Article

A meta-analysis of positive humor in the workplace

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Abstract

Purpose – The benefits of humor for general well-being have long been touted. Past empirical research has suggested that some of these benefits also exist in the work domain. However, there is little shared understanding as to the role of humor in the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to address two main gaps in the humor literature. First, the authors summarize several challenges researchers face in defining and operationalizing humor, and offer an integrative conceptualization which may be used to consolidate and interpret seemingly disparate research streams. Second, meta-analysis is used to explore the possibility that positive humor is associated with: employee health (e.g. burnout, health) and work-related outcomes (e.g. performance, job satisfaction, withdrawal); with perceived supervisor/leader effectiveness (e.g. perceived leader performance, follower approval); and may mitigate the deleterious effects of workplace stress on employee burnout. Design/methodology/approach – The authors examine the results of prior research using meta-analysis (k=49, n=8,532) in order to explore humor's potential role in organizational and employee effectiveness. Findings – Results suggest employee humor is associated with enhanced work performance, satisfaction, workgroup cohesion, health, and coping effectiveness, as well as decreased burnout, stress, and work withdrawal. Supervisor use of humor is associated with enhanced subordinate work performance, satisfaction, perception of supervisor performance, satisfaction with supervisor, and workgroup cohesion, as well as reduced work withdrawal. Research limitations/implications – Profitable avenues for future research include: clarifying the humor construct and determining how current humor scales tap this construct; exploring the role of negative forms of humor, as they likely have different workplace effects; the role of humor by coworkers; a number of potential moderators of the humor relationships, including type of humor, job level and industry type; and personality correlates of humor use and appreciation. Practical implications – The authors recommend caution be exercised when attempting to cultivate humor in the workplace, as this may raise legal concerns (e.g. derogatory or sexist humor), but efforts aimed at encouraging self-directed/coping humor may have the potential to innocuously buffer negative effects of workplace stress. Originality/value – Although psychologists have long recognized the value of humor for general well-being, organizational scholars have devoted comparatively little research to exploring benefits of workplace humor. Results underscore benefits of humor for work outcomes, encourage future research, and offer managerial insights on the value of creating a workplace context supportive of positive forms of humor.

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... Since Malone (1980) postulated the cases for and against humor in the workplace, a growing body of literature started to emerge in business management, leadership and organizational psychology (Decker and Rotondo, 1999;Scheel and Gockel, 2017). These studies indicate the positive influence humor has on a range of desirable organizational outcomes, such as group cohesiveness (Holmes and Marra, 2006), team performance (Mao et al., 2017), employee resilience and coping (Vetter and Gockel, 2016), citizenship behaviors (Tremblay and Gibson, 2016;Tremblay, 2017), and leadership effectiveness (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). In particular, humor in leadership has attracted an increased amount of empirical research in recent years (Cooper et al., 2018;Kong et al., 2019), as leadership is a key element of organizational effectiveness and business success. ...
... However, trait vs. behavioral humor in leaders represents only one specific area of humor in leadership research, there are many other themes of studies, which will be outlined in the present scoping review. An earlier meta-analysis of positive humor in the workplace (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) was also identified. The authors reviewed 49 studies of positive humor use in the workplace and found that a positive sense of humor is associated with good physical and mental health, buffers workplace stress and promotes effective workplace functioning. ...
... Of the studies included in this review, there was one metaanalysis focused on positive humor use in the workplace (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012), and one meta-analysis focused on leader trait humor vs. humor expression (Kong et al., 2019). As briefly mentioned in the introduction, the two reviews address different segments of this research area, though the overall research landscape remains uncharted. ...
Article
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Humor studies are increasingly prevalent in workplace and leadership domains, it has shown significant development in the last 40 years. The multifaceted nature of humor means varied definitions and diverse measurement approaches have been approved. As a result, research methodologies and findings are not easily clarified, and have not been synthesized. The aim of this scoping review was to review the existing body of literature relevant to humor in workplace leadership to identify key research areas, methodologies used, guiding theoretical frameworks, and gaps that are persisting over the last 40 years. Using qualitative review methods, four key themes in the research emerged relating to: (1) humor styles and outcomes; (2) humor as communication and discursive resource; (3) variables in the humor and leadership relationship; and (4) cultural context. This review demonstrates significant research progress on the topic of humor in workplace leadership. Research progress and gaps are discussed based on five key questions. Future research directions are outlined and discussed.
... Thus, we could hypothesize that men evaluating female applicants will exhibit more interpersonal anxiety than women evaluating male applicants. At the same time, however, recent research confirms that women are substantially more likely to be sexually harassed than men (Department of Defense, 2019), with as many as 85% having been sexually harassed at work (Merchant, 2017). Unsurprisingly, sexual harassment has negative emotional consequences for women such as nervousness and distress (Atwater et al., 2019). ...
... Although people may react quite differently to various forms of humor (Cooper, 2008;Moake & Robert, 2018;Wisse & Rietzschel, 2014), affiliative humor (i.e., humor used to amuse and affirm others, facilitate relationships and interpersonal attraction; Martin et al., 2003) should generate generally positive reactions. In other words, positive, affiliative, humor may be the least risky form of humor at work (Bitterly et al., 2017) and, thus, the most likely to create positive interpersonal effects (see meta-analysis by Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) in the form of reduced interpersonal anxiety. In fact, affiliative humor produced by the ostensible source of the stress may be received as especially humorous and thus particularly effective in reducing interpersonal tension and anxiety (McGraw & Warren, 2010). ...
... Drawing from diversity research, men are the most common perpetrators of sexual behaviors at work (e.g., telling sexual jokes; Berdahl & Aquino, 2009), an archetype likely activated by applicant gender and humor in a context where sexual harassment concerns are salient. Drawing from humor research (e.g., Gloor, 2021;Yam et al., 2018), evaluators may have viewed male applicants' humor to be a benign violation that signaled other potential violations at work, particularly because sexual harassment violations-usually perpetuated by men (Berdahl & Aquino, 2009;Merchant, 2017)were salient. ...
Article
Interpersonal anxiety (i.e., the fear of negative consequences from interacting with someone) may be more prominent in post-#MeToo organizations when interacting with someone of a different gender. Initial exchanges may particularly trigger this anxiety, obfuscating key organizational decisions such as hiring. Given humor’s positive, intrapersonal stress-reduction effects, we propose that humor also reduces interpersonal anxiety. In three mixed methods experiments with hiring managers, we examined the effects of applicant and evaluator gender (i.e., same-/mixed-gender dyad), positive applicant humor (i.e., a pun), and context (i.e., gender salience) in job interviews. Results showed that mixed-gender (vs. same-gender) interactions elicited more interpersonal anxiety, particularly when gender was more salient; mixed-gender interactions also predicted downstream attitudinal outcomes (e.g., social attraction and willingness to hire) and hiring decisions (e.g., selection and rejection) via interpersonal anxiety. Although humor reduced interpersonal anxiety and its consequences for female applicants, the opposite was true for male applicants when gender was salient, because it signaled some of the same expectations that initially triggered the interpersonal anxiety: the potential for harmful sexual behavior. In sum, we integrated diversity and humor theories to examine interpersonal anxiety in same- and mixed-gender interactions, then tested the extent to which humor relieved it.
... Researchers began to investigate the possibility that a sense of humor may contribute to workplace effectiveness in the 1980s [11]. Humor is defined as anything people think, say, or do that could be perceived as amusing and causes people to laugh [12]. ...
... Studies have displayed that humor boosts performance, enhanced workplace communication, and strengthens relationships [8]. In their metaanalysis, Mesmer-Magnus et al. [11] discovered that positive workplace humor alleviates monotony and dissatisfaction and may have the potential to mitigate the negative impacts of workplace stress by acting as a coping mechanism (promoting relaxation, tension reduction, and dealing with disappointments), as well as its ability to lubricate social relationships in stressful situations. Yang et al. and Vecchio et al. [18,19] further argued that positive humor decreases employees' work withdrawal behavior and turnover intentions. ...
... Specifically, the results showed that affiliative humor, whether positive on task-coping or negative on emotion-coping and avoidance-coping, is more substantial than the impact of self-enhancing humor (as shown in Figure 2, bold lines for affiliative humor). This can be attributed to the fact that affiliative humor is used to enrich one's relationships with others in a way that is relatively benign and self-accepting, whereas self-enhancing humor is centered internally and is used to help an individual to cope with stress [11]. ...
Article
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Working in the hospitality industry is stressful due to the intensive workload and extended work hours; this stress has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic due to high levels of job insecurity, downsizing, and laying off procedures. Employees in the hotel industry can deal with stress positively by utilizing task-coping styles or negatively by emotion- and avoidance-coping styles. Building on the transactional theory of stress and coping, and the benign violation theory of humor, the current study explores the relationships between positive humor and work withdrawal behaviors with the mediating effects of coping styles. A total of 407 hotel employees participated, and the obtained data were analyzed by structural equation modeling with partial least squares (PLS). The results asserted that affiliative humor is able to reduce coping with stresses via the negative styles and to increase coping with stresses via the positive style. The results also demonstrated the ability of task-coping in reducing work withdrawal behavior. Significant insights into theoretical and practical implications are further discussed.
... The literature on humor suggests there are several humor styles; most studies characterize humor as either positive or negative in nature [9,10]. Past studies have generally demonstrated the beneficial effects of a leader's positive humor at work. ...
... Past studies have generally demonstrated the beneficial effects of a leader's positive humor at work. For example, a meta-analysis by Mesmer-Magnus et al. [10] demonstrated that leaders' positive humor tends to increase the followers' job performance and satisfaction with their leaders, and tends to decrease work withdrawal. In a similar vein, a recent meta-analysis by Kong et al. [11] showed that leader humor increases the followers' job performance, organizational citizenship, and job satisfaction. ...
... Although past studies on humor have explored the roles of personality, such as by using the big five personality model [21][22][23], relatively little attention has been paid to the dark triad personality. Exploring the moderating role of leader Machiavellianism in the leader humor-change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior realm will enrich our knowledge by answering calls for discovering a moderating influence in the literature on humor [10]. From a practical point of view, our study will help managers understand that, to energize the followers' change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior, which is critical to achieve innovation in dynamic business environments, they are encouraged to use positive forms of humor (e.g., affiliative humor) in an appropriate manner so that their followers perceive the humor as conveying the leaders' genuine support. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to explore the mechanisms by which leader humor affects followers’ change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. Specifically, we examine the mediation effect of team commitment in the leader humor–change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior link and whether it varied by leader Machiavellianism. Using multi-sourced data from the four battalions of the Republic of Korean Army, our findings show that team commitment mediated the positive relationship between leaders’ affiliative humor and followers’ change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. Furthermore, the mediated relationship was stronger when leader Machiavellianism was lower. On the other hand, we found no support for the negative relationship between leaders’ aggressive humor and followers’ change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Humor has been recognized as a valuable tool for managers because it can activate several favorable outcomes in the fields of business and organizational behavior (Duncan et al., 1990;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Organizational scholars refer to humor as an effective tactic and managerial resource, particularly under limited tangible resource allocation (Robert et al., 2016;Cooper C.D. et al., 2018). ...
... Martin's approach has also been applied to the organizational setting. It was indicated that humor, which concentrates on the self (for purposes of self-enhancement or self-appreciation), is positively related to personal wellbeing measures and positive interpersonal communications, while negative humor styles impaired personal well-being, often leading to interpersonal conflicts (e.g., Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). When examining the unique contribution of different types of positive humor, it appears that the use of affiliative humor facilitates the advancement and preservation of social support networks, which foster and enhance well-being. ...
... the core of which is the leader['s] sharing of funny events with the employees with the intention to amuse them" (Pundt and Herrmann, 2015, p. 109). A meta-analysis (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) found positive effects for employees' use of humor (satisfaction, enhanced work performance, workgroup cohesion, coping effectiveness, health, and decreased levels of stress, work withdrawal, and burnout) as well as managers' use of humor (general satisfaction, workgroup cohesion, satisfaction with supervisor, enhanced subordinate work performance, satisfaction, perception of supervisor performance, satisfaction with supervisor, and workgroup cohesion, along with reduced work withdrawal). Humor was also found to be indicative of employee OCB (Martin et al., 2004;Tremblay et al., 2016), and employees' happiness, well-being, and short and long-term positive emotional and psychological outcomes (Robert and Wilbanks, 2012;Kim et al., 2016;Wijewardena et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Humor is a form of communication that is intended to be entertaining and produce positive affective and cognitive responses from receivers. Nonetheless, humor in the workplace is a complicated matter. It has been recognized as a valuable tool for managers because it can activate various favorable outcomes and alter employees’ perception of the manager’s warmth and competence (impression management), but not always to the benefit of the manager. In our studies, the use of humor showed changed attitudes toward a manager’s warmth and competence, and eventually influenced the employee’s behavioral intentions. In Study 1, we tested the use of managerial humor in two emails. The humorous manager was perceived as warm, but not competent. Impression management mediated the employee’s willingness to work with the manager. In Study 2, we tested the use of managerial humor with one introductory email. In this study, we also monitored the gender of both the manager and the employee. Once again, the humorous manager was perceived as warm and humor mediated employees’ behavioral intentions. As for competence, gender moderated the results, such that male employees perceived humorous female managers as more competent, while female employees perceived humorous male managers as less competent. Practical implications are presented.
... Although there are several empirical studies on leader humor, less research has been done on specific leader humor, and this is an important research gap. Some scholars claim that leader humors may not be similar and generate various effects (Gkorezis and Bellou 2016;Mesmer-Magnus et al. 2012;Hoption et al. 2013). Thus, this study explored a specific leader humor called the-leader self-deprecating (SD) humor. ...
... Thus, leader humor is also an important characteristic that distinguishes leaders; it improves and enhances the leader's attraction, influence and effectiveness (Gu et al. 2015). SD humorous leaders are more likely to attract and influence members than ordinary leaders; they will also help promote members' leader trust/identification, and thus enhance their job or creative performance (McManus and Delaney 2007;Mesmer-Magnus et al. 2012). However, in a harmonious and well-interacted team, members can cooperate with each other smoothly and efficiently; thus, the importance of the leader will decrease (Pundt and Hermann 2015;Stewart and Barrick 2000). ...
Article
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Recently, several organizations and human resource managers focused on the positive relationship between leader humor and employee creativity. Based on the superiority theory and social interaction perspective, the study examines the relationship between leader self-deprecating humor and employee creativity, and investigates the moderating effects of team harmony and organizational pride. The results using three-wave and 320 valid leader–employee dyads (115 team leaders and 320 employees) from 13 companies in Taiwan show that: (1) leader self-deprecating humor positively affects leader identification; (2) leader identification positively affects employee creativity; (3) leader identification mediates the relationship between leader self-deprecating humor and employee creativity; (4) team harmony moderates the relationship between leader self-deprecating humor and leader identification; and (5) organizational pride moderates the relationship between leader identification and employee creativity. Implications for behavioral researchers and human resource managers are discussed.
... Work environment humour characterises "amusing communications that create positive feelings and cognitions within the person, group, or organisation" . The role of humour is undisputed in that it affects a number of areas of life (Samson & Gross, 2012 Early research recognised the effect of humour (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) at work as a buffer against negative organisational circumstances , and contributing to employee success (Lange & Houran, 2009). Additionally, Guenter et al. (2013) have found that humour contributes to making unfavourable circumstances more reasonable, helping employees to adapt to day-by-day stressors at work, and affecting individual flexibility and employee well-being. ...
... Humour can be understood as a protective factor that helps to successfully cope with stress (McGhee, 2016;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012;Wanzer et al., 2005). studied the buffering effects of sense of humour on stressful experiences and found that humour acts as a moderator between negative life events and mood disturbance. ...
Chapter
Humour, a positive psychology (PP1.0) construct (Fischer, Carow, & Eger, 2020) is a central component of resiliency. Having a sense of humour is a sign of human strength, intelligence, and psychological maturity (Abel, 2016; Ghaemi, 2011). Humour allows individuals to emotionally distance themselves from a stressful event in order to cope. Humour is considered as a crucial job resource for individuals across cultures. It has been further credited for several positive outcomes such as resilience and well-being (Billig, 2018). The objective of the chapter is to present a critical review of the moderating role of resilience in adaptive humour styles (self-enhancing and affiliative humour) and well-being at work from a PP1.0 perspective. The findings of the study of Bhattacharyya, Jena, and Pradhan (2019) indicate a significant association between the adaptive humour styles and well-being at work, with resilience as a moderator.
... Conversely, it would also be valuable to study just one culture or perhaps narrow down further into subcultures, for example, based on ethnicity or language. The meta-analysis of Mesmer-Magnus et al. (2012) recognized the exploration of humor used within teams or between co-workers as a fruitful direction for future research. This could explore organizational sub-cultures such as health and safety teams. ...
... This understanding could help provide clarity for organizations on how to support those different stages of transition while ensuring the humor used at each stage remains contextually appropriate. If organizations understand the rhetorical functions of humor at work and cascade this knowledge to employees, this could help foster both improved communication (Witt Smith & Khojasteh, 2014) and employee psychological wellbeing (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The aim of this systematic review was to develop a thematic synthesis of existing qualitative studies to explore the use of humor in employee-to-employee workplace communication and provide a greater understanding of this area of research through the experiences of employees. A number of databases were searched using key terms and papers were selected using pre-specified criteria. The thematic synthesis approach of Thomas and Harden was used to review the final 23 papers. The findings from the thematic synthesis resulted in four temporal themes that described how humor was utilized during an employee’s organizational transition: (1) initiation into organizational humor, (2) joining a “tribe”—in-groups and out-groups, (3) exerting influence—humor as power, and (4) using the safety valve—humor to relieve tension. The temporal themes described in this study crossed organizational and cultural divides, where humor formed an essential part of work-based dialog.
... When the humor climate in the team is perceived as positive, regardless of whether it is targeting someone or something in-group or out-group, it will be able to strengthen the group. This assumption is in line with previous research indicating that positive humor is beneficial for team functioning, especially when the team is dealing with stressful situations or intra-team conflicts (Norrick and Spitz, 2008;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). In contrast, a negative humor climate may be detrimental and have potentially dysfunctional consequences for individuals (e.g., reduced satisfaction and wellbeing; Kuiper and McHale, 2009), and groups (e.g., reduced cohesion and increased conflicts; Wood et al., 2007). ...
... Furthermore, greater negative humor (both in-group and out-group) was related to greater social conflict. Previous studies have established the beneficial impact positive humor can have on different group processes and group outcomes in organizations (Romero and Pescosolido, 2008;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012), and have also highlighted the potential destructive effects of negative humor (Wood et al., 2007). Findings in the present study reflect these relations and therefore support the usefulness of this construct in team sport settings. ...
Article
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In sport teams, humor is an essential element that influences communication processes, and plays an important role in group dynamics. Despite this, no current instrument is presented in the literature to measure humor climate in sport teams. Therefore, the current study presents the development and initial validation of the Humor Climate in Sport Scale (HCSS). The aim was to assess content, structural and concurrent validity of the developed instrument, and to examine differential item functioning (DIF) as a function of sex. Three different phases were completed in this study. The first phase involved focus groups (n = 5) that explored humor as communication in a team sport context. In phase 2, information from the focus groups was used to create a pool of potential items for the questionnaire. Two discussion groups with sport science students contributed to the development of 80 potential items, that two different expert groups then assessed for item quality. The final version of the instrument after this phase contained 14 items, representing three different humor dimensions. In phase 3, two independent samples with a total number of 776 participants were recruited for the psychometric evaluation of the instrument. EFA, ICM-CFA, and ESEM analysis were performed, supporting a three-factor structure with positive humor, negative humor in-group, and negative humor out-group. In addition, partial DIF as a function of sex on the negative humor dimensions was found, indicating differences in how male and female interpret the negative humor items. The findings in the current study expand our understanding of humor in sport teams and may be a starting point for further research on humor climate in sport teams and its role in group function.
... Employees may stimulate experiences of relatedness through designing fun because this behavior implies fostering lighthearted interactions with others and making activities fun for all parties involved such as colleagues or clients (Scharp et al., 2019). For instance, theoretical and empirical literature suggests that the use of humor creates social closeness and intimacy in relationships by fostering harmony, collegiality, and trust (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Similarly, the use of imagination to produce entertaining and interpersonal scenarios relates to feelings of connectedness and belongingness (Honeycutt & Keaton, 2012;Poerio et al., 2016). ...
... Contrastingly, when we compared differences between individuals, designing fun was not related to feeling competent (between-person level). Possibly, using humor and fantasy generated positive feedback, which stimulated competence experiences (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012); however, individuals may only feel more competent compared to others when they actually develop skills and conquer challenges. Second, while daily designing competition was positively associated with daily volition experiences, general designing competition did not relate to autonomy experiences in general. ...
Article
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Drawing on self-determination and play theories, we develop a process model that proposes that daily playful work design (PWD; designing fun, designing competition) positively relates to employees' daily work engagement through basic psychological need satisfaction. A total of 162 Dutch employees filled out short surveys at the end of each workday for 2–5 days (603 observations). As hypothesized, employees were more engaged on the days they designed their work to be more playful, which was explained by the satisfaction of their needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Moreover, as expected, designing fun and designing competition differed in how and why they related to work engagement. In addition, we found that daily PWD was related to same-day, but not next-day need satisfaction and work engagement. Most path coefficients were statistically invariant across levels of analysis (between- vs. within-person levels), suggesting their meaning and function is equivalent across levels. However, additional analyses revealed synergetic effects between overall use of designing fun and designing competition. These findings expand self-determination and play theories by revealing how and why a proactive and playful approach to work activities and relationships fosters work engagement.
... In studies conducted among emergency personnel [58], crime scene investigation [59], body handlers [60], and funeral workers [61], humor was demonstrated to be an effective coping strategy. A meta-analysis on the role of humor in the workplace has shown that it is positively associated with job performance, satisfaction, and group cohesion, and negatively associated with burnout, stress, and work withdrawal [62]. The inverse relationship between humor and exhaustion has also been highlighted in studies on employees [63], academics [64,65], school teachers [66], firefighters [67], doctors [68], and psychotherapists [69]. ...
... The analyses also revealed the negative association of humor with exhaustion (H4). This result supports the existing evidence in the literature on the functionality of this coping strategy against burnout [62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69], even in pandemic contexts [70,71]. ...
Article
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Italy was the second country to be affected by COVID-19 in early 2020, after China. The confrontation with the pandemic led to great changes in the world of work and, consequently, to the personal world of workers. In such a challenging situation, it is essential to be able to rely on resources that facilitate individual coping. The aim of this study was to understand the association between personal resources (optimism and humor) and exhaustion, and the role of self-compassion in this relationship. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses on a heterogeneous sample of 422 Italian workers during the first lockdown in April-May 2020. The results revealed that optimism and humor were positively associated with self-compassion; optimism and humor also had a negative association with exhaustion; and self-compassion had a mediating role between the two personal resources and exhaustion. These results confirmed the importance of personal resources in maintaining workers' wellbeing during a challenging period such as the pandemic. The present study also contributes to the body of knowledge on self-compassion, a relatively new construct that has been little studied in the organizational field.
... Sense of humor in service robots is shown to improve user perception of task enjoyment (Niculescu et al., 2013). Mesmer-Magnus et al. (2012) indicated that sense of humor can enhance the effects of positive appraisals of robots (e.g. positive emotions and performance expectancy) and mitigate the effects of negative appraisals (e.g. ...
... Although the Study 2 findings further validate those of Study 1, it also suggests that sense of humor is likely to enhance the positive effects of robot appearance and mitigate the negative effects under certain conditions (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). We found that designing humanlike and mascot-like service robots with high sense of humor result in higher acceptance of service robots use in service delivery. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of both physical and personality-related anthropomorphic features of an artificial intelligence service robot on the cognitive and affective appraisals and acceptance of consumers during service delivery. Design/methodology/approach The proposed hypotheses that investigate the effects of service robots’ physical appearance on the emphasis consumers place on each evaluation criteria they use in determining their willingness to accept the use of service robots in service delivery and the moderating role of sense of humor are tested by conducting two studies using scenario-based experiments. Findings The results show that humanlike appearance leads to higher performance expectancy, mascot-like appearance generates higher positive emotions and machine-like appearance results in higher effort expectancy. The effects of humanlike and mascot-like appearances on consumer acceptance are moderated by the sense of humor of service robots. However, the sense of humor effect is attenuated with a machine-like appearance owing to the lack of anthropomorphism. Practical implications This study provides crucial insights for hospitality managers who plan to use service robots in service delivery. The findings highlight the key roles of appearance type and sense of humor of service robots in influencing the appraisals and acceptance of consumers regarding the use of service robots in service delivery. Originality/value This study focuses on comparing the effects of traditional and mascot-like appearances of service robots on consumer appraisals and identifies sense of humor as a cute anthropomorphized personality trait of service robots.
... There are strong links between the concepts of work enjoyment, positive affect and job satisfaction (68)(69)(70), and work enjoyment has even been used as a dimension in the assessment of job satisfaction [MOAQ (71)]. A metaanalysis shows that humor is associated with job satisfaction (72) and further that day-related job satisfaction can predict humor production the following day (73). By implementing humor in the work context, work enjoyment should thus increase (74). ...
Article
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The media increasingly speak of a care crisis. Systematic support is needed to prepare nursing apprentices for the high demands of their profession and to reduce the number of nurses who finally quit. Particularly in stressful jobs like nursing, humor as a coping strategy can have a beneficial effect on perceived stress and overall work enjoyment. In this study, we used a humor intervention among nursing staff in training and evaluated its effects on humor, stress, work enjoyment, the meaningfulness of work, and flow experience. The sample consists of 104 nurses in training. The intervention group received a 3-h humor intervention, while the control group received no intervention. Positive and negative affect were measured immediately before and after the intervention. Humor was measured before the intervention (t0) and again 6 months later (t1); at t1, we again measured humor and also stress, work meaningfulness, work enjoyment, and flow experience. Our analyses showed a beneficial change in positive and negative affect right after the intervention. By means of repeated measures ANOVA we could further confirm an effect of the intervention on reported humor 6 months later. Humor mediated positive effects of the humor intervention on perceived meaningfulness of work, work enjoyment, and on the frequency of flow at work. Also, we found a significant negative relationship between humor and stress measured at t1. The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of humor interventions in promoting humor, and, through this, the meaningfulness of work, work enjoyment, and the frequency of flow experience. Implications of the use of humor interventions in the nursing profession are discussed.
... Humor, specifically coping humor, is the ability to create and appreciate humorous stimuli in response to stressors (Meredith et al., 2011;Sliter et al., 2014). Many studies in nonmilitary organizations have found use of positive humor to improve work performance, mental and physical health, engagement, and satisfaction (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Humor may also be protective in the context of trauma, serving to lift spirits and allow people to focus on the task at hand. ...
Article
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Military personnel experience many stressors during deployments that can lead to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, not all military personnel who are exposed to deployment stressors develop PTSD symptoms. Recent research has explored factors that contribute to military personnel resilience, a multifaceted and multidetermined construct, as a means to mitigate and prevent PTSD symptoms. Much of this research has focused on the effects of individual-level factors (e.g., use of coping strategies like humor, the morale of individual unit members), with some research focusing on unit-level factors (e.g., the cohesiveness of a unit). However, there is little research exploring how these factors relate to each other in mitigating or reducing PTSD symptoms. In this study, we examined the association between deployment stressors, perceived unit cohesion, morale, humor, and PTSD symptoms in a sample of 20,901 active-duty military personnel using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that perceived unit cohesion, humor, and morale were positively associated with each other and negatively associated with PTSD symptoms over and above the effect of deployment stressors. These findings highlight the influence of resilience factors on PTSD symptoms beyond their substantial overlap and have implications for future research as well as the potential development of interventions for military personnel.
... We tested the study hypotheses using latent moderated structural equation modeling in Mplus Version 7.2 (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012. Using latent variables to studying moderated mediation has been shown to produce more accurate estimated effects than a regression-based approach (Cheung & Lau, 2017). First, we determined the fit of the measurement model using several indices including the overall model chi-square, the comparative fit index (CFI), the Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). ...
Article
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Past research indicates that leader humor can bring many positive outcomes; however, its influence on employee voice has been largely neglected. We propose that leader humor can influence employee voice behaviors (i.e., promotive and prohibitive) via the mediating role of psychological safety. Drawing upon the substitutes for leadership theory, we further propose that team humor could moderate the influence of leader humor. Based on the latent moderated mediation structural equation modeling analysis, we found that employees whose leaders used humor more frequently perceived higher levels of psychological safety and in turn engaged in more promotive and prohibitive voice behaviors. Moreover, the indirect effects of leader humor were found to be more pronounced when teams have a low level of humor. On the other hand, leader humor has less influence on employee voice when teams have a high level of humor, which provides support for the leadership substitutes argument. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Additionally, an area of future research could be the variety of humour styles in existence (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) without being limited to absence of humour in leadership. ...
... The integration of both the theories postulates a positive association of LH with LMX variable in three ways. First, LH decreases the social distance of a leader with a member (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). With LH, it seems a leader approves to violate the hierarchical system, and increases relationships by reducing the distance. ...
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Although we use humor in our daily communication, there still needs to cognize its effects on the attitudes and behavior of the employees. Based on benign violation theory (BVT), the study proposes that leader's humor (LH) conveys social information about counter norms. The BVT has been amalgamated with social information processing theory (SIPT) to develop hypotheses assuming the consequences of LH on the attitude and behavior of the employees. This study hypothesizes that even though LH is linked positively with employee creativity via leader-member exchange and psychological empowerment in sequence (blessing path), it may also send information to the employees about the acceptability of norm violation. This perception ultimately leads to power perception and, causes unethical behavior in the series (curse path). Moreover, this study also postulates that leader's self-deprecating humor (LSDH) moderates these indirect effects by enhancing the blessing and reducing the curse, which emerged from LH. Quantitative data of 630 software engineers from software houses based in Pakistan provided support to test the hypotheses. The results demonstrate that LH is a double-edge sword that enhances blessing (creativity) as well as curse (employee unethical behavior), whereas LSDH augments the blessing and throttles back the curse. Theoretical and managerial implications have also been discussed.
... In the last years, beyond more traditional stress management interventions, some alternative interventions rooted in Positive Psychology have been proposed (for meta-analyses, see [12][13][14]). Indeed, there is growing evidence suggesting that a positive use of humor can be considered an effective coping resource to get rid of stress, and humor has been associated with psychological well-being at work (for a meta-analysis, see [15]). Humor is a complex phenomenon that comprises several aspects, from the insight to perceive and understand the humorous, laughable, or ridiculous side of things to the mental capacity to create or establish unusual relationships that surprise and make others laugh. ...
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An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that humor can impact interpersonal relationships in organizations and employee well-being. However, there is little evidence coming from intervention studies in organizational settings. In response, we developed a training following the principles of positive psychology that aims at improving employees' adaptive use of humor as a successful mechanism to deal with stress. In this study, we assess the effectiveness of such training and its impact on employee well-being. Results from this one-group intervention study in an emergency ambulance service (N = 58) revealed that the participants reported higher levels of cheerfulness (Z = −3.93; p < 0.001) and lower levels of seriousness (Z = −3.32; p < 0.001) after being exposed to the training. Indeed, the participants reported lower scores on psychological distress after the training (Z = −3.35; p < 0.001). The effect size of the training was medium (r = 0.31 to 0.36), suggesting that interventions to improve adaptive humor at work can be a useful resource to deal with workplace stress and foster employee well-being. These results may have interesting implications for designing and implementing positive interventions as well as for developing healthy organizations.
... The work of Banas et al. (2011), in their systematic review on humor in education, pointed out the positive effect of humor on teachers' feedback, students' positive emotions and attention, as well as student's perception toward their teachers' competence and credibility. Meta-analyzes in research areas such as workplace environments (Mesmer-Magnus, 2012), intimate relationships (Hall, 2017), the media (Eisend, 2009), psychology (Mendiburo -Seguel, 2015, and communication (Walter et al., 2018) have all reported a positive influence of humor. ...
Article
Humor is a concept that has been examined so far in several fields of study such as health, philosophy, or history, to name a few. In education, the use of humor has been presented as a strategy which, when used sensitively, can create a pleasant atmosphere in the classroom that is not only conducive for student learning, but also for their personal growth. This article provides a conceptual analysis of this concept in the particular context of educational sciences. The objective of this study is to identify the defining attributes of the concept of humor in the field of education in order to better understand it and to foster its use by teachers. Walker and Avant’s (2011) framework for concept analysis was used to analyze the concept. Humor can be identified by five attributes: (1) a skill; (2) a way to communicate; (3) an educational strategy; (4) a personal perspective; and (5) a positive emotional and behavioral response. Our findings nonetheless lead to a more comprehensive understanding of humor in school, thereby constituting the first step in the study of its related concepts.
... Humor's advantages rely on different aspects. Examples include, group effectiveness (Romero & Pescosolido, 2008), innovative thinking, social cohesion, and rapport building stimulated by managers' humor's creative energy (Holmes & Marra, 2006), increased trust (Lynch, 2002), improved communication, creativity and enthusiasm, brightened and more enduring workplace (Sathyanarayana, 2007), stronger individual connections (Cooper, 2008), job satisfaction, affective commitment, and organizational pride (Mesmer-Magnus, et al., 2018), employee engagement (Guenter, et al., 2013), innovative behavior (Johari, et al., 2021), persistent behavior (Cheng & Wang, 2014), employee effectiveness (Gostik & Christopher, 2008), as well as reduction of tension (Duncan, et al., 1990), stress (Martin & Lefcourt, 1983), blood pressure (Martin, et al., 1993), burnout and work withdrawal (Mesmer-Magnus, et al., 2012). Similar to relational energy and PsyCap, humor's benefits arise too during corona quarantine. ...
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This study investigates relational energy within work context from the angle of potential ways to increase it and its associated benefits. Starting from two main streams of positivity at work, POS and POB, and based upon interaction ritual theory, social contagion theory, and conservation of resources theory, this work proposes PsyCap and humor as two prospective means of achieving this goal. In other words, it argues PsyCap and positive humor can positively impact the relational energy between an individual's supervisors, followers, or coworker and herself, which in turn, can have various benefits for organizational members' wellbeing and performance, including during the COVID-19 setbacks. Acknowledgement: This paper reflects part of the broader PhD research (Braha, 2021) representing an obligation for fulfilling graduation requirements. The initial research provides an integrated model of two antecedents and two descendants of relational energy, while the current work focuses only on the first part summarized as per the journal's writing guidelines.
... Particular styles of humor influence social relationships in different ways. Humor at school and in the workplace is positively associated with collegiality, satisfaction, and creativity, and is negatively associated with burnout and emotional exhaustion (Burford, 1987;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012;Stogdill, 1972). Other research has acknowledged the importance of humor in relationships with family and friends. ...
Article
Do people accurately perceive their partner’s humor style? The current study extends work on partner perception by examining accuracy and bias in people’s perception of their partners’ humor styles—a subjective, evaluative, and important factor in relationship satisfaction. We recruited 337 heterosexual couples ( N = 674 individuals, M age = 65.71 years, SD = 12.107) who completed self-reports and partner-reports of humor styles. Truth and Bias modeling revealed that, although bias varied across humor styles, participants consistently demonstrated accuracy in their judgments of their partner’s humor styles. Bias forces were moderated by relationship satisfaction such that assumed similarity biases were stronger among those in particularly satisfying relationships.
... at the expense and detriment to one's relationship with others" (Martin et al., 2003, p. 52). Affiliative humor is associated with performance, job satisfaction and cohesiveness (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012), while aggressive humor tends to have negative effects on outcomes (de Souza et al., 2019;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2018). ...
Article
Purpose Humor can be a useful tool in the workplace, but it remains unclear whether humor used by men versus women is perceived similarly due to social role expectations. This paper explored whether female humorists have less social latitude in their use of aggressive and affiliative humor in the workplace. This paper also examined how formal organizational status and the target's gender can impact audience perceptions. Design/methodology/approach Two scenario-based studies were conducted where participants rated the foolishness of the humorist. For Study 1, participants responded to a scenario with an aggressive, humorous comment. For Study 2, participants responded to a scenario with an affiliative, humorous comment. Findings Results suggested that high-status female humorists who used aggressive humor with low-status women were viewed as less foolish than low-status female humorists who used aggressive humor with low-status women. Conversely, status did not impact perceptions of male humorists who used aggressive humor with low-status women. Results also indicated that high-status women who used affiliative humor were viewed as less foolish when their humor was directed toward low-status men versus low-status women. Conversely, no differences existed for high-status men who used affiliative humor with low-status men and women. Practical implications Narrower social role expectations for women suggest that interpersonal humor can be a riskier strategy for women. Originality/value This study suggests that women have less social latitude in their use of humor at work, and that organizational status and target gender influence perceptions of female humorists.
... Additionally, an area of future research could be the variety of humour styles in existence (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012) without being limited to absence of humour in leadership. ...
Article
A leader’s humour can be detrimental to communication effectiveness, particularly in emergency situations. Using reversal theory, we argue that the absence of humour in leadership leads to more effective communication in frontline practice because it enhances communication clarity. Combining data from a vignette study (N = 127) and two field studies (N = 134 and N = 165) among firefighters working at the frontline, the results confirm our expectations. As frontline interventions call for a serious mindset, the absence of humour in a leader increased perceived leader frontline communication effectiveness due to higher clarity in frontline communication. Overall, the findings demonstrate the critical role of leaders not displaying humour in emergency settings, and they highlight the influence of contextual factors on determining whether the use of humour is beneficial or risky in communication.
... Scarce studies have examined the relationship between employees' negative workplace humor and their work outcomes (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Aggressive humor is to use belittling, humiliating and teasing to make oneself feel better at other's expense (Kalliny et al., 2006). ...
Article
The ability to retain employees is a tenacious phenomenon in the restaurant workplace. Focusing on job embeddedness (JE) as possible explanatory factor in the application of the broaden-and-build theory and the social exchange theory, this study assesses the relationships among restaurant employees’ workplace humor, perceived workplace fun, perceived workplace aggression, and organizational JE (OJE). It examines to what extent these relationships vary across contexts, depending on national culture. A structural modeling analysis of data from 540 employees in restaurants in the United States and China provides broad support for our hypothesis: Workplace fun is positively associated with restaurant employees’ OJE while only coworker aggression is negatively related to employees’ OJE. Restaurant employees’ use of affiliative humor and aggressive humor is positively related to perceived workplace fun and negatively associated with perceived workplace aggression. Furthermore, national culture moderates the relationships between affiliative humor and perceived workplace aggression, aggressive humor and perceived workplace fun, as well as between workplace fun and OJE. Our findings contribute to clarifying the dynamics between perceptions of certain organizational factors for understanding when employees may develop OJE. The implication is that restaurant companies with international operations can foster OJE by placing various levels of emphasis on types of humor, workplace fun, and workplace aggression, in societies where individuals perceive these variables differently.
... Raskin (2008) on the other hand focused on various disciplines perspectives on humour like linguistics, psychology, folklore, philosophy and others to give a solid foundation to researchers new to the field of humour research. The effect of laughter during breaks in the workspace was described as an efficient buffer for stress (Scheel et al., 2017b) and a meta-analysis stressed the value of the use of humour of supervisors to efficiently improve output performance of subordinate workers (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). But what is the effect of humour on staff working in palliative care? ...
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Palliative care teams frequently use humour as a coping instrument. Humour used within the professional team has to be distinguished from humour in the interaction with patients. Humour among staff members working in palliative settings is widely accepted and the positive effect has been demonstrated. Four humour-workshops were organized for staff working in a palliative care unit. All participants completed the State-Trait-Cheerfulness-Inventory (STCI-S and T) and the Distress-Thermometer. Before and after the last two workshops, saliva samples were collected for analysis of oxytocin concentrations. The humour workshops were performed by two coaches based on a concept for the use of humour and mindfulness in the nursing routine. Overall 31 staff members out of 37 participated. Representatives of all professions were included, 28 women, 3 men, 24 to 59 years old. Saliva samples demonstrated a small but not significant oxytocin increase from a mean of 1.52 pg/ml to 1.80 pg/ml after the intervention ( p .26). The mean p value of distress was reduced from 5.24 to 3.90 with an effect of p = .05 and bad mood was reduced from 11.19 to 9.43 ( p = .36), seriousness decreased from 15.06 to 12.26 ( p .01) and cheerfulness changed from 16.33 to 19.03 ( p = .02). Despite the small sample size, the reduction of distress and seriousness and the increase of cheerfulness was significant. The changes in Oxytocin and bad mood proved to not be significant. Feedback from participants confirmed the value of humour in palliative care.
... Humor and joking, and its role in the affective and cognitive domains, points to new considerations for purposeful pedagogy, experiential learning, and human-centered design in teaching and learning. A primary function of humor evidenced in the observational data is to provide a psychological buffer for processing negative information (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Coping humor can also establish relations of avoidance and emotional distancing within small group dynamics, creating the social space necessary for members to negotiate shifting roles and identities while demonstrating conceptual fluency (Fiss & Laura, 2019;Plester, 2009). ...
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In response to ongoing philosophical and pedagogical debates in university-based entrepreneurship education (EE) research, this study offers a cross-disciplinary perspective of how hospitality management students experience a high-stakes, experiential entrepreneurship project. We present vignettes of dialogues, experiences, and interactions among “student-manager” members of a small group engaged in developing and implementing a real-world, fine dining pop-up restaurant. By triangulating our analysis of classroom observation data, social network maps, and student artifacts, we chronicle four vignettes of how students experience learning during ideation, design, launch, and evaluation modules. Theory–practice gaps, coping humor in load–overload states, and complex affective–cognitive interactions emerge as salient elements of high-stakes experiential EE. We discuss implications for learners and educators and put forward recommendations to inform and improve the design of cross-disciplinary models of experiential EE.
... The outcome of humor is dependent on a number of factors such as the context of the humor and the intent of the person who is telling it (Gaut, 1998). After reviewing the literature on humor, Mesmer-Magnus et al. (2012) came up with four factors that make the definition of humor difficult: (1) "humor" and "sense of humor" are terms used interchangeably; (2) humor is diverse and multi-dimensional; (3) humor is quantified; and (4) humor has several styles, some positive and some negative. Romero and Cruthirds (2006, p. 59) defined humor as "amusing communications that produce positive emotions and cognitions in the individual, group, or organization." ...
... Given the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960), this interaction pattern can, over time, lead to a pattern of positive interactions. Though the social gaffe is awkward in the moment, it can eventually turn into a shared humorous episode that makes the employee seem relatable (Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). In this way, by adding to the repertoire of shared experiences that the employee and the colleague can draw on to laugh about, a social gaffe can lead to greater connection and trust between them, improving the quality of their exchange relationship (Dutton & Heaphy, 2003). ...
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In line with the research on how specific episodes affect relationships, we advance workplace social gaffes—work episodes where employees think either their own or others’ social behavior unintentionally violated interactional expectations and threatened the actor’s relational value—as an event that can shape employees’ workplace exchange relationships. Using a sensemaking lens, we explain when and why employees will believe they committed a social gaffe. In so doing, we advance a new definition of a social gaffe that outlines its necessary attributes. We then integrate sensemaking with the research on self-conscious emotions to theorize that on perceiving their social gaffe, employees can experience embarrassment, or guilt, or shame—based on how they make sense of the social gaffe. These emotions, in turn, are theorized to shape employees’ subsequent interpersonal response (repair vs. withdrawal). Moving onto colleagues’ reaction, we posit that whether or not colleagues view the initial employee action as a social gaffe will influence their reaction (benign vs. hostile) to employees’ interpersonal responses. Over time, this employee-colleague interaction pattern is theorized to influence the quality of their exchange relationship. We thus outline how even seemingly minor workplace social gaffes can have complex emotional, interpersonal, and relational consequences.
... Humor specifically describes situations creating laughter and amusement. Researchers in different areas Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012; argued that humor is related to positive affect but also functionally distinct. In summary, we formulated the following hypotheses: ...
Thesis
Organizational psychologists have long been interested in the daily dynamics within a workday (Basch & Fisher, 1998; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996). To explain these dynamics, they proposed that concise situations at work, so-called work events, add variety to the work routine and thus cause daily variability in affective reactions and organizational behavior. The role of work events in organizational behavior was discussed in two theories. The first theory, affective event theory (Weiss & Beal, 2005; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996), argued that work events get evaluated as positive or negative and that these affective events explain variability in emotions and organizational behavior. Affective events became particularly popular to explain daily changes in emotions and affective well-being at work (Basch & Fisher, 1998; Gross et al., 2011; Kuba & Scheibe, 2017; Ohly & Schmitt, 2015). The second theory, event system theory (Morgeson et al., 2015), proposed subjective event features that describe how strongly an event affects organizational behavior. Event strength dimensions now contribute to research in the broader field of organizational behavior and development (Beeler et al., 2017; Chen et al., 2021; Morgeson & Derue, 2006). Event affectivity and event strength dimensions were theoretically well embedded but measuring these dimensions simultaneously remained difficult. Personality psychologists, however, recently developed new taxonomies to describe general life situations using data-driven bottom-up approaches (Oreg et al., 2020; Parrigon et al., 2017; Rauthmann et al., 2014; Ziegler et al., 2019). Parrigon et al. (2017), for instance, applied the lexical approach (Allport & Odbert, 1936) and extracted adjectives from movie subtitles to describe situations. From these adjectives, they derived seven dimensions that capture the subjective experience of work events—Complexity, Adversity, Positive valence, Typicality, Importance, humOr, and Negative valence (short: CAPTION). In this dissertation, we introduced the newly developed CAPTION situation taxonomy as a measure for daily work event dimensions. Chapter 1 of this dissertation introduces the field of work event research and outlines the research objectives of this dissertation. After establishing the CAPTION taxonomy for work events, we showed that additional work event dimensions assessed in the CAPTION framework explain incremental validity in affective well-being outcomes beyond the traditional affective positive/negative event approach (e.g., Basch & Fisher, 1998; Ilies et al., 2011; Ohly & Schmitt, 2015). We then studied personality, objective event features, and the social context at work as potential antecedents of the subjective work event experiences. In Chapter 2, we adjusted the CAPTION framework for work events and showed that measuring work event dimensions next to event positivity and negativity adds to explaining affective well-being during and after work. We first theoretically aligned the affective dimensions rooting in the affective event theory (positivity, negativity) and the event strength dimensions proposed in the event system theory (disruption, criticality, novelty) with dimensions of the newly developed CAPTION situation framework. We then adopted the CAPTION taxonomy for work events and tested the seven-dimensional structure in work events at the person-, day-, and event-level. In Study 1, the seven-dimensional CAPTION framework explained incremental variability in affective reactions at the end of the workday beyond the traditional positive/negative event approach; in Study 2, the seven-dimensional CAPTION framework explained incremental validity in emotional reactions during the workday beyond the traditional positive/negative event approach. Based on these findings, we can encourage future research to apply the CAPTION framework to study work events and daily dynamics at work. Next, we were interested in potential antecedents of work event experiences. Researchers have argued that both, the person and the situation, independently contribute to behavioral reactions of people to a situation (Lewin, 1951). Drawing from this idea, we suggest that person features, as well as objective event features, also both contribute to subjective event experiences. In Chapter 3, we studied the role of personality in the experience of daily work events. We showed that personality traits, as well as personality strength, predict variability in subjective work event experiences. Building on traditional theories on personality traits (Allport, 1961; McCrae & Costa, 1991), we suggested that specific personality traits will explain variability in daily event experiences. We further drew from personality strength theory (Dalal et al., 2015) and tested whether personality strength (an additional trait that describes how variable a person is within their personality expression) additionally explains variability in daily event experiences. To that end, we introduced the item-response-based Trait-Variability-Tree-Model (TVTM; Lang et al., 2019) as a new statistical approach towards personality strength. Using the TVTM, we separated personality traits from personality strength in a one-shot personality survey. Trait neuroticism increased variability in work event experiences while trait conscientiousness decreased variability in daily event experiences. Personality strength explained variability in work event experiences beyond these traits so that strong personalities showed less variability in event experiences. These findings expand earlier theories on personality traits. First, personality traits explain variability in situation experiences and support personality strength theory. Second, personality strength decreases variability in situation experiences. In Chapter 4, we studied whether objective event features of work events and the higher-level work context explain work event experiences. The objective features of work events can be described as who did what, where, when, and why? (Johns, 2006). The social component (who?) has been suggested as the most relevant objective feature of situations (Reis et al., 2000). To test this idea, we compared employees’ social work events with their non-social work events and found that social events were experienced as more positive, more humorous, less adverse, and more complex than non-social events. Further, the social interaction partner was important for how work events were experienced. Especially events with leaders differed from other social events as they were more cognitively challenging (more important, more complex) and less humorous than other social work events. Event system theory suggests that higher-level events or contexts affect lower-level events (Morgeson et al., 2015). When the COVID-19 pandemic started, employees were strongly encouraged to work from home and to keep social distance. These regulations changed the social work context for employees towards a more isolated work environment. Transition theories (Bliese et al., 2017; Schlossberg, 1981) suggest that employees adjust to changes in their larger environment and then may change their experiences. Building on these transition theories, we suggested that employees will adjust to their new social work context and experience social versus non-social work events differently. To test this idea, we compared the experiences of social and non-social work events of a group of employees before the COVID-19 pandemic with work events of a group of employees during the pandemic. Indeed, non-social work events during the pandemic were experienced as less adverse, less negative, and more important than before the pandemic. In line with transition theories, these findings suggest that participants adjusted to an altered social context. The findings further support event system theory in that higher-level transition events affect event experiences at a lower level. Chapter 5 closes this dissertation by summarizing the results from the three empirical chapters and connecting their findings with the research objectives of the dissertation. This final chapter elaborates on the theoretical, methodological, and practical implications of this dissertation and discusses strengths, limitations, and future research direction resulting from this dissertation. The chapter closes with the main conclusions derived from this doctoral thesis.
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This study aimed to analyze the impact of a leader's humor style dimensions: affiliate humor style, self-enhancing humor styles, aggressive humor styles, and self-defeating humor style on creativity and work engagement. Data collected from 138 call centers from some of the Cell Phone Companies in Jakarta. The data collection technique used in this study is non-probability sampling with a purposive sampling method. The techniques used to analyze this research are instrumental tests such as validity, reliability, and hypothesis testing using Multiple Regressions with SPSS 25. The results of hypothesis testing in this investigation indicate that there is a positive effect of affiliate humor style on creativity and work engagement, a positive effect of self-enhancing humor style to creativity and a negative effect to work engagement, an adverse effect of aggressive humor style on creativity and work engagement, and a negative effect self-defeating humor style on creativity and work engagement. Managerial implications can be given so the leaders can use appropriate humor styles to increase employee's spirit in the workplace.
Article
Leaders often engage in costly, self-interested behaviors when they have the power and discretion to do so. Because followers are well-positioned to reduce these behaviors, I test how a specific follower communication—sarcasm expression—affects a particularly costly behavior: leader overpay. In three behavioral experiments and a field study (Ns = 240-526), I test the effect of follower sarcasm on leaders’ self-pay. I also test a moderator—leader moral identity—because leaders with low moral identity are more likely to overpay themselves and are more open to social norm violations (including follower sarcasm), as well as a mechanism—leader accountability—because I propose that follower sarcasm decreases leaders’ overpay by increasing leaders’ perceived accountability. As expected, follower sarcasm reduced leader overpay (vs. the control/no humor and vs. non-sarcastic humor), especially for leaders with weak moral identity. Study 3 replicated these results while showing explicit evidence of the accountability mechanism. Study 4 further supported these ideas with correlational data from real leaders recalling a more (vs. less) sarcastic follower, but only when the sarcasm was publicly (vs. privately) enacted. While talk is cheap, these results show that follower sarcasm can also be valuable, because it reduces leaders’ overpay by increasing accountability.
Book
Introduction: The research on humour is part of the research on positive psychology which was borne at the end of the 20th century. In the source literature, humour was treated in a multidimensional way as a feature of personality, temperament, a tendency to laugh and joke at other people and the ability to do so. With the development of positive psychology, the focus started to be on the functional character of humour and in particu�lar on its role in shaping the psychological well-being of the individual. According to the cognitive-transactional theory of stress, humour can be treated as a subjective resource for an individual to cope with difficult situations. Research in this field allows us to recognise humour as an ex�tremely important mechanism regulating the psychophysical balance of the individual. When the excessive stress in the teaching work begins to take on a chronic, repetitive character and results from the imbalance be�tween teachers’ resources and the requirements of their work environ�ment, they can lead to the development of burnout syndrome. Significant adverse changes caused by the burnout syndrome occur in all spheres of teacher functioning. Due to the loss of caring for another person and ex�cessive distancing to his problems, professional burnout “impresses” on the quality of the teacher’s relationship with pupils, pupils’ parents, col�leagues, co-workers, and superiors. Determines the family life of teach�ers, causes more frequent conflicts. The aim of the study: The main purpose of the presented dissertation was to determine the relationship between humour, expressed in humour styles and coping humour and the intensity of professional burnout of teachers, taking into account the role of intermediary variables of so�cio-demographic and work-related nature. Method: The study group consisted of 536 teachers: 425 women (79%) and 111 men (21%) aged from 21 to 71 years old (M=43,04; SD=9,02), working in various types of schools: kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, basic vocational school, technical school and gen�eral high school. The teachers participated in the questionnaire study, which used: a personal questionnaire, Perceived Stress at Work Scale (PSS-10-P) by Sheldon Cohen, Tom Kamarck and Robin Mermelstein in the Polish adaptation of Siegfried Juczyński and Nina Ogińska-Bulik in a modified version of Agnieszka Kruczek and Małgorzata A Basińska, Coping Humour Scale (CHS) by Rod A. Martin and Herbert Lefcourt in the Polish adaptation of Kruczek and Basińska, Humor Style Question�naire (HSQ) by Rod Martin, Patricia Puhlik-Doris, Gwen Larsen, Jeanette Gray and Kelly Weir in the Polish adaptation of ElżbietaHornowska and Jolanta Charytonik and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ) by Massimo Santinello in the Polish adaptation of Aleksandra Jaworowska. Results: The surveyed teachers most often presented the affiliative hu�mour style and self-enhancing humour style. They experienced inten�sified dimensions of occupational burnout (psychophysical exhaustion, deterioration of relations with clients, job ineffectiveness, disappoint�ment) at an average level. Same as perceived stress at work. In the group of teachers there were associations between humour (expressed in hu�mour styles and coping humour) and intensification of professional burn�out: teachers who used positive humour styles more often (affiliative hu�mour style and self-enhancing humour style) were accompanied by less psychophysical exhaustion, less job ineffectiveness; in the case of using affiliative humour also lower deterioration of relations with pupil and their parents. In turn, teachers who used negative humour styles more often (aggressive and self-defeating humour styles) were accompanied by a greater deterioration of relations with pupil and their parents and greater disappointment with their professional work; when aggressive humour were used, also greater psychophysical exhaustion and a greater job ineffectiveness. In-depth analysis allowed to distinguish three types of use of humour by teachers: adaptive positive (teachers functioning in this type more often showed positive – adaptive humour styles and less frequently negative – non-adaptive humour styles) (teachers function�ing according to this type revealed the highest level of negative humour styles, aggressive and masochistic), adaptive negative (teachers of this type used with smaller (negative styles of humour) or average intensity (negative styles of humour) different styles of humour and coping with humour at the highest sense of stress at work. Teachers representing different types of humour use differed in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, work-related variables and Conclusions: In the light of the obtained research results, which were con�ducted among teachers, humour appears to be a very valuable personal resource, having a positive effect on reducing the severity of burnout. The surveyed teachers used diverse humour styles, also dealing with dif�ferent levels of humour. Hence, it was possible to distinguish three types of use of humour in the face of stress at work by teachers. Obtained re�sults of own research allow to indicate practical implications. The use of humour seems to be valuable in the prophylaxis of professional burnout as a strategy to deal with stress more effectively. Cognitive-behaviour�al interventions focused on shaping a humorous perspective seem to be particularly helpful. These include, for example, the conversion of neg�ative thoughts into positive and humorous thoughts; shaping the help word in dealing with humorous content (i.e. “I’m going to focus on the hu�morous aspect of this event”); as part of the ways of dealing with a stress�ful situation, choice of means containing humorous aspect – watching cabaret performances, comedy, reading jokes. Raising people’s aware�ness of the role of humour in coping with stress can also be important. Key words: coping humour, humour styles, professional burnout, teachers
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Background and Objective: Nursing is one of the most stressful occupations and one of the common stress-induced syndromes among nurses is low resilient. Raising resilience is one of the effective factors in dealing with tensions. This study was done to determine the relationship between optimism and humor with resilience in female nurses.
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Humor a munkában: valóban oximoron? John Morreall filozófus nevéhez kapcsolódik az a megállapítás, miszerint a munkahelyi humor oximoronnak számít ("humor in work is an oxymoron", 1991: 359). Valóban nem lehet, nem érdemes professzionális szituációkban élni a humor lehetőségével? Nem lesz meglepetés, hogy az itt összegzett empirikus kutatások mind arra utalnak, hogy a jól alkalmazott humor a munkában is hasznos, előremutató, hatékonyságnövelő lehet. E tanulmány azt a kérdéskört járja körül a desktopkutatás módszertanával, hogy a jelenleg érvényes menedzsment-szakirodalom mit állít, esetleg mit tanácsol a humor munkahelyi szituációkban történő használatáról, a humor hogyan járul hozzá az egészséges munka-helyi légkör, továbbá a dolgozói elégedettség megteremtéséhez és megtartásához, külön kitérve az ajánlott és a kerülendő humorstílusokra. Öt szempont szerint összegzem a vonatkozó tanulmányokat: 1. hogyan hat a (vezetői) humor a munkahelyi teljesítményre és a munkahelyi légkörre, hangulatra; 2. miképpen befolyásolja a vezető humorhaszná-lata a státuszát (ezen belül kiemelten a női vezetőkét); 3. hogyan járul hozzá a vezetői kontrollhoz a humor; 4. létezik-e nem jó humor; 5. zárásképpen pedig azt vizsgálom, milyen szerepet tölt be a humor a szervezeti kommunikációban.
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When employees believe that organizational authorities are engaged in unfair information provision, it might evoke some negative behavioural responses, like diminished creativity. But when and why are such responses more likely? To answer these questions, the current study investigates the mediating role of job dissatisfaction in the relationship between unfair organizational information provision and creative behaviour, as well as the moderating roles of employees' own adaptive humour and proactivity. Survey data, collected from employees who operate in the oil and gas sector, reveal that employees' convictions that organizational leaders are not open in their communication can prompt them to avoid creative work activities, because these employees become unhappy with their jobs. This mediating role of job dissatisfaction is less salient if they have a good sense of humour and like to take initiative though. Organizations therefore should take these findings as a relevant caution: Lack of excitement about their jobs, as informed by organizational information deficiencies, can make employees complacent. To address this potentially negative outcome, organizations might help employees leverage their own valuable personal resources.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti hubungan antara selera humor dengan stres kerja pada pegawai. Pendekatan penelitian yang digunakan adalah pendekatan kuantitatif dengan jenis penelitian korelasional. Subjek yang terlibat dalam penelitian ini adalah 41 pegawai PT. NN Yogyakarta. Instrumen data berupa skala humor dan skala stres kerja. Skala sense of humor terdiri dari 22 item dengan reliabilitas sebesear 0,858 dan skala stres kerja terdiri dari 21 item dengan reliabilitas sebesar 0,916. Berdasarkan hasil analisis data menggunakan Pearson Product Moment menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan antara selera humordengan stres kerja pada pegawai PT. NN dengan nilai yang sebesar -0,535 dan signifikansi p <0,05 yang berarti semakin tinggi selera humor maka semakin rendah stres kerja, begitu juga sebaliknya.
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Despite the ubiquitous observance of humor at workplace, there is paucity of scholarly attention in terms of the manner in which it affects the behaviour of employees. This study aims to explore the relationship between sense of humor and work efficiency by utilizing the benign violation theory (BVT) to posit that elaborative social information is attributed to in the humor of superiors across organizations. Additionally, the social information processing (SIP) theory was applied for forming the hypotheses. Despite the fact that superiors’ humor is suggested to have a positive correlation with superior-subordinate interchange and as a consequence, work efficiency, it could also point at the norm violation’s tolerability in a workplace environment. These insights, in turn, have a positive correlation with the deviance of subordinates. Furthermore, these indirect impacts are suggested to have been mediated by the violent humor of superiors. Data was sourced from three-wave field that were conducted in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The findings suggest that the humor can evince unexpected negative behavioral patterns.
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Humour is a human being-inherent activity that occurs in all kinds of social activities and interactions. However, while leader humour is widely considered to be beneficial, the role of employee humour in humour interactions in the workplace is largely neglected in the literature. Accordingly, the present study examines the effect of congruence in the humour behaviour of leaders and employees on employees’ psychological and behavioural reactions. The complex effects of humour interactions on employee creativity are empirically examined within the context of the broaden and build theory. In particular, the study clarifies the mechanism by which humour benefits employees by proposing that the experienced positive events arising from congruence in the leader-follower humour behaviour enhance the employee PsyCap building process and hence increase employee creativity. Data collection is performed through a three-wave survey of 220 leader-follower dyads in Taiwan. The results confirm the proposed hypotheses. Notably, support is found for the indirect effect of congruence in the leader and employee humour behaviour on employee creativity via employee PsyCap. The present results have important implications for both theory and practitioners.
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This empirical research investigates the discrepancy between the environmental attitudes and actual impact of pro‐environmental behaviors. Survey results of 280 undergraduate students, from a large public university in the United States, show that there is a knowledge gap between the perceived environmental impact and actual impact on high‐impact and low‐impact pro‐environmental behaviors. However, this discrepancy between the perceived and actual impact tends to be smaller in other resource‐related perceptions (i.e., perceived difficulty, effort, and time and money). Some demographic and socioeconomic factors (i.e., gender, income, household size, and ethnicity) show significant effects on the individuals' attitudes toward environmental actions.
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Why are some new venture teams (NVTs), but not others, able to effectively cope with the demands of environmental uncertainty? Addressing this question from an intrateam dynamics perspective, we draw from the transactional theory of stress to delineate when NVTs’ use of shared coping humor and level of entrepreneurial team-efficacy might conditionally influence the relationship of perceived environmental uncertainty with new venture performance. Results from a national (USA) sample of startups found shared coping humor to positively moderate the relationship of environmental uncertainty with firm performance. Moreover, this moderated relationship was enhanced when entrepreneurial team-efficacy was high.
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This paper theoretically explored the concept of managerial humor in relation to the dangers and gains it brings into the organization as managers strive to manage the 21st century workforce toward sustainable organizational performance. In the cause of extant literature review, four managerial humorous behavior i.e. affliative, self-enhancement, aggressive and self-defeating were adopted as the most reliable indicators of humor practices in modern business management. Consequently, our findings revealed that managerial humorous behavior at the workplace is a phenomenon characterized by mixed effect. This is to say that each humorous disposition put up by managers leave the organization with a given consequence, which may be positive (gains) or negative (dangers) in nature. The study further discovered that managerial humor such as affiliative and self-enhancement is positive and beneficial to the organization through improved leader-member relations, while humorous behavior such as aggressive and self-defeating are negative and detrimental to group cohesiveness due to its demeaning and abusive character. Thus, we conclude that irrespective of the obvious dark side of managerial humor, when managers effectively adopt and apply the right humor in the right context, it create a platform for improved employee well-being and other organizational outcomes such engagement and commitment. Thus, we recommend as follows: i) that manager should always make use of positive humor as a means of communicating information that may be considered offensive to the employees. ii) that managers in order to keep their interpersonal relationships with followers on track should try as much as possible to avoid the use of negative humorous jokes.
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In this systematic review, we sought to understand the effects of laughter-inducing interventions on blood pressure and heart rate variability. For this purpose, we identified 32 relevant records through database searching. The results suggest that laughter is associated with a decrease in blood pressure in pre-post measurements. However, this association varies according to the type of intervention delivered and the characteristics of participants. In controlled between-groups comparisons, the effect of laughter-inducing interventions on blood pressure was found to be non-significant, which can be due to the small number of studies available and its high level of heterogeneity. In studies involving heart rate variability, the most consistent findings point to an association between laughter and decreases in both frequency (LF/HF) and time-domain (SDNN) indicators. Longitudinal studies suggest that laughter frequency is associated with improved cardiovascular health. Several studies presented sub-optimal levels of quality, and more research is necessary to examine the impact of individual and intervention-related factors in the effectiveness of laughter-inducing interventions in cardiovascular health.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel lernen Sie verschiedene Methoden zur Stressbewältigung kennen. Nicht jede Methode ist für jede Situation oder für jeden Menschen in gleicher Weise geeignet. Man kann die Methoden ordnen von eher einfach lernbaren Methoden wie Ablenkung bis hin zu so umfassenden Ansätzen wie einer Umstellung des gesamten Lebensstils. Im Idealfall beherrscht man viele unterschiedliche Methoden zur Stressbewältigung, weil es so wahrscheinlicher wird, in einer konkreten Situation eine hilfreiche Methode zur Hand zu haben. Je wirksamer eine Methode ist, desto mehr Zeit und Energie muss man in der Regel investieren, um sie zu lernen oder umzusetzen. So sind beispielsweise eine Einstellungsänderung oder die Umstellung des Lebensstils in vielen Fällen sehr wirksam, können aber nicht so einfach umgesetzt werden wie beispielsweise eine gezielte Ablenkung. Man kann die Methoden der Stressbewältigung nach verschiedenen Kriterien einteilen, beispielsweise in problemfokussierte oder emotionsfokussierte Methoden oder wie nachfolgend sortiert von kurzfristiger bis langfristiger Wirkung.
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Chapter
This article explores different challenges and opportunities of using humour and playfulness in online marketing. Humour has been investigated intensively in marketing, especially in advertising, yet there is little knowledge of the challenges and opportunities in online marketing faced by practitioners. This study analyses key studies conducted in the context of a unique case: a Finnish research project exploring humour as a strategic tool for companies. These studies can provide emerging insights of humour in online marketing which are relevant for practitioners: humour as a transformational appeal, individual differences related to humour appreciation, role of storytelling and playfulness in blogging and challenges related to use of humour such as credibility.
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We conducted a longitudinal (3-month) qualitative study to examine elite military personnel's (N = 32) experiences and perspectives of team resilience emergence following two team-oriented training courses within an 18-month high-stakes training program where personnel are required to operate in newly formed tactical teams for extended periods. Our thematically informed interpretations of the participants’ subjective experiences of reality were constructed according to five key themes: (i) adversity is an enduring, shared experience of an event; (ii) individuals recognise adversity through physiological and/or behavioural states; (iii) self-regulatory skills underpin individual performance, yet social resources bind them together to set the foundation for team resilience; (iv) shared experiences of adversity and collective structures strengthen social bonds and mental models needed for resilience emergence; and (v) behavioural processes and shared states are how individual and team capacities are translated into performance under adversity. These findings provide novel insights that supplement our current understanding of team resilience emergence, including the varying means by which adversity may be collectively experienced, synergies between specific forms of adversity and resilience processes or protective factors, and the unique influence of performance context (e.g., task type). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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In this article we examine the meaning of team process. We first define team process in the context of a multiphase episodic framework related to goal accomplishment, arguing that teams are multitasking units that perform multiple processes simultaneously and sequentially to orchestrate goal-directed taskwork. We then advance a taxonomy of team process dimensions synthesized from previous research and theorizing, a taxonomy that reflects our time-based conceptual framework. We conclude with implications for future research and application.
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The purpose of this study was to provide a longitudinal prospective test of the hypothesis that a greater sense of humor would predict better physical health and workplace well-being over a three-year period, using a variety of physiological and other indicators of health. Data were obtained from 34 Finnish police chiefs in both 1995 and 1998, including self-report and peer ratings of sense of humor; measures of blood pressure, cholesterol levels, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and smoking; and self-report measures of work capacity, burnout, stress, and workplace satisfaction. Primary analyses provided no evidence in support of the humor-health hypothesis, as sense of humor scores obtained in 1995 failed to predict any of the 1998 levels of physical health and workplace well-being. Further analyses, including data on an additional sample of 53 Finnish police constables, revealed some associations that were contrary to the humor-health hypothesis (e.g., higher scores on some aspects of sense of humor were associated with greater body mass, increased smoking, and greater risk of cardiovascular disease). These findings are discussed in terms of the continued popularity of the humor-health hypothesis, despite the lack of substantial empirical support, and the need for more sophisticated conceptualizations of humor in future research.
Book
This volume brings together the current approaches to the definition and measurement of the sense of humor and its components. It provides both an overview of historic approaches and a compendium of current humor inventories and humor traits that have been studied. Presenting the only available overview and analysis of this significant facet of human behavior, this volume will interest researchers from the fields of humor and personality studies as well as those interested in the clinical or abstract implications of the subject. © 1998 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co., D-10785 Berlin. All rights reserved.
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All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.
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The field of organizational justice continues to be marked by several important research questions, including the size of relationships among justice dimensions, the relative importance of different justice criteria, and the unique effects of justice dimensions on key outcomes. To address such questions, the authors conducted a meta-analytic review of 183 justice studies. The results suggest that although different justice dimensions are moderately to highly related, they contribute incremental variance explained in fairness perceptions. The results also illustrate the overall and unique relationships among distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice and several organizational outcomes (e.g., job satisfaction, organizational commitment, evaluation of authority, organizational citizenship behavior, withdrawal, performance). These findings are reviewed in terms of their implications for future research on organizational justice.
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Humor has been suggested as an effecive management tool. Reviewed in this paper is the existing research on humor appreciation or what is funny to whom; the influence of humor on group characteristics such as cohesiveness, communications, power, and status; and the linkage, if any, between group dynamic variables and human performance. A list of guidelines for management in matching humor with the situation is given, and some priorities are suggested for research.
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This study examined 359 business school graduates' self-reported sense of humor, the use of humor at work, and perceptions of their supervisors' use of humor. Regression analyses indicated subordinates' reported use of positive (unoffensive) humor was best predicted by Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale scores, while reported use of negative (sexual and insult) humor was best predicted by their supervisors' use of negative humor. Negative humor may stimulate responses-in-kind more than does positive humor. Alternatively, respondents may have exhibited self-serving bias, blaming others for their use of negative humor but crediting themselves for use of positive humor. The results suggest supervisors' use of humor is associated with subordinates' use of humor and with various attitudes toward the work setting.
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This study extends previous work reviewing the cohesion-performance relationship by using meta-analytic techniques to assess the effects of level of analysis and task interdependence on the cohesion-performance relationship. A totel of 51 effect sizes from 46 empirical studies were obtained for the meta-analytic integration. Results suggest that level of analysis and task interdependence moderate the cohesion-performance relationship. Implications of the findings for future research on group cohesion and performance are discussed.
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Investigated the functional relations among cognitive appraisal and coping processes and their short-term outcomes within stressful encounters. The authors used an intraindividual analysis of the interrelations among primary appraisal (what was at stake in the encounter), secondary appraisal (coping options), 8 forms of problem- and emotion-focused coping, and encounter outcomes in a sample of 85 married couples (females aged 35–45 yrs and males aged 26–54 yrs). Findings show that coping was strongly related to cognitive appraisal; the forms of coping that were used varied depending on what was at stake and the options for coping. Coping was also differentially related to satisfactory and unsatisfactory encounter outcomes. Findings clarify the functional relations among appraisal and coping variables and the outcomes of stressful encounters. (47 ref)
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Three benefits of humor in the workplace are explored: its promotion of health, mental flexibility, and smooth social relations.
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In this study, we examined the links between leadership style, the use of humor, and two measures of performance. Results indicated that leadership style was moderated by the use of humor in its relationship with individual and unit-level performance. Implications for further research on the use of humor by leaders are discussed.
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Humor is a common element of human interaction and therefore has an impact on work groups and organizations. Despite this observation, managers often fail to take humor seriously or realize its numerous benefits. Humor is more than just funny concepts; it represents a multifunctional management tool that can be used to achieve many objectives. This article describes how managers can use humor to reduce stress and enhance leadership, group cohesiveness, communication, creativity, and organizational culture. Specifically, we suggest humor styles that are best suited to realize these outcomes. Additionally, the effect of humor on organizational outcomes is moderated by individual differences such as ethnicity and gender. Much like selecting the proper tool from a tootkit, managers can select the appropriate humor style suitable for the desired organizational outcome, adjust for individual differences, and achieve positive organizational outcomes.
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Previous research on ingratiation in organizations has identified various categories of ingratiatory behaviors. However, these studies have failed to mention or investigate the ingratiatory power of humor. I integrate past research on ingratiation with research on humor in organizations to propose humor as a type of ingratiatory behavior in the workplace. I describe how humor affects targets, including determinants of humor's effectiveness as an ingratiation strategy, and various outcomes of humor as an ingratiation tactic.
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Scores on a multidimensional scale of humor and a nonverbal indicator of creative ability for 86 adults indicate a significant positive association of creativity and a sense of humor. Adults who were classified as low on creativity scored significantly lower on the humor scale than adults classified as high on creativity. This result is congruent with previous research indicating a relationship between the two constructs.
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This article examines employee dissatisfaction and the resultant decreased organizational effectiveness caused by role conflict in multiple authority organizations where an employee is subject to conflicting loyalties and directives. Possible remedies to the problem are examined.
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Humor has been suggested as an effecive management tool. Reviewed in this paper is the existing research on humor appreciation or what is funny to whom; the influence of humor on group characteristics such as cohesiveness, communications, power, and status; and the linkage, if any, between group dynamic variables and human performance. A list of guidelines for management in matching humor with the situation is given, and some priorities are suggested for research.
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In a dyadic bargaining paradigm, at a predetermined point in the negotiation, subjects received an influence attempt from a confederate that varied in size and was administered in either a humorous or a nonhumorous way. Results support the major hypothesis that humor results in an increased financial concession. The use of humor led to a more positive evaluation of the task and marginally lessened self-reported tension, but did not increase liking for the partner. Consistent with past research using social tasks, females laughed and smiled more than males.
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Many have acknowledged the favorable, even therapeutic, effects of humor. However, few have attempted to relate humor to the functions of management and leadership. Research on this topic could possibly convert an undeveloped resource into a tool that could enhance our ability to get things done.
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A series of studies has shown that humor and intimacy are closely related. Since trust is an essential part of intimacy, it was hypothesized that there would be a close correlation between humor and trust. The Trust versus Mistrust Scale of the Measures of Psychosocial Development, Coping Humor Scale, Multi-dimensional Sense of Humor Scale, and Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were given to 89 subjects. There were significant correlations between the Trust versus Mistrust Scale and each of the humor scales. The positive relationship between trust and humor was explained in terms of such mediating variables as extroversion, stress reduction, and self-esteem. It was suggested that future studies should investigate the relationship between humor and other variables associated with intimacy and trust, such as self-disclosure.
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The revision of Feingold's Humor Perceptiveness Test and its construct validation are reported. The revision quantifies two components of humor comprehension, memory for jokes and humor-reasoning ability. The test items are in the form of joke completions (e.g., “Take my wife——–!”). Reliability coefficients (split-half, Kuder-Richardson, alternate form) of the test were .84 to .93. The Humor Perceptiveness Test-Revised was related to humor appreciation (interest in comedy movies) and to scores on a short form WAIS, the correlates varying as a function of intelligence. Scores on the humor measure correlated only with intelligence for a subsample of dull subjects but with both intelligence and humor appreciation for brighter examinees. The revised Humor Perceptiveness Test may be of use to researchers.
Data
Due to the shortcomings in understanding humor, a state-trait model of cheerfulness, seriousness and bad mood was introduced to describe the temperamental basis of the sense of humor [1-4]. This chapter sketches the development and characteristics of the postulated state-trait model and presents its relationship to different models of the sense of humor. Literature will be reviewed that shows that trait cheerfulness accounts for most variation in existing self-report assessment tools of the sense of humor. Further, the relation of trait cheerfulness to health and well-being related variables (e.g., flourishing [5]; coping [6] and life satisfaction, [7]) will be discussed. Attention is given to experimental and correlational evidence, which shows that trait cheerfulness is positively related to adaptive coping mechanisms, positive experience and well-being. This is particularly interesting for cheerfulness interventions to fostering well-being and overcoming adversities. Finally, implications for the study of positive traits and respective interventions will be discussed.
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After summarizing the literature on the various models for the role of social support in the process of work stress, two studies are reported. In the first study, correlations between (1) social support and workplace stressors and (2) between social support and strains as well as (3) incrementalR2s across 68 studies, when the interaction term of stressors and support was added to the regression of strain on stressors and support, were meta-analytically cumulated. Potential moderators of these relationships were weak, suggesting the presence of three general constructs of stressors, strains, and social support. In the second study, the various models for the role of social support in the process of workplace stress were tested for the general constructs identified in the first study. Results indicated that social support had a threefold effect on work stressor–strain relations. Social support reduced the strains experienced, social support mitigated perceived stressors, and social support moderated the stressor–strain relationship. Evidence for mediational and suppressor effects of social support on the process of work stress was weak. In addition, the argument that social support is mobilized when stressors are encountered was not consistent with the available empirical evidence. A similar lack of support was found for the arguments that support is mobilized when strains are encountered and that support is provided when individuals are afflicted with strains.
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This investigation sought to understand the impact of sense of humor on relationship development. High and low sense of humor subjects were paired with moderate sense of humor partners and were instructed to interact for 30 minutes. A post‐interaction questionnaire tapped attributional confidence and the desire to interact in the future. Results indicated that a high, rather than a low, sense of humor facilitated the reduction of uncertainty and also served to reduce social distance between interactants. These findings provide support for the facilitative nature of humor in the development of interpersonal relations. Indeed, sense of humor is an engaging personality trait that has direct implications for social relationships.
Article
Abstract This study explored relationships between sense of humor, stress, and coping strategies. Undergraduate,students (N=258) from,introductory psychology courses completed a perceived stress scale, an everyday problems scale, a state anxiety inventory, a sense of humor scale, and a scale assessing their preferred coping strategies. High and low sense of humor,groups were determined,by selecting participants with self-reported sense of humor,at one standard deviation above and below the overall mean,on the sense of humor,scale. The high sense of humor,group,appraised,less stress and reported less current anxiety than a low sense of humor,group,despite experiencing a similar number,of everyday,problems,in the previous two months. The high humor,group was more likely to use positive reappraisal and problem-solving coping strategies than the low humor,group. A weaker relationship existed between,appraisal of stress and number,of problems in the low humor,group because this group perceived greater stress at low and average,number,of everyday,problems,than the high humor,group. The results were discussed as supporting the role of humor,in restructuring a situation so it is less stressful, and the relationship of humor to both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. Numerous,studies have supported,the anecdotal,view that humor,and
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Every interacting social group develops, over time, a joking culture: a set of humorous references that are known to members of the group to which members can refer and that serve as the basis of further interaction. Joking, thus, has a historical, retrospective, and reflexive character. We argue that group joking is embedded, interactive, and referential, and these features give it power within the group context. Elements of the joking culture serve to smooth group interaction, share affiliation, separate the group from out-siders, and secure the compliance of group members through social control. To demonstrate these processes we rely upon two detailed ethnographic examples of continuing joking: one from mushroom collectors and the second from professional meteorologists.
Article
An often-expressed adage is that a greater sense of humor contributes to better physical health. Despite the popularity of this notion, however, the empirical support for this proposal is not very strong. Accordingly, the present study explored potential reasons for the continuing popularity of this viewpoint by suggesting a fundamental distinction between actual and perceived physical health. In particular, we proposed that a greater sense of humor may sometimes contribute to more positive perceptions of physical health than may actually be warranted. Aspects of this proposal were examined by having 132 undergraduates complete a questionnaire booklet assessing four components of sense of humor, as well as a broad range of physical health concepts pertaining to fear of death and disease, bodily focus, worry and concern about illness, frequency of treatment, decisions to seek treatment, and physical symptoms experienced. Coupled with past research findings, our results provided some support for our proposal, as higher levels on certain sense of humor components were associated with more positive health-related perceptions, such as less fear of death or serious disease, less negative bodily preoccupation, and less concern about pain. It was not the case, however, that those with greater humor displayed different health habits than those with less humor. These findings are then discussed in terms of the need to incorporate contemporary multidimensional models of sense of humor when studying the proposed linkages between humor and various physical health issues. Directions for future work employing different research paradigms and additional personality measures were also considered.
Article
We examined the relationship between leader effectiveness mid humor in two cadet samples at the United States Military Academy. In both groups, subordinates were asked to recall particularly good or bad leaders and then rate them on leadership and humor. In study 1, using Craik, Lampert, and Nelson's (1996) measure of styles of humorous conduct, warm humorous conduct was higher in good leaders than in bad leaders, even after controlling statistically for rated leadership. In study 2, participants rated other attributes such as physical ability, intelligence, and consideration, as well as humor and leadership. Again, we found that good leaders were rated higher in humor, even after controlling statistically for other attributes. Organisational culture, in the military and elsewhere, supports the use of humor by leaders in appropriate ways. Although a study that included average leaders, instead of very good or bad leaders, might not show such strong effects, further research into the context for appropriate use of humor by leaders is certainly indicated.
Article
Recent studies report that women lack humor when communicating in professional activities. The purpose of this study is to investigate female differences in creation of humor relating to work. We estimate the effects of personality traits: Extroversion, sensitivity, masculinity and feminity dominance. We also estimate the effects of dominance on male occupations, which in turn effects the creation of humor. Using path analysis, the results show direct and positive effect of dominance and male occupation on creation of humor. Male occupation is affected by dominance, extroversion and masculinity. Finally it is found that dominance is mainly affected by masculinity. The findings suggest that women who score high on dominance, extroversion and masculinity tend to choose male professions which in turn effects creation of humor.
Article
Using a mail-out questionnaire, this study investigated the association between humor and the three dimensions of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment). For the sample of 192 nursing faculty living in northern Texas, humor was used as a coping strategy in stressful situations. Tenure status showed a strong association to increase humor usage. Differences between high versus low users of humor were compared. High users of humor reported lower emotional exhaustion and depersonalization with a high sense of personal accomplishment as compared to low users of humor. The association between humor and the dimensions of burnout showed a positive correlation between humor and personal accomplishment, a negative correlation was observed between humor and depersonalization. These results suggest that when humor is used as a coping mechanism there is a reduction in depersonalization and an increased sense of personal accomplishment.