and realistic scenarios that engage learners in acquiring specific knowledge and skills. This chapter describes the main features of this e-simulation tool, what is involved in creating SBLi scenarios, and how scenarios have been developed and used in Australia and overseas to provide problem-based and enquiry-based learning experiences. Examples are listed to show the range of learning objectives and the diverse and novel ways in which SBLi is being used to improve critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and other learning attributes across a range of disciplines in secondary and tertiary institutions and in continuing professional development. Important lessons concerning the development and sustainable application of this specific e-simulation tool are also discussed.
Conference Paper
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A soft-board application allows users to write, draw, and manipulate graphics just like they would do with physical aids such as chalk/white boards or pen and paper. These applications have over the years advanced from basic shapes and colouring to merged shapes, rotating shapes, patterns, and web themes. At the same time, existing tools on soft-board applications are limited to texts, selections, arrows, pencil, connectors, basic shapes, stars, and flowcharts, hence less appropriate for teaching and learning. This paper investigates tools needed in teaching and learning and develops an extended soft-board application with most tools for physical and biological sciences. A comparative analysis with related applications is made, scoring our application highest on easy of use, learnability, and usability features of effective user interface design.
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Conducted a field experiment with 3-5 yr old nursery school children to test the "overjustification" hypothesis suggested by self-perception theory (i.e., intrinsic interest in an activity may be decreased by inducing him to engage in that activity as an explicit means to some extrinsic goal). 51 Ss who showed intrinsic interest in a target activity during baseline observations were exposed to 1 of 3 conditions: in the expected-award condition, Ss agreed to engage in the target activity in order to obtain an extrinsic reward; in the unexpected-award condition, Ss had no knowledge of the reward until after they had finished with the activity; and in the no-award condition, Ss neither expected nor received the reward. Results support the prediction that Ss in the expected-award condition would show less subsequent intrinsic interest in the target activity than Ss in the other 2 conditions. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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v Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts... v Intelligence may also be distributed for use in designed artifacts as diverse as physical tools, representations such as diagrams, and computer-user interfaces to complex tasks. v Leont'ev 1978 for activity theory that argues forcibly for the centrality of people-in-action, activity systems, as units of analysis for deepening our understanding of thinking. v Intelligence is distributed: the resources that shape and enable activity are distributed across people, environments, and situations. v Intelligence is accomplished rather than possessed. v Affordance refers to the perceived and actual properties of a thing, primarily those functional properties that determine how the thing could possibly be used. v Norman 1988 on design and psychology - the psychology of everyday things" v We deploy effort-saving strategies in recognition of their cognitive economy and diminished opportunity for error. v The affordances of artifacts may be more or less difficult to convey to novice users of these artifacts in the activities to which they contribute distributed intelligence. v Starts with Norman's seven stages of action ? Forming a goal; an intention ? Task desire - clear goal and intention - an action and a means ? Mapping desire - unable to map goal back to action ? Circumstantial desire - no specific goal or intention - opportunistic approach to potential new goal ? Habitual desire - familiar course of action - rapidly cycle all seven stages of action v Differentiates inscriptional systems from representational or symbol systems because inscriptional systems are completely external, while representational or symbol systems have been used in cognitive science as mental constructs. v The situated properties of everyday cognition are highly inventive in exploiting features of the physical and social situation as resources for performing a task, thereby avoiding the need for mental symbol manipulations unless they are required by that task. v Explicit recognition of the intelligence represented and representable in design, specifically in designed artifacts that play important roles in human activities. v Once intelligence is designed into the affordances properties of artifacts, it both guides and constrains the likely contributions of that artifact to distributed intelligence in activity. v Culturally valued designs for distributed intelligence will change over time, especially as new technology becomes associated with a task domain. v If we treat distributed intelligence in action as the scientific unit of analysis for research and theory on learning and reasoning... ? What is distributed? ? What constraints govern the dynamics of such distributions in different time scales? ? Through what reconfigurations of distributed intelligence might the performance of an activity system improve over time? v Intelligence is manifest in activity and distributed in nature. v Intelligent activities ...in the real world... are often collaborative, depend on resources beyond an individual's long-term memory, and require the use of information-handling tools... v Wartofsky 1979 - the artifact is to cultural evolution what the gene is to biological evolution - the vehicle of information across generations. v Systems of activity - involving persons, environment, tools - become the locus of developmental investigation. v Disagrees with Salomon et al.'s entity-oriented approach - a language of containers holding things. v Human cognition aspires to efficiency in distributing intelligence - across individuals, environment, external symbolic representations, tools, and artifacts - as a means of coping with the complexity of activities we often cal "mental." "
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In a recent Educational Researcher article, Brown, Collins, and Duguid (January-February 1989) discussed the concept of situated cognition. We explore relationships between this concept and our Technology Center’s work on anchored instruction. In the latter, instruction is anchored (situated) in videodisc-based, problem-solving environments that teachers and students can explore. We argue that situated cognition provides a broad, useful framework that emphasizes the importance of focusing on everyday cognition, authentic tasks, and the value of in-context apprenticeship training. Anchored instruction provides a way to recreate some of the advantages of apprenticeship training in formal educational settings involving groups of students. In addition, some of the principles of anchored instruction may make it possible to create learning experiences that are more effective than many that occur in traditional apprenticeship training. Together, the situated cognition and anchored instruction perspectives suggest ways to think differently about instruction, and they suggest important issues for future research.
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This article addresses issues faced in the construction of computer programs that teach complex social skills. We describe a software architecture called Guided Social Simulation (GuSS). GuSS combines a simulation in which students can practice social skills with guidance that enhances the simulated experience. One of the applications of GuSS, called YELLO, teaches how to sell Yellow Pages advertising. YELLO is described in detail. The social simulation and guidance components of GuSS each present a set of technical and theoretical challenges. We discuss both sets. In discussing the techniques we use for constructing a social simulation, we emphasize the mechanisms that implement social agents as simple social planners. We then focus on one particular guidance component of GuSS—the storyteller. The storyteller is a teaching module that contains the real-life stories of experienced practitioners captured on videodisk. The storyteller monitors the student's actions in the simulation and interjects stories that are relevant to the student's experience.
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Sixteen adult volunteers provided thinking-aloud protocols while undergoing a 10-hr individually administered course in BASIC (beginner's all-purpose symbolic instruction code) programming. Three levels of goals were identified as operative in the learning situation: task-completion goals, instructional goals, and personal knowledge-building goals. Although protocol statements indicating knowledge-building goals were infrequent, students exhibiting a relatively high proportion of them were distinctive in several ways. They did significantly better on a posttest. Their performance in goal cue selections differed from that of other participants in ways consistent with their orientation: They responded more often to learning goal cues than to task goal cues. They actively related new learning to prior knowledge and they posed and tried to solve problems and questions. Students oriented toward instructional goals tended to focus on what was explicitly taught. Students oriented toward task-completion goals tended to equate learning with successful completion of assigned tasks. Level of goal orientation and posttest performance were unrelated to level of education and prior computer experience but were positively related to previous experience of independent learning.
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Recently, educational theorists have begun to emphasize the importance of situating instruction in meaningful contexts in order to recreate some of the advantages of apprenticeship learning. Cognitive apprenticeship and anchored instruction are two approaches to instruction that provide guidance for teaching in contextualized ways. Cognitive apprenticeship emphasizes the social context of instruction and draws its inspiration from traditional apprenticeships. Anchored instruction provides a model for creating problem contexts that enables students to see the utility of knowledge and to understand the conditions for its use. Together, these two complementary approaches provide a framework for thinking about apprenticeship learning and how it might be transferred to the classroom. Interestingly, authors who have written about cognitive apprenticeships and anchored instruction have made only passing reference to the case method of legal and business education and the problem-based learning approach to medical education, two well-established methods of instruction that are also based on apprenticeship learning and the study of authentic problems or cases. The detailed description of these two approaches to instruction in this article provides a rich source of information about how to create contextualized learning environments in school settings, and demonstrates that case-based instruction can take on different forms and be used in different domains. Each approach is evaluated employing a framework synthesized from cognitive apprenticeship and anchored instruction; the results of this analysis are used to suggest research questions for case-based instruction as it is currently practiced and areas in which further research is needed to refine educational theories.
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Excerpts available on Google Books (see link below). For more information, go to publisher's website : http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780805822335/
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Telling stories is an effective way to teach aspects of nearly every task and domain. However, to be effectively remembered, a story must be told in a context that enables the hearer to index it functionally in memory. This occurs naturally when stories are told to students while they are attempting to perform the task being taught. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to engage students in a task while teaching it, so some other context must be found that facilitates appropriate indexing. We argue that this context occurs naturally in a teaching dialog, called an Aesopic dialog, in which the student asks questions and the expert answers with stories. In this dialog, the coherence of the conversation itself provides a context that enables the stories to be usefully incorporated into the student's memory. The widespread application of teaching through Aesopic dialogs requires overcoming the hurdle that experts are scarce and access to them is limited. Our solution to this problem is to broaden access to expert stories through the development of hypermedia systems designed to provide an interaction that emulates, as much as possible, the cognitively relevant aspects of an Aesopic dialog with an expert. We have constructed a number of such story-based teachers, called ASK systems, in domains as diverse as trust bank consulting, Presidential decision-making, and the determinants of a nation's industrial success in global markets.
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Epistemic forms are target structures that guide inquiry. Epistemic games are general purpose strategies for analyzing phenomena in order to fill out a particular epistemic form. The article describes in detail the rules and moves for one epistemic game and briefly describes a catalog of epistemic games that are used to analyze phenomena in terms of their structure, function, or processes.
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Proposes a framework for skill acquisition that includes 2 major stages in the development of a cognitive skill: (1) a declarative stage in which facts about the skill domain are interpreted and (2) a procedural stage in which the domain knowledge is directly embodied in procedures for performing the skill. This general framework has been instantiated in the ACT system in which facts are encoded in a propositional network and procedures are encoded as productions. Knowledge compilation is the process by which the skill transits from the declarative stage to the procedural stage. It consists of the subprocesses of composition, which collapses sequences of productions into single productions, and proceduralization, which embeds factual knowledge into productions. Once proceduralized, further learning processes operate on the skill to make the productions more selective in their range of applications. These processes include generalization, discrimination, and strengthening of productions. Comparisons are made to similar concepts from previous learning theories. How these learning mechanisms apply to produce the power law speedup in processing time with practice is discussed. (62 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three studies investigate how problem solvers learn to apply appropriate actions in problem solving. Part of this knowledge appears to result from learning the sets of problem features (schemata) that predict the success of different problem-solving actions (operators). A major claim is that this learning can be produced, in part, by the same mechanisms that produce concept formation and abstraction of object schemata. Studies using geometry proof problems and an abstract maze-searching task produce results similar to common findings in the schema abstraction literature: Performance improves as the prototypicality of the feature sets increases. Also examined are the effects of active processing of problem features, relevance of the discriminating features to the problem solution, amount of practice, and delay of feedback regarding the accuracy of operator selection. Subjects learn when to apply an operator better during active, deliberate hypothesis testing, regardless of feature relevance. Delayed feedback produces poorer performance with extended practice. A model of classification learning and a simulation of explicit hypothesis testing produced reasonable fits to the data. The failure to find evidence for unconscious learning is evidence against the automatic discrimination mechanism proposed in ACT∗.
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This research addresses the widening gap between research in intelligent tutoring systems and practical use of this technology by the educational community. In order to insure that intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) are effective, teachers must be involved in their design and evaluation. We have followed a user participatory design process to build a set of ITS knowledge acquisition tools tailored for usability by teachers. The system facilitates rapid prototyping and testing of curriculum and multiple tutoring strategies. Teachers use the system to create, modify, and test the system's domain content and tutoring strategy knowledge bases. The design includes novel methodologies for strategy representation and overlay student modeling, and incorporates considerations from instructional design theory. Tools have been designed to provide the user with visual models of the concepts and structures of the underlying framework. In close collaboration with a veteran high school teacher, we have used the interface to design a tutor for statics (part of a high school physics course). In this paper we describe the system (called KAFITS), report on our experience involving educators in ITS development, discuss issues of ITS knowledge representation and acquisition, and compare the system with related research in generic tutoring systems and knowledge acquisition.
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Many teaching practices implicitly assume that conceptual knowledge can be abstracted from the situations in which it is learned and used. This article argues that this assumption inevitably limits the effectiveness of such practices. Drawing on recent research into cognition as it is manifest in everyday activity, the authors argue that knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used. They discuss how this view of knowledge affects our understanding of learning, and they note that conventional schooling too often ignores the influence of school culture on what is learned in school. As an alternative to conventional practices, they propose cognitive apprenticeship (Collins, Brown, & Newman, in press), which honors the situated nature of knowledge. They examine two examples of mathematics instruction that exhibit certain key features of this approach to teaching.
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Northwestern University, 1993. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 355-361). Photocopy.
Environments for incidental learning: Taking road trips instead of memorizing state capitals
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Motivational design of instruction Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of their current status Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation
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Using stories to enhance and simplify computer simulations for teaching
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Sickle Cell Counselor: Using goal-based scenarios to motivate the exploration of knowledge in a museum context
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