Article

Revisiting the smiling service worker and customer satisfaction

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine if the service worker's display of smiles in the service encounter has an effect on customer satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach – An experimental design was used in which participants (N=220) were randomly allocated to one of four service encounters. Two variables were manipulated; the service worker with whom the participant interacted had either a neutral facial expression or a smiling facial expression, and the service worker was either male or female. Findings – The smiling service worker produced a higher level of customer satisfaction than the neutral service worker, regardless of the sex of the service worker (and the sex of the participant). In addition, the results indicate that this outcome involved both emotional contagion and affect infusion. Originality/value – This paper extends the service literature's discourse on the impact of the service worker's smile behavior on customer satisfaction by including intermediate variables such as appraisals, emotions, and the attitude toward the service worker.

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... But it is generally agreed upon that managing employees' responses of smiles and regulated emotions is a knotty issue, and requires attention from management (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). Past researchers have found that an organisational image offers a competitive clout in attracting and retaining customers (Ahearne et al., 2005); but little has been done to see its impact on internal customers or employees (Mishra et al., 2012). ...
... Past studies have shown mixed results for OI mediation in the relationships of PEP and employee outcomes (Fuller et al., 2006;Mishra et al., 2012Mishra et al., , 2013; thus demanding further investigation of the mechanism. Considering this backdrop, this study assumes that the mediation mechanism of PEP and outcomes (through OI) may be influenced by some other factors; e.g., support from management (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). Organisational support (also called perceived organisational support, henceforth POS) is employees' perception that takes care for their well-being and also values their contribution. ...
... Such inauthentic emotions are also noticed to create problems for customers, by increasing ambiguity for service offering (Barsade, 2002;Bartel and Saavedra, 2000), thus increasing poor perceptions of service quality (Russ-Eft, 2004). Soderlund and Rosengren (2008) also valued the expression that employees have while interacting with their customers and noticed that customers appraise emotions of service employees and respond accordingly. But it is not only the customer that is influenced, employees are also affected by their surface acting. ...
... But it is generally agreed upon that managing employees' responses of smiles and regulated emotions is a knotty issue, and requires attention from management (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). Past researchers have found that an organisational image offers a competitive clout in attracting and retaining customers (Ahearne et al., 2005); but little has been done to see its impact on internal customers or employees (Mishra et al., 2012). ...
... Past studies have shown mixed results for OI mediation in the relationships of PEP and employee outcomes (Fuller et al., 2006;Mishra et al., 2012Mishra et al., , 2013; thus demanding further investigation of the mechanism. Considering this backdrop, this study assumes that the mediation mechanism of PEP and outcomes (through OI) may be influenced by some other factors; e.g., support from management (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). Organisational support (also called perceived organisational support, henceforth POS) is employees' perception that takes care for their well-being and also values their contribution. ...
... Such inauthentic emotions are also noticed to create problems for customers, by increasing ambiguity for service offering (Barsade, 2002;Bartel and Saavedra, 2000), thus increasing poor perceptions of service quality (Russ-Eft, 2004). Soderlund and Rosengren (2008) also valued the expression that employees have while interacting with their customers and noticed that customers appraise emotions of service employees and respond accordingly. But it is not only the customer that is influenced, employees are also affected by their surface acting. ...
Article
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Purpose: With the shift from manufacturing to services economies, the need of customer management has increased. The shift has also increased the role of front line employees in managing their emotions, as they may directly influence customers’ responses towards organisations’ products and services. Based on this premise, this study values emotional labour and role of external prestige in predicting it. Furthermore, it also entails the investigation of organisational identification as mediator and perceived organisational support as moderator. Methodology/Design: This study is aimed at investigating the emotional labour and its explanatory mechanism, data was collected from 314 services employees through structured questionnaire. Sample was selected based on both random and referral sampling techniques, through questionnaire. Findings: Results empirically prove that external prestige of organisation influences employees’ emotional responses, while organisational identification partially mediates the relation. And, perceptions of organisational support, influences the strength of relation between external prestige and organisational identification.
... Emotional contagion between customers and service employees can influence customer satisfaction during employeecustomer interactions (Barger and Grandey 2006;Pugh 2001;Tsai and Huang 2002). Research pertaining to both service marketing (e.g., Delcourt et al. 2016;Hennig-Thurau et al. 2006;Söderlund and Rosengren 2008) and emotions at work (e.g., Barger and Grandey 2006;Tsai 2001) attests to this influential role of emotions in service encounters. A central theoretical explanation relies on "emotional contagion" Rapson 1993, 1994), which suggests that customers can "catch" service employees' emotions, which in turn influence customers' service evaluations. ...
... Barger and Grandey (2006) find that employee smiling during service provision relates positively to customers' during-service smiling, which predicts customers' positive postservice moods. Positive links also emerge between employees' positive emotional expressions and customers' positive emotions (e.g., Pugh 2001;Söderlund and Rosengren 2008;Tsai and Huang 2002). Evidence of contagion of negative emotions is more limited, but Du, Fan, and Feng (2011) find that service employees' negative emotional expressions lead to negative customer emotions. ...
... Thus, we expect a positive relationship between customer postservice emotions and customer satisfaction. Prior service research indicates that customers' positive emotional experiences relate positively to customers' satisfaction with services (e.g., Hennig-Thurau et al. 2006;Söderlund and Rosengren 2008). Because customer postservice emotions are directly influenced by employees' during-service emotions, we contend that the influence of customer emotions on customer satisfaction can be traced back to employees' during-service emotions, and this impact occurs through the mediating role of customer postservice emotions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Service organizations encourage employees to express positive emotions in service encounters, in the hope that customers “catch” these emotions and react positively. Yet customer and employee emotions could be mutually influential. To understand emotional exchanges in service encounters and their influences on customer outcomes, the current study models the interplay of emotional contagion and emotional labor, as well as their influence on customer satisfaction. Employees might catch customers’ emotions and transmit those emotions back to customers through emotional contagion, and employee emotional labor likely influences this cycle by modifying the extent to which emotional contagion occurs. Data from 268 customer-employee dyads, gathered from a large chain of foot massage parlors, confirm the existence of an emotion cycle. Deep acting, as one type of emotional labor used by employees, hinders the transmission of negative emotions to customers, whereas surface acting facilitates it. Both customer emotions and employee emotional labor thus have critical influences on service encounters. The findings highlight the importance of understanding the potential influence of customer preservice emotions and the presence of an emotion cycle during service delivery.
... They convey meanings such as happiness (Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008), friendliness (Gabriel et al., 2013), sociability (Mehu et al., 2007), positive intent (Abe et al., 2002) as well as positive emotionality in general (Harker & Keltner, 2001). These meanings of smiles lead to attraction in social interactions (Lau, 1982). ...
... The employee held menus in her hand and looked at the camera. In line with extant research, the employee showed a natural smile in the positive emotion display condition, whereas her facial expression was neutral in the neutral emotion display condition (Keh et al., 2013;Otterbring, 2017;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). ...
... Afterward, participants completed the survey and were then debriefed. (Keh et al., 2013;Otterbring, 2017;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Frontline employees' visual appearance is important in many service industries. Positive emotion displays are especially crucial, as are esthetic displays such as dress color. However, emotion and esthetic displays have commonly been examined independently of each other in marketing research. We contribute to research and practice by drawing attention to customers' holistic perception of frontline employees, indicating that emotion displays and esthetic displays, such as dress color, are jointly processed. Across four experiments, we demonstrate that the effects of positive emotion displays on customer tipping and employee warmth can be amplified by using warm (vs. cold) dress colors. Drawing on emotions as social information theory, we show that this interaction is explained by a cognitive inferential (i.e., the perception of fit) and not by an affective pathway through positive affect. Our findings guide managers on how to choose dress colors to increase the beneficial effects of positive emotion displays.
... People's abilities regarding social exchange and interaction depend very much on understanding the emotions/facial expressions of people that they interact and socially engage with (Gabbott & Hogg, 2001;Koc et al., 2007b;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). Research shows that emotion/facial expression recognition is the first and most important element of emotional intelligence as without the ability to recognize emotions, people cannot use or manage emotions (Adams, 2017;Domes, Schulze, & Herpertz, 2009;Elfenbein et al., 2002;Golan et al., 2010;Hasson, 2014). ...
... As explained above employees who could understand customers' and their co-workers' emotions more quickly and correctly would be expected in a better position to handle and recover service failures (Jung et al., 2016;Kralj & Solnet, 2010;Solnet & Paulsen, 2006;Wang et al., 2017;Wolfe & Kim, 2013). This is due to the fact that people's abilities regarding social exchange and interaction depend very much on understanding the emotions/facial expressions of people that they interact and socially engage with (Gabbott & Hogg, 2001;Koc et al., 2017b;Liu, Chi, & Gremler, 2019;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the basic emotions of people is one of the most important skills of emotional intelligence. This study investigates the emotion/facial expression recognition abilities of tourism and hospitality employees in terms of recognizing customers‘ facial expressions and the fact that whether emotion/facial recognition abilities of employees can be developed. The respondents were selected through convenience sampling. The data were collected from 398 tourism and hospitality employees through an online survey. The data were analyzed by SPSS 19. The findings showed that a brief online training (lasting an average of 40.40 s) (with photos depicting different facial expressions and brief explanations) has improved the emotion/facial expression recognition abilities of tourism and hospitality employees significantly both in terms of accuracy and speed.
... People's abilities regarding social exchange and interaction depend very much on understanding the emotions/facial expressions of people that they interact and socially engage with (Gabbott & Hogg, 2001;Koc et al., 2007b;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). Research shows that emotion/facial expression recognition is the first and most important element of emotional intelligence as without the ability to recognize emotions, people cannot use or manage emotions (Adams, 2017;Domes, Schulze, & Herpertz, 2009;Elfenbein et al., 2002;Golan et al., 2010;Hasson, 2014). ...
... As explained above employees who could understand customers' and their co-workers' emotions more quickly and correctly would be expected in a better position to handle and recover service failures (Jung et al., 2016;Kralj & Solnet, 2010;Solnet & Paulsen, 2006;Wang et al., 2017;Wolfe & Kim, 2013). This is due to the fact that people's abilities regarding social exchange and interaction depend very much on understanding the emotions/facial expressions of people that they interact and socially engage with (Gabbott & Hogg, 2001;Koc et al., 2017b;Liu, Chi, & Gremler, 2019;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). ...
Chapter
The contributors to this book explain the influence of emotional intelligence on various aspects of service encounters in tourism and hospitality and how emotional intelligence as an important ability of employees in tourism and hospitality can be developed. The book has 10 chapters with plenty of student support materials including real-life examples, case studies, links to websites, activities and discussion questions, recent research findings from top-tier journals and presentation slides for in-class use by academics and trainers.
... For long term relationship it is necessary to provide standard quality service to satisfy the customers Service quality will impact the clients to create word of mouth [38]. Customers will pay good price for the quality service [30]. ...
Article
Few empirical studies have been conducted to explore what motivates and demotivates customers to engage in word of mouth (WOM) activities in the restaurant industry. This research paper inspects the connection between different attributes of hospitality industry which lead to the creation of word of mouth. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect. 200 respondents from one of the leading and famous university of Pakistan is used as a sample to study on. To test the proposed model, we use structural equation modelling. The research ended with two major findings. First, food quality and service quality have great impact on creation of WOM. Second, price and atmosphere does not have any impact in creation of word of mouth.
... Firstly, the results indicate the impact of surface acting and deep acting on customer satisfaction both directly and with the mediation of job satisfaction. These relationships are supported in the literature (e.g., Söderlund andRosengren, 2008, 2010;Hatfield et al., 2018). Furthermore, we identified employee job satisfaction as the factor most likely to mediate the link between employee emotional labor and customer satisfaction. ...
... And the good behavior of the service providers develops the positive relationship and impression on the customers which take the lead toward customer satisfaction. (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). ...
... Their findings showed that non-verbal immediacy affected positively comforting quality. Although to the best of the author's knowledge, the direct impact of non-verbal communication cues on student satisfaction has not been examined in the education literature, there is empirical evidence of a positive impact in other contexts, especially in services (Gabbot & Hogg, 2000;Jung & Yoon, 2011;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008. It is therefore likely that such connections will also exist in the education context and that teachers' non-verbal communication will have a positive influence on student satisfaction. ...
Article
This article analyses the effects of technology‐mediated (i.e., social media) and in‐person communication (i.e., non‐verbal cues) on student satisfaction in a higher education context. Data were collected among 221 college students from the University of Valencia (UVEG) in Spain and analysed from the perspective of the respondents' national culture. Contrary to expectations, the results show that neither one of the social media aspects drives student satisfaction, thus providing support for the technology paradox literature. Instead, three non‐verbal communication cues are found to influence student satisfaction, i.e., paralanguage, kinesics, and chronemics. The moderating role of national culture on the examined relationships is also considered. The results reveal that national culture seems to only affect the relationship between chronemics and satisfaction.
... Managing service failure attribution Who (customer or firm) is to blame when something goes wrong as a result of interAI encounters (e.g., wrong item received)? ambiguity (Hennig-Thurau, Groth, Paul, & Gremler, 2006;Patterson, 2016;Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008), feel comfortable (Lloyd & Luk, 2011), build trust (Gabbott & Hogg, 2001;Sharma & Patterson, 1999), and develop rapport (Gutek, Groth, & Cherry, 2002;Medler-Liraz, 2016). Although AI technology can outperform humans in reliability and accuracy (e.g., task-related aspects) (Meuter, Bitner, Ostrom, & Brown, 2005), it may lack rich communication (Miyazaki, Lassar, & Taylor, 2007) and emotion (Grougiou & Pettigrew, 2011). ...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) is radically transforming frontline service encounters, with AI increasingly playing the role of employee or customer. Programmed to speak or write like a human, AI is poised to usher in a frontline service revolution. No longer will frontline encounters between customer and employee be simply human-to-human; rather, researchers must consider an evolved paradigm where each actor could be either human or AI. Further complicating this 2 × 2 framework is whether the human, either customer or employee, recognizes when they are interacting with a non-human exchange partner. Accordingly, we develop an evolved service encounter framework and, in doing so, introduce the concept of counterfeit service, interspecific service (AI-to-human), interAI service (AI-to-AI), and offer a research agenda focused on the implementation of AI in dyadic service exchanges.
... Scenarios of this type have been used frequently in service-related research (e.g . Bitner 1990;Söderlund and Rosengren 2008). The main advantages of this approach is that it facilitates manipulations that can be difficult to execute in field settings and that it enables a high level of control of non-manipulated factors. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines if labeling customers as ‘member’ versus ‘non-member’ in the context of a firm’s loyalty program can influence the customers’ evaluations of the firm. It was assumed that firms’ membership-related labels, which typically are euphemisms in relation to the mere discounts offered by many loyalty programs, can (a) prime customers so that positively charged content in a general member category is activated, and that (b) this content can have a positive impact on evaluations of firms with loyalty programs. An experiment showed that evoking customers’ membership status resulted in a higher level of sense of belonging, and higher customer satisfaction, for members than for non-members. Sense of belonging mediated the impact of evoking membership status on customer satisfaction. A second study confirmed that the content of customers’ general member construct is indeed associated with sense of belonging and satisfaction.
... Many customers have knowledge on food, and the taste of food at restaurants has gained much higher importance (Cortese, 2003). Food quality and fresh ingredients are among the most important factors underlying the preference of a restaurant again (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). That's why, it is not surprising for a restaurant with good food quality to have intense demand from customers. ...
... Experiment 1 relied on a series of photos to manipulate positive display inauthenticity. Photos are often used in experimental service research (Giebelhausen et al. 2014;Söderlund and Rosengren 2008) and were shown to be ecologically valid (Bateson and Hui 1992). ...
Thesis
This dissertation investigates boundary conditions of customer reactions to frontline employee emotion authenticity Download at: https://opus.bibliothek.uni-augsburg.de/opus4/frontdoor/deliver/index/docId/51122/file/Diss_Lechner.pdf
... These non-task behaviours play an important role in interactions with customers. In their study on the relationship between customers' satisfaction and smiling, Soderlund and Rosengren (2008), found that customers were more satisfied when they received services from smiling workers compared to neutral service workers. For the nurse-patient relationship, smiling is a non-verbal behaviour to build rapport with the patients because smiling is an indicator of warmth, good humour and immediacy between two persons (Caris-verhallen, Kerkstra, & Bensing, 1999;Wang, Mao, Li, & Liu, 2017). ...
Article
For many years the Malaysian Public Service (MPS) has placed a huge emphasis on the job performance of its civil servants. Various initiatives and programs such as the Excellent Work Culture, National Integrity Plan and Clean, Efficient and Trustworthy Campaign have been put in place by the government to improve the performance of its civil servants and public image of its healthcare provision. Nevertheless, poor job performance manifested in delays in receiving treatment, negligence during treatment, poor diagnosis and errors in the delivery of medication remain widespread and as such, the MPS has been subject to much public criticism in recent times. Because the severity of the problem has not been systematically investigated, the current situation warrants a more detailed and evidence-based investigation into job performance in the MPS and the factors related to it. The present research was conducted in order to investigate the issue of poor job performance in Malaysian public hospitals by identifying the factors that enhance or hinder job performance and testing these inter-relationships using an evidenced-based framework of job demands, job/personal resources, subjective well-being and performance. A mixed methods approach with a sequential exploratory design was employed. In Study 1, interview sessions were carried out with participants at selected hospitals. The data collected from the interviews were used to create additional items for a larger-scale survey used in the Study 2. Study 1 found that job performance in the MPS was at a ‘moderate and acceptable level’ according to participants of the study. Majority participants were very enthusiastic about their work and workplace and believed that the reporting of incidents of poor job performance by the Malaysian Public Complaints Bureau and newspapers were grossly exaggerated largely based on isolated incidents. Nevertheless, participants did acknowledge that some employees did not perform as well as they could because of problems such as work overload and negative attitudes. Study 1 revealed that six factors affected job performance in the MPS: 1) work overload, 2) civil servants’ attitudes, 3) leadership and monitoring, 4) religious and spiritual beliefs, 5) training, knowledge and experience and 6) personal issues. Based on the moderated mediation analyses conducted in Study 2, it was found that job resources predicted work engagement and a particularly positively impacted when job demands were at moderate and high levels. Work engagement in turn, positively impacted job performance. The analyses also revealed a significant relationship between personal resources and job performance through job demands and organisational commitment. The moderated mediation between personal resources, organisational commitment and job performance can be seen at all level of job demands. The findings largely appear to be consistent throughout the study in that job resources are significantly related to work engagement and personal resources with organisational commitment, which in turn affects job performance. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of existing literature and suggestions for further research are also included.
... The role that affect plays on consumer judgement and decision-making is well documented in the consumer behaviour literature (Cohen, Tuan Pham, & Andrade, 2008). Positive affect and the facial expression of joynamely smilinghas been shown to increase brand loyalty and repeat purchasing behaviour (Jacoby & Kyner, 1973), customer satisfaction (Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008), and extends to product advertisement (Schmitt, 1999). However, recent investigations into gelotophobes, individuals with the fear of being laughed at, showed how these individuals misperceive displays of positive affect Hofmann, Platt, Ruch, & Proyer, 2015). ...
Chapter
Quantitative research in every branch of psychology involves the measurement of psychological constructs, and consumer psychology is no exception. The use of tools to measure psychological constructs is known as psychometrics. This chapter will outline the use of psychometric measures within consumer psychology and related fields – both in academic and practice settings – and discuss the theory underlying psychological measurement, before exploring the process by which these measures are developed by psychologists.
... Hence, in marriage relationship, it is also important to have feedback among spouse to improve their quality of relationship and achieve satisfaction (Roslina, 2009). Smiling is one type of behavior that has been identified by Soderlund & Rosengren, 2008, in their study where smiling worker may produce high level of customer satisfaction and may give an effect to the customer's impression in a positive way. This may indirectly will influence on the customer feelings and at the end can be intrepreted as satisfied or dissatisfied in the service that they received. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Satisfaction is a universal concept that can be seen as an important in marriage institution. In organization customer satisfaction is one of the main goals to be achieved; this could be similar in the marriage relationship whereby couples are searching for their marriage satisfaction. To achieve it spouses need to have their own strategy and work on it. Moreover, there are a few factors that determine satisfaction in marriage life. Previous researcher on the service dimension in marriage life has found the new perspective and similarity. Nowadays we can see the increase in the divorce rates and all parties should take it seriously so that it will not become a social problem in society. The main purpose of this study is to identify factor determinant of marriage satisfaction by implementing the customer service approach and focusing on customer satisfaction dimension towards marriage satisfaction. This research was conducted using set of questionnaire to 190 married couples, whereby five Likert-scale questionnaires used as an instrument to gather the data. Majority respondent agreed that “reward” is the most factor dimension that influenced on marriage satisfaction. In general, result indicated the five dimensions were correlated with marriage satisfaction namely reward, communication, behavior and responsiveness, and productivity. Married counselor and couple should be aware regarding this new perspective on customer service dimension so that improvement in marriage relationship can be achieved
... In order to provide better customer service, researchers paid a lot of attention to the importance of emotional labor and emotion management in the interaction between service staff and customers [10]. Service marketing research shows that positive emotional behavior such as smile during service delivery has a positive impact on customer satisfaction [11]. Because the apparent quality of the service is defined not only by the behavior of the service staff and the manner of operation and the way of speaking, but also by their emotional adjustment, most service organizations encourage their employees to manage emotions and feelings in service interactions in order to increase customer satisfaction [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Using a wide range of excitements by service staff indicates the important role of emotional labor in such jobs, which affect their job satisfaction. This study examines the relationship between emotional labor and intrinsic job satisfaction among salespersons. The study is a descriptive study of correlation type and field survey. A population consisted of 248 salespersons working in seven chain stores were selected through simple sampling. Data collection tools are standard questionnaires whose validity and reliability have been confirmed. Obtained data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics tests and structural equation modeling and regression analysis. The findings of the research indicate that there is a significant difference between the level of emotional labor, surface acting and deep acting between women and men. There is also direct relationship between emotional labor and intrinsic job satisfaction. Additionally, the effect of gender moderator on the relationship between emotional labor and intrinsic job satisfaction was confirmed.
... On the contrary, a research found that satisfaction and perceived value has no significant impact on patient loyalty [37]. Researches prove that the behavior of a service provider can predict the satisfaction level of the consumer [58][59][60]. Likewise, effective interaction behaviors of doctors enhances patients' loyalty [47]. ...
... On the contrary, a research found that satisfaction and perceived value has no significant impact on patient loyalty [37]. Researches prove that the behavior of a service provider can predict the satisfaction level of the consumer [58][59][60]. Likewise, effective interaction behaviors of doctors enhances patients' loyalty [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effect of the quality of doctor services on patient loyalty via the mediating influence of patient satisfaction. Variables like gender and proximity were also controlled for. Quantitative methods were used to analyze the data collected from a questionnaire which was randomly administered to outpatients (2500) in the five referral hospitals in Ghana. Results from the t-tests and ANOVA revealed that gender does not have an effect on patient satisfaction. Likewise, proximity did not have an effect on satisfaction and further loyalty. Correlation analysis results showed strong positive relationships between quality of doctor services and patient satisfaction, quality of doctor services and patient loyalty and finally patient satisfaction and patient loyalty. This finding proves that the quality of services rendered by doctor's influence the satisfaction of patients and further earns their loyalty.
... To measure satisfaction with the shopping experience in Study 2, we used a three-item scale adapted from Fornell (1992) which has been used in several research papers previously (Söderlund and Rosengren, 2008;Söderlund, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate whether customer satisfaction varies when presented with different types of omnichannel promotions (shopping goal-congruent vs shopping goal-incongruent and monetary vs non-monetary promotions) and if the effect on satisfaction is mediated by service excellence. In addition, this paper examines whether consumers respond differently to these promotions when shopping for utilitarian or hedonic products or when they have an inherent utilitarian or hedonic shopping motivation. Design/methodology/approach Two online shopping scenario experiments are conducted. Study 1 ( n = 1,034) differentiates effects of omnichannel promotions between hedonic and utilitarian product categories. Study 2 ( n = 345) contrasts hedonic and utilitarian shopping motivation in the same product category. Findings The findings in this paper demonstrate positive effects from both presenting a shopping goal congruent and a monetary promotion in an omnichannel setting on customer satisfaction. The positive effects are explained by service excellence and are demonstrated to be attenuated in the hedonic product category and for consumers with a hedonic shopping motivation. Research limitations/implications The effect of omnichannel promotions was demonstrated using a scenario-based experimental approach, future research should use field experiments. Practical implications The findings in this paper demonstrate practical implications for a retailer who wishes to optimize its omnichannel promotion strategy across channels and touchpoints. Originality/value To date there is little directions for retailers on how to optimize their omnichannel promotion strategy. This paper contributes to research and practice by demonstrating that shopping goal-congruent promotions (vs in-congruent) and monetary promotions (vs non-monetary) increase customer satisfaction more in an omnichannel context. The effects are enhanced for utilitarian (vs hedonic) products/shopping motivation.
... The violation of work-place emotional display rules may have adverse personal consequences for the employee due to perceptions of decrease in competence in the eyes of co-workers (Brescoll & Ullman, 2008;Tiedens, 2001). In retail, tourism and hospitality occupations, high standards of customer service involving emotional labour is vital for company success, with research showing it to be valued as highly as product quality for customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Söderlund & Rosengren, 2008). Furthermore, it has been shown to positively influence customer evaluations (Barger & Grandey, 2006;Dipietro & Partlow, 2014), customer revisit, and word-of-mouth appraisals (Sulek & Hensley, 2004;Tsai, 2001). ...
Article
Abstract: Emotional labour, the workplace management of emotions, is integral to work performance and relies on the observation and recognition of emotion in the service industry. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a sudden global increase in the number of employees and service users required to wear face masks, resulting in a new normal for emotion expression and emotion recognition in the emotional labour performance. This paper explores emotional labour theory and proposes a theoretical consideration of the challenges and benefits this modification to the service user-employee interaction may have. Suggested challenges include changes to the service user-employee relationship due to impaired communication and increased customer anxiety and frustrations. Organisational responses are discussed in relation to training and cross-industrial sharing of knowledge. Finally, opportunities for organisational research are discussed alongside suggestions for future research. Keywords: emotional labour; COVID-19; coronavirus; face masks; customer service; customer interactions.
... The violation of work-place emotional display rules may have adverse personal consequences for the employee due to perceptions of decrease in competence in the eyes of co-workers (Brescoll and Ullman, 2008;Tiedens, 2001). In retail, tourism and hospitality occupations, high standards of customer service involving emotional labour is vital for company success, with research showing it to be valued as highly as product quality for customer satisfaction and customer loyalty (Söderlund and Rosengren, 2008). Furthermore, it has been shown to positively influence customer evaluations (Barger and Grandey, 2006;Dipietro and Partlow, 2014), customer revisit, and word-of-mouth appraisals (Sulek and Hensley, 2004;Tsai, 2001). ...
... The latter is a particularly significant outcome in a service encounter, because the representative of the company (i.e., the customer's interaction partner) is the company from the customer's point of view (Bitner et al., 1990;Prentice and Nguyen, 2020). Indeed, previous studies of service encounters have identified a positive association between the customer's evaluation of the service employee and overall satisfaction with the firm for which the employee works (e.g., Söderlund and Rosengren, 2008). Yet not much is known if similar effects of perceived happiness would occur also when the sender is a non-human VA. ...
Article
Full-text available
Few existing virtual agents (VAs) that customers interact with in service encounters can experience emotions, but they can be (and often are) designed so that they appear to have this capability. The purpose of this study was to assess VAs' display of happiness in service encounters when the only means they have to express themselves is the text that they transmit. Linguistic elements that influence the perceived happiness of a (human) sender of text messages were identified in a pilot study, and they were used to manipulate VA display of happiness in two experiments. In addition, a field study was carried out to capitalize on customers' existing experience of service encounters with VAs in bona fide commercial settings. The experiments showed that VA text manipulated to signal VA happiness boosts overall VA evaluations, and the field study showed that perceived VA happiness is positively associated with overall VA evaluations. Taken together, the findings indicate that we humans are so hardwired for interactions with other humans that we react to VA display of happiness in ways that resemble our reactions when we are exposed to happy humans. The findings also provide designers of VAs and service mar-keters with a set of easily implemented linguistic elements that can be employed to make VAs appear happy in service encounters.
... Additionally, nonverbal cues may play a more influential role in service encounters during and after pandemics, whereas verbal cues may be perceived in a more negative light. For example, rather than greeting customers upon arrival at a retail bank, a bank teller may now be well advised to acknowledge customers nonverbally through a smile, nod, or using eye contact, given the positive effects of such actions on customer satisfaction (Andersson et al. 2016;Otterbring 2017;Söderlund, and Rosengren 2008) coupled with customers' potential fear of infection from proximal verbal acts (i.e., others' open mouths) that may easily transmit viruses. Moreover, the multiple messages that ask customers not to touch products before knowing exactly what to buy-while meant to minimize the spread of infectious diseases-may paradoxically lead to compensatory responses that ultimately increase not only touching, but also purchasing (Brehm 1966;Clee and Wicklund 1980;Otterbring 2016), given that restricting customers' freedom to act in a certain way makes the restricted action more desirable, as postulated by reactance theory (Brehm and Brehm 2013;Otterbring and Rolschau 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a critical review of published findings pertaining to the physical proximity between employees and customers in various sales and service settings. Following an overview of this stream of research, reflections are then offered on how the concepts of personal space and physical proximity may have changed in terms of their financial and well-being-related effects as a function of the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the risk of infection in interpersonal interactions, and despite the affiliative aspects associated with physical proximity, recent recipes for success-as advocated by academics-may have a negative impact on multiple crucial metrics in a post-pandemic world, such that employees' physical proximity to customers may eventually come with a wide array of costly consequences. The article concludes with a set of future research directions.
... To add this if customer service agent is polite and having empathy with consumer or provides proper resolution to the customer this may lead to increase the customer satisfaction (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008) ...
... Previous research has shown that when customers don't get good service when they report complaints, that's when they start switching to other brand [13]. In addition, the friendly and polite attitude of the organizers of events related to service will give a positive impression that can make customers satisfied [14]. ...
... Many customers have knowledge on food, and the taste of food at restaurants has gained much higher importance (Cortese, 2003). Food quality and fresh ingredients are among the most important factors underlying the preference of a restaurant again (Soderlund and Rosengren, 2008). That's why, it is not surprising for a restaurant with good food quality to have intense demand from customers. ...
... For example, in a higher education setting, the expertise of faculty, their teaching ability and their willingness to help students in their learning process are key elements that lead to student satisfaction and educational quality. A service organization wishing to undertake quality improvement efforts must focus on enhancing their competence (Delcourt et al. 2013) and benevolence (Lee et al. 2004), two major determinants of trust put into practice during the service encounter, or even their physical appearance (Söderlund andRosengren 2008, Tombs andRao Hill 2014). By doing this, the organization seeks to ensure that customers have positive perceptions towards its efforts to improve quality and, ultimately, customer loyalty (Vlachos et al. 2013). ...
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The present study contributes to the understanding of the influence of service employees and the tangible components of the service production and delivery system on perceptions of quality improvement efforts in a service organization. A hierarchical multiple regression with interaction analysis was performed on data collected from a convenience sample of 435 respondents in a higher education institution to assess the main effect of service employees and servicescape, as well as their interactive effect, on customers’ perception of the institution’s quality improvement efforts. The results show a significant effect of service employees, servicescape as well as the interaction between service employees and servicescape in their influence on customers’ perception of quality improvement efforts. The results also reveal that the servicescape intervenes as a moderator variable in the relationship between service employees and quality improvement efforts. Service organizations should therefore focus on the crucial role of service employees during the service encounter and recognize the importance of the servicescape, in view of increasing customers’ favourable perceptions towards the service organisation’s capability to provide better quality in order to satisfy their needs. The study has limited generalization given the convenience sample and the great variety of service industries. It would be helpful to realize similar studies in other service settings and to explore the exact nature of the interaction between service employees and servicescape. Keywords: Service employees, servicescape, quality improvement efforts
... The customer-employee relationship and its impact on key customer outcomes has been analyzed in several studies (Arditto et al., 2020;Bitner et al., 1990;Lieven, 2016). Among the multitude of variables affecting this relationship are cues ranging from smiling (Berg et al., 2015;Otterbring, 2017;Söderlund and Rosengren, 2008) and physical attractiveness (Quach et al., 2017;Söderlund and Julander, 2009;Warhurst et al., 2000) to body type (Babin et al., 1995;King et al., 2006;Otterbring and Shams, 2019) and athletic appearance (King and Auschaitrakul, 2021;Su et al., 2021), but also the ethnicity, age, and gender of an employee (Chang et al., 2015;Fischer et al., 1997;Gerlach et al., 2016;Lieven, 2016;Linzmajer et al., 2019). ...
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This field study examined how customer-employee interactions are affected by the congruency between an employee’s gender and the perceived gender image of the consumption context in one of the most gender equal cultures in the world (Scandinavia). Mystery shoppers had a service encounter with an employee across a set of physical commercial settings that were classified according to their gender image. The mystery shoppers noted the gender of the employee, provided employee evaluations, and indicated word-of-mouth (WOM) ratings. Shoppers who had a gender congruent service encounter (e.g., a female employee in a “feminine” consumption context) reported more favorable employee evaluations and WOM ratings than shoppers who had a gender incongruent service encounter (e.g., a female employee in a “masculine” consumption context), with the impact of gender congruency on WOM ratings mediated by employee evaluations, particularly with respect to competence inferences. These findings highlight the ethical dilemma of a positive gender congruency effect, as it can generate superior consumer responses but also risks resulting in gender occupational segregation.
... As Soderlund & Rosengren, (2008) ...
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In the face of rapid increase of tourist arrivals, Sri Lankan tourism is expecting a huge development in accommodation sector. This is quite obvious when one observes the fact that the current room capacity of the country is around 22,300 and Sri Lankan tourism expects to increase it up to 45,000 to cater for 7 million expected tourists in 2020. However, this development should not be limited to the physical facility development, a greater attention should be paid to the aspect of human resource development. Further, it is argued that emotional labor in hospitality industry is worthy paying attention to. Accordingly, this paper presents major factors determining emotional labor, employees’ perception regarding the factors affecting on emotional labor and most importantly managerial implications and best strategies. This study has employed quantitative methodology to achieve major findings. These findings were derived from the views of the front office employees working in Five Star Colombo City Hotels. Findings are related to individual factors of emotional labor such as emotional intelligence, genuine feeling regarding the customer, deep acting and personality traits and the organizational factors of emotional labor such as organization culture, organization structure, training and management support as the major determinants of employees’ emotional behavior in hotels. Based on the findings, some suggestions are proposed to the areas of training and development, recruitment policies and service culture with the intention of improving hospitality in hotels.
... Customer service refers to the activities set aside by a firm to assist customers during and after their consumption experience as well as boost the level of customer satisfaction (Kim, Park & Jeong, 2004). Humble, friendly and courteous attitudes of workers most especially those in the customer care unit in any organization create a positive impression on the minds of customers which in turn leads to customer satisfaction (Soderlund & Rosengren, 2008). Superior customer service calls for fair treatment of all customers. ...
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Constant power supply is a major criterion for a nation's economic growth. To supply constant electricity for Nigeria's economic growth, adequate power must be generated, transmitted to all parts of the country, and efficiently distributed to Nigerian business firms and citizens for business and personal consumption. The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between electricity service delivery and customer satisfaction among electricity consumers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Convenience sampling technique was used for this study. The research instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment correlation were used to analyze the data gathered from the respondents. The population for this study comprises of all electricity consumers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Four hundred and eighty (480) copies of the questionnaire were administered to electricity service consumers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study revealed that service quality had a significant relationship with customer satisfaction (r = 0.348, p<0.05). Price had a significant relationship with customer satisfaction (r = 0.415, p<0.05). Customer service had no significant relationship with customer satisfaction (r = 0.062, p>0.05). The study concluded that service quality attracts customers to purchase products and services and make repeat purchases. Companies that set fair prices would expand their market coverage and generate more sales because they will retain their existing customers and also draw the attention of competitors' customers to their products and services. Handling customers' complaints and suggestions do not guarantee customer satisfaction and increased customer patronage for a business firm. The study recommended among others that electricity distribution firms should generate more megawatts in order to provide constant power supply to their numerous customers and provide adequate facilities like transformers, switch box, switch gears, wire cables, meters, and circuit breakers in order to supply regular electricity to their customers.
Chapter
Das Dienstleistungsmarketing basiert auf unterschiedlichen Konzepten und auch auf verschiedenen theoretischen Grundlagen. Diese werden ausführlich in diesem Kapitel vorgestellt. Von zentraler und grundlegender Bedeutung ist dabei das Konzept des Relationship Marketing. Dieses zeigt die Beziehungen zwischen Unternehmen und Kunden auf und basiert auf den Kundenlebenszyklus sowie auf das Denken in der sogenannten Erfolgskette. Zur Erklärung und Gestaltung von Dienstleistungen werden verschiedene Theorien erläutert, wie die Neue Institutionenökonomik sowie verschiedene psychologische, sozialpsychologische sowie organisationstheoretische Erklärungsansätze. Eine zusammenfassende kritische Würdigung der analysierten Erklärungsansätze gibt Aufschluss darüber, inwieweit sich diese für eine theoretische Erklärung und Gestaltung von Dienstleistungen eignen. Das Kapitel schließt mit einer Diskussion neuer Perspektiven des (Dienstleistungs-)Marketing. Hierbei werden die Service-Dominant Logic sowie das Konzept des Service Value vorgestellt und kritisch beleuchtet.
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Historique, des recherches archéologiques ont révélé que, l’huile d’olive était extraite de l’olive en Syrie. Les vertus des produits de l’olivier sont ainsi reconnues et exploitées de longue date et sont notamment à la base de nombreuses pharmacopées traditionnelles. L’UNESCO a intégré en 2010 le régime méditerranéen pour lequel la contribution fondamentale de l’huile d’olive est reconnue, dans la liste des héritages culturels intangibles de l’humanité. Plus récemment, l’avancée des connaissances scientifiques dans le domaine de la nutrition préventive a permis de corroborer le potentiel de l’huile d’olive pour de nombreuses cibles biologiques, y compris pour la santé osseuse (Coxam et al., 2014). Devant, cette particularité, une question pertinente est à poser : Comment l’être humain a conservé et conserve cet or liquide ? Une mutation est enregistrée dans le conditionnement de l’huile d’huile, a travers un passage de la terre cuite naturelle vers le composite dite « Compounds » purement chimique et synthétique avec la dominance de la matière plastique identifiée par des chiffres de 1 à 7 pour y arriver à « Others » dont le mélange est non identifiable. Desormais, les organismes officiaux, les chercheurs depuis (Lambert, 1976) stipulent que le matériau d’emballage quelque soit sa nature doit préserver non seulement sa qualité nutritionnelle mais aussi la qualité hygiénique (non-toxicité) et bien évidemment ses caractéristiques organoleptiques. Des recommandés sont imposés par la commission du codex alimentaires (CAC, RCP 1-1962- REV2, 1985). Nos résultats de recherche sur le comportement de l’huile d’olive dans divers matériau d’emballage confirment la réactivité de l’emballage et la contamination de l’huile d’olive.
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In the face of rapid increase of tourist arrivals, Sri Lankan Tourism is expecting a huge development in accommodation sector. This is quite obvious when one observes the fact that the current room capacity of the country is around 20,000 and Sri Lankan Tourism expects to increase it up to 40,000 in two years to cater for 2.5 million expected tourists in 2016. However, this development should not be limited to the physical facility development, a greater attention should be paid to the aspect of human resource development. Further, it is argued that emotional labor in commercial domain of hospitality is worthy paying attention to. Accordingly, this paper presents the motivations, predictors, behavioral characteristics and positive and negative organizational outcomes of emotional labor in the context of resort hotels in Sri Lanka. Important findings were concluded in relation to customer contact employees in hotels and their motivations and behavioral characteristics.
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This research paper is about customer satisfaction in Hyderabad Restaurants and find out different variables which are affected on customer satisfaction, this paper identified 16 factors from that 3 factors are most relevant price, quality and service. This research is quantitative based research; data was collected from 4 restaurants BAR-B-Q Tonight, Lamosh, Rotal Taj and Mirchi 360 through questionnaires designed where sample size is 80 using random sampling method taking 20 samples from each restaurants. The data was analyzed through correlation, ANAVO, and R square interpretation.
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Die Lernziele dieses Kapitels: Die Leser kennen den Begriff und die grundlegenden Herausforderungen der Mitarbeiterführung. Die Leser überblicken die zentralen theoretisch-konzeptionellen Ansätze der Mitarbeiterführung. Die Leser können die zentralen eigenschaftstheoretischen Ansätze der Mitarbeiterführung einordnen. Die Leser kennen die wichtigsten verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Ansätze der Mitarbeiterführung. Die Leser verstehen ausgewählte situative Ansätze der Mitarbeiterführung. Die Leser überblicken ausgewählte neuere Ansätze der Führungsforschung. Die Leser verstehen aktuelle wissenschaftliche Weiterentwicklungen zu den behandelten theoretischen Ansätzen. Die Leser können die praktische Bedeutung der theoretisch-konzeptionellen Ansätze der Mitarbeiterführung einordnen.
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While prior work has assumed the compensation effect of social judgments in relation to smile intensity, this research proposes and finds that judgments of warmth elicited from broad smiles of service employees influence perceptions of competence, which in turn heighten customers' purchase intentions. Furthermore, this research unveils the moderating role of industry contexts on the smile intensity → judgments of warmth → judgments of competence relationship, suggesting that service employees' broad smiles increase perceptions of warmth, and the positive effect of judgments of warmth on judgments of competence is stronger for employees in a hedonic-oriented service industry (e.g., restaurant) than in a utilitarian-oriented service industry (e.g., law office).
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Emotional labor is the display of expected emotions by service agents during service encounters. It is performed through surface acting, deep acting, or the expression of genuine emotion. Emotional labor may facilitate task effectiveness and self-expression, but it also may prime customer expectations that cannot be met and may trigger emotive dissonance and self-alienation. However, following social identity theory, we argue that some effects of emotional labor are moderated by one's social and personal identities and that emotional labor stimulates pressures for the person to identify with the service role. Research implications for the micro, meso, and macro levels of organizations are discussed.
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Does a smiling employee make a difference? Do men and women evaluate emotional cues differently in a commercial service setting? Previous work suggests that positive affective displays influence customer responses to service encounters, yet the impact of gender on these evaluations remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to examine whether men and women respond differently to positive and negative affective displays in brief, mundane service encounters. Consistent with North American gender stereotypes and process focus, women in this study were less satisfied than men with negative emotional displays during an otherwise smooth service exchange. Conversely, in process failure situations, negative affective displays had a double whammy impact on men participants’ satisfaction ratings. The implications of these findings to service managers are briefly discussed.
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The author explores the information needs of service consumers. In the purchase decision process, search behavior is motivated in part by perceived risk and the consumer's ability to acquire relevant information with which purchase uncertainty can be addressed. Marketing theory suggests that consumers use information sources in a distinctive way to reduce the uncertainty associated with services. Hence, six hypotheses are developed to test the information acquisition of service buyers. An experimental approach is employed to compare, in a prepurchase context, the information sources used by consumers of services and those used by consumers of goods. The resulting data support the predictions offered and extend marketing theory.
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At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states - called core affect - influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.
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Interesting structures emerge in scaling analyses of emotions when stimuli are confined to terms that are relatively free of cognitive and behavioral connotations. Study 1 focused on 99 such terms, terms, rated on semantic differential scales. It revealed a bimodal distribution of emotions with regard to pleasantness, further distinctions in terms of activation, and a third dimension representing flight-fight. Study 2 obtained dissimilarity ratings for a representative subset of the terms; nonmetric multidimensional scaling replicated the dimensions in Study 1 with a clarified third dimension. None of the results conform strictly to a circumplex model of emotion. Instead the results suggest that emotions are hedonically polarized feelings. Activation appears to be the main discriminating factor in positive emotions, but activation and a sense of potency combine in discriminating negative emotions. These results encourage a dimensionally based cybernetic approach to emotion research.
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The authors discuss several issues in the timing, construction, and analysis of manipulation and confounding checks in marketing experiments. A review of 34 experiments involving latent independent variables reported in the "Journal of Marketing Research" over the past decade suggests that most researchers are familiar with the concept of manipulation checks but few systematically evaluate potential sources of confounding in experimental manipulations. Three alternative approaches for assessing the construct validity of experimental manipulations also are discussed.
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1. Vocabularies of emotion E. Berschild 2. Capturing the 'flavor' of behavior: cognition, affect and interpretation J. Koren and N. Cantor 3. Affect and aggression P. A. Bell and R. A. Baron 4. Affect and altruism C. D. Batson 5. Passionate love in intimate relationships E. Hatfield and R. L. Rapson 6. Attitude, affect, and consumer behavior J. Cohen 7. Depression and sensitivity to social information G. Weary 8. Children's strategies for the control of emotion in themselves and others C. L. McCoy and J. C. Masters 9. Affect and social behavior B. S. Moore and A. M. Isen.
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In service settings, customer satisfaction is often influenced by the quality of the interpersonal interaction between the customer and the contact employee. Previous research has identified the sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction in service encounters from the customer's point of view; this study explores these sources in service encounters from the contact employee's point of view. Drawing on insights from role, script, and attribution theories, 774 critical service encounters reported by employees of the hotel, restaurant, and airline industries are analyzed and compared with previous research. Results generally support the theoretical predictions and also identify an additional source of customer dissatisfaction-the customer's own misbehavior. The findings have implications for business practice in managing service encounters, employee empowerment and training, and managing customers.
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Although folk wisdom suggests that a smile may enhance physical attractiveness, most studies in the area have failed to consider or control this factor. The present study was intended to examine the impact of smiling on judgements of physical attractiveness and other characteristics stereotypically ascribed to attractive persons. Consistent with predictions, it was found that smiling increased rated attractiveness when compared to a non‐smiling neutral expression. The necessity for controlling this factor in studies of attractiveness is therefore indicated. It was also demonstrated that smiling subjects were attributed greater degrees of sincerity, sociability, and competence, but lesser levels of independence and masculinity. Mediation analysis revealed that the effects of smiling on trait attribution were not due to increases in perceived attractiveness, suggesting that the impact of smiling on ratings of beauty and goodness occurs through independent processes. Potential explanations and implications of these processes were discussed.
Retail salespeople often serve as a critical nexus between retailers and their customers. Salespeople can provide information and service that assist customers during the purchase process. Through buye–seller interaction, salespeople conceivably will influence how customers feel when shopping; in essence, salespersons are likely to have an impact on customers' emotions. Prior research has found that customer emotions have beneficial effects for both the store and the salesperson. Although previous work has considered the effect store environment has on customer emotions, no extant research has examined how customer emotions emerge after interacting with salespeople or what the outcomes of those emotions are. Consequently, this paper examines potential precursors of customers' emotions that arise during interaction with retail sales personnel, as well as consequences of those emotions. A conceptual framework is developed, propositions are posited, and retail management and research implications are presented.
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It was hypothesised that positive affective states and situational information-processing demands would differentially influence the favourability of social judgements of a target social group. These hypothesised direct effects on social judgements were subsequently incorporated into a broader statetrait model of the social judgement process, whereby direct and indirect effects of personality and cognitive traits, along with positive affective states and information-processing demands (i.e. cognitive state), were also hypothesised to influence social judgements. Three hundred and eight subjects reported their trait levels of introversion-extraversion and need for cognition, and were subsequently induced into an affective state (content, happy, surprise, or neutral) and a cognitive state (heuristic or substantive information processing). Results indicated that study participants who were manipulated into either a content or a happy affect state made more positive judgements about the target group than study participants who were manipulated into either a surprised or a neutral state. Moreover, when the cognitive demands of the situation were low, a cognitive trait (need for cognition) and the affective state directly influenced the social judgement. H owever, when the cognitive demands of the situation were high, only an indirect effect of affective state through a cognitive state influenced the social judgement. Discussion focused on the components of the state-trait model of the social judgement process as it applies to positive affective states.
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Previous service workplace research has indicated the impact of supportive supervisors, teams, other departments, and technology on employee satisfaction and organizational commitment. These variables in turn have been shown to influence customer contact employee behavior and customer satisfaction. In this article, the authors explore how these variables relate to employees’ capacity to satisfy customers. Using a structural equation modeling methodology, the authors found that in terms of direct effects on employees’ capacity to satisfy customers, some variables (e.g., other department support) were more important than others (e.g., technology). Some variables (e.g., other department support) had a direct effect on employees’ capacity to satisfy customers, some had a mediated effect (e.g., supervisor support), and some had both a direct and mediated effect (e.g., technology). The capacity of employees to satisfy customers is strongly dependent on a set of mutually supportive variables.
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Based on the idea that emotion conveys information about the expressor's needs and on Clark and Mills' (1979) distinction between communal relationships and exchange relationships, it was hypothesized that: (a) expression of emotion (when not directed at the other) would be reacted to more favorably when communal than when exchange relationships were desired, and that (b) people would be more willing to express emotion in communal than in exchange relationships. In Study 1 subjects were led to desire a communal or an exchange relationship with another who expressed either happiness, sadness, irritability, or no emotion. Then liking for the other was assessed. When no emotion was expressed, there was no difference in liking for the other between the Communal and Exchange conditions. However, as predicted, when happiness, sadness, or irritability was expressed, liking was significantly greater when a communal rather than an exchange relationship was desired. In Study 2, subjects were paired with an existing friend (Communal conditions) or with a stranger (Exchange conditions) with whom they expected to have a conversation. They were given a list of possible topics some of which involved talking about emotional experiences and some of which did not. As predicted, subjects in the Communal condition indicated a greater preference for talking about emotional topics than did those in the Exchange condition.
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Abstract Affective displays of front-line employees predict beneficial customer reactions, but employees,cannot feel positively at all times. Surface acting (modifying facial expressions) and deep acting (modifying inner feelings) are tested as predictors of emotional exhaustion, and coworker-rated affective service delivery. As predicted by the dramaturgical perspective, surface acting was more detrimental for both stress and service delivery than deep acting, beyond job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Implications for future research and service work are discussed. Submitted as a Research Note 3 “Employers are wise to want workers to be sincere, to go well beyond the smile that’s ‘just painted on’” (Hochschild, 1983: 33). Research has shown that positive affective displays in service interactions, such as smiling and conveying friendliness, predicts important customer outcomes such as the intentions to return, to recommend the store to others, and overall service quality (e.g., Parasuraman, et al., 1985; Pugh, 2001; Tsai, 2001). Service providers do not always feel positively, however, and qualitative research
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The use of vignettes-systematically elaborated descriptions of concrete situations-is supported as a means of producing more valid and more reliable measures of respondent opinion than the "simpler" abstract questions more typical of opinion surveys. The fractional replication experimental design described here enables a wide range of situation characteristics to be included and varied in the presentations made to various respondents while minimizing the number of different vignette versions required for the research instrument. Results from a study of police and nurse reactions to crime victims are shown as an example of this technique.
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The service encounter frequently is the service from the customer's point of view. Using the critical incident method, the authors collected 700 incidents from customers of airlines, hotels, and restaurants. The incidents were categorized to isolate the particular events and related behaviors of contact employees that cause customers to distinguish very satisfactory service encounters from very dissatisfactory ones. Key implications for managers and researchers are highlighted.
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Based on previous work showing that sex is a "diffuse status cue" (Berger, Rosenholtz, & Zelditch, 1980), the hypothesis that women smile more than men because of status differences between the sexes was evaluated Status was manipulated by assigning men and women to the roles of interviewer (high power) or applicant (low power) in simulated job interviews with either male or female partners. As predicted, overall, applicants smiled more than interviewers, demonstrating that smiling does reflect status. However, the sex composition of the pairs also influenced smiling frequency. Male interviewers smiled significantly less than their applicant partners, whereas female interviewers did not. The results suggest that, compared with females, males may more readily experience power and dominance as concomitants of high-status roles, which may then be reflected in the frequency of their smiling.
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Using video-based stimuli to manipulate the affect displayed by service providers, this study examines participants’ moods after viewing friendly or neutral service, with emotional expressivity as a moderator. Results indicate higher positive moods and lower negative moods after viewing a friendly versus a neutral service display. Participants higher in emotional expressivity reported greater positive mood after viewing a friendly display. Participants’ moods were also examined in relation to service evaluations. Results indicate that preconsumption mood is not related to evaluations; however, increases in positive mood are related to higher evaluations, and increases in negative mood are related to lower evaluations.
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For consumers, evaluation of a service firm often depends on evaluation of the "service encounter" or the period of time when the customer interacts directly with the firm. Knowledge of the factors that influence customer evaluations in service encounters is therefore critical, particularly at a time when general perceptions of service quality are declining. The author presents a model for understanding service encounter evaluation that synthesizes consumer satisfaction, services marketing, and attribution theories. A portion of the model is tested experimentally to assess the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses (explanations and offers to compensate) on attributions and satisfaction in a service failure context.
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A theory specifying how appraisals of a situation determine one's emotional responses (Roseman, 1979) was subjected to an experimental test. According to the theory, particular combinations of 5 appraisals determine which of 13 qualitatively different emotions will be experienced in any given situation. The appraisals are: motivational state (rewarding/punishing), situational state (presendabsent), probability (certaiduncertain), legitimacy (positivehegative outcome deserved), and causal agency (circumstanced other person/self). The emotions whose occurrence they determine are joy, relief, hope, liking (“warmth-friendliness”), pride, distress, sorrow, fear, frustration, disliking (“coolness-unfriendliness”), anger, regret, and guilt. In the experiment, 120 college students read brief stories in which these appraisals were manipulated, and rated the intensities of various emotions felt by story protagonists. Results showed that each appraisal had a significant effect upon emotions, and that the particular combinations of appraisals specified by the theory predict the relative intensities of particular emotions, across a wide variety of situations. Theoretical predictions were more clearly supported for appraisals of motivational state, situational state and probability than for appraisals of legitimacy and agency. Results provide significant support for the theory, and suggest that it be subjected to further testing and development. Possible modifications in the theory are also discussed.
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Although there is significant evidence that customer satisfaction is an important driver of firm profitability, extant literature has largely neglected two intermediate outcomes of customer satisfaction, namely, a firm’s advertising and promotion efficiency and its human capital performance. On the basis of longitudinal analyses of large-scale secondary data from multiple sources, the authors find that customer satisfaction boosts the efficiency of future advertising and promotion investments. This finding can be explained by the possibility that customer satisfaction generates free word-of-mouth advertising and saves subsequent marketing costs. In addition, customer satisfaction has a positive influence on a company’s excellence in human capital (employee talent and manager superiority). This finding is highly novel, indicating that human resources managers should have a strong interest in customer satisfaction as well. Finally, the authors investigate the moderating influence of market concentration on both relationships. The uncovered results have important implications for marketers in their dialogue with financial executives and human resources managers.
This study examines how receiving negative and positive word-of-mouth from satisfied and dissatisfied customers influences the potential customer. By explicitly including responses in terms of emotions—which hitherto have been neglected in research on word-of-mouth—it was found that emotional contagion and affect infusion were involved in the response process. The net effect was that receiving positive word-of-mouth as opposed to receiving negative word-of-mouth produced more positive evaluations of the service firm in the word-of-mouth conversation and higher levels of purchase intent vis-à-vis this firm. The results are thereby consonant with implicit assumptions in existing literature that word-of-mouth from the existing customer may have a significant impact on the potential customer, and this study indicates that emotional variables play an important role in the influence process.
Article
Service friendliness has often been assumed to increase customer satisfaction, but that relationship has seldom been experimentally analyzed due to the difficulty of obtaining high customer satisfaction response rates. Consequently, a customer satisfaction data collection system, designed to yield a high customer response rate, was employed in a branch of Shawmut Bank where the relation between process-bank teller service friendlienss, and outcome-customer satisfaction was examined. Additionally, the effect of feedback on service friendliness was examined. Subjects were three tellers whose rates of greeting and smiling and looking at their customers during the first three seconds of the service interaction were obtained by direct observation. Satisfaction data were gathered by asking customers to rate teller service immediately following the interaction by depositing chips into a survey box located in the bank lobby. A customer satisfaction response rate of 99% was obtained using the chips method. Additionally, all three behaviors increased substantially with feedback. Greeting was found to be positively correlated (p < .05) with customer satisfaction.
Article
The first examples of thiophenotribenzoporphyrazines have been synthesised. The compounds obtained bear either six or eight alkyl chains and show Q-band absorptions which are red shifted relative to analogous phthalocyanine derivatives. Their formulations as spin coated films show broad band absorption extending into the near IR. The compounds exhibit discotic mesophase behaviour.
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The author of this article is not angry. But he is deadly serious in questioning the significance of much of modern marketing. He believes that many aspects of the field of marketing are both irrelevant and unethical. Is he right or wrong?
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Emotions are mental states of readiness that arise from appraisals of events or one’s own thoughts. In this article, the authors discuss the differentiation of emotions from affect, moods, and attitudes, and outline an appraisal theory of emotions. Next, various measurement issues are considered. This is followed by an analysis of the role of arousal in emotions. Emotions as markers, mediators, and moderators of consumer responses are then analyzed. The authors turn next to the influence of emotions on cognitive processes, which is followed by a study of the implications of emotions for volitions, goal-directed behavior, and decisions to help. Emotions and customer satisfaction are briefly explored, too. The article closes with a number of questions for future research.
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Notes that good service delivery has come a long way from “smile training”, but many managers are left wondering whether they should put emphasis on the “hard” or the “soft” aspects of service. There is no doubt that “soft” issues are key and many successful service companies stress the importance of developing customer-friendly values, a positive environment and interpersonal skills to match. Remarks that “hard” aspects are important too and include process alignment, customer surveys, benchmarking standards and capacity management. The ability to handle times when something goes wrong demonstrates the interplay of “hard” and “soft”, service delivery necessitates a complex blend of “hard” and “soft” approaches.
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Purpose – The contemporary interest in customer loyalty has resulted in a proliferation of multi-item scales containing an aggregated mix of items that appears to reflect different aspects of loyalty. The most common application of this aggregation approach is to include two specific loyalty facets, repatronage intentions and word-of-mouth intentions, in the same loyalty measure and to proceed as if they reflect the same underlying construct. The purpose of this paper is to examine – and question – this practice in conceptual, methodological, and empirical terms. Design/methodology/approach – Two empirical studies in service settings were conducted and multi-item measures were used to collect data on repatronage intentions, word-of-mouth intentions, and satisfaction. A structural equation model approach was used to compare an aggregated measurement approach with an approach which models the two loyalty constructs as two separate factors. Findings – The results indicate that repatronage intentions and word-of-mouth intentions can indeed be seen as two discrete constructs. Practical implications – The results indicate that caution is called for when the investigator is measuring customer loyalty with multi-item measures. Indeed, the lumping together of such facets as repatronage intentions and word-of-mouth intentions is likely to conceal significant aspects of loyalty per se and its relation to other variables in the nomological net. Originality/value – Only a very limited number of existing studies measure customer loyalty with multi-item scales and with an explicit assumption that several discrete facets of loyalty exist.