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14 Florence
in
Wonderland
System
development
with
nurses
GRO BJERKNES
and TONE
BRATTETETG
I nstitute
of I nlotmatic
s
Univercitu ot Oslo
Noway'
2',19
Once upon a lime there was a lirtlc
project
called Florenccl . Shc had this
peculiar
intercst in wanting to apply computers in nursing. She spcnt most of her dme
discussing lhis stsangc idea wilh
her
friends al Inslitule of Inlormalics at the
University of Oslo
and at the
1{ard vokscntoppen
al lhe Slale
Hospital,
also
in
Oslo.
(10)
It all started with Florence wanting
to
go
io
Utopia.
She read all she could find
about this new land, and 6lked wifi
people
who had been there. But she had lo
conclude thal this was
not
crGcdy what she wanted;
it
tumed out that Utopia was
behind the Iron & Meral
Curtainz.
The
Utopians
were
talking a
lot
about
production
and
production
bols, but lhey hardly mentioned communication. So,
she decided not
to
go
there.
Then she heard abour $e SYDPOL
(or
lhe South
Pole
as
it is
called
in
English)3. The
SYDPOL is a union of new lands, including rhe land Uropia, bua
also lands, which have not
yet
been buill lands wirh no names. The SYDPOL is
much bigger
than any of these
lands. The
goals
for building it up are very
arnbitious.
To Florence, the SYDPOL was more interesting
lhan any ready-made
land.
Here,
the focus was on language. This corld mean
that communicalion
was
coosidered imporlant. And
the saying went $at there was a new land dedicated to
nurses applying
computers
in
lheir wolk. Florence decided that this land was
wonh a try- And
she
went
out
inlo
thc world to find ia.
No\,,, Florence has be€n tnvelling
on
her way
towards tie SYDPOL
for
a
ye3r.
At
pl€sent
she
is
camping in the rural
parts
of Oslo having
a
good
time
wlh
rhe
fiiendly
local tribe. She has
called lhis
new land
Wonderland, bccause Ihere are so
many
things 0o wonder abour
(7).
She leams somelhing new
every day.
The land
is
unknwn lo everyone, and there are millions of things to explore. She is no
longer
sure
if
she
wan(s
to
lcave
and
go
all lhe way to where the SYDPOL is said
10 be. Actually, she has starled
10
wonder if maybe
the
Fomiscd
land is in Oslo.
I A Resedch Project on
dle Applicarion of Compurers in Nursing Comected lo lhe
Scddinavid Resedch Progrmme
SYDPOL.
2 The
phde
"Iron
& Metal
Cunain" refes to lhe Scedinavim t adidon of rrade
union
resedch, which srarl€d wilh the couaborarion ber*ecn
Norw€8iu Iron &
Metal Workers
Union and NoMegid Compudng Cdlre, 1971-1973. In
Scddiravia, cooperation with stong,
production
o. c.afr
r€l ed u ons h6
dominared
lhis kind of action resedch. se
(18)
ed
(24).
3 SYDPOL is d tdonyn
for SYstom Developmenl envnomenr & Profession
Oriented Ld8lages. SYDPOL
is a Nordic rcsedch
Irogrmse,
sd is corc€med
wilh
chdging lystem dev€lopmenr
qvir@ment
in order to let the use6/workds/
professionals ge1
more influcn@ and
control of such
processes.
Profession Orienled
LuSuages is one of the slraregies in achievin8 this: th€
idca k
thar
loowledge dd
concep6 from $e computer
science fietd
(like (20i)
could be used as a meds for
rnderetedinS md
rel.ting to syslem developrnenl. Srch concep$ could be
inlegrakd in rhe scr of profesional
concepls, and thereby be inregraled in the
pror€ssional
educadon. sce
(26).
2Rt
Florencg has
somc computer scicntists
and some nurses as travelling
companions,
and of coursc they've
brough! with thcm thcirown
social
anthropologist. They
too
havc
lcamed a lot
on lhc
joumey,
nor
jusr
abour
(hcir
companions,
fiey'vealso
gained
morc insighr
inao rhemsclvcs
and rhcir own
rolcs,
Now,ive
will let them
spcak for fiemselvcs,
and
prcsent
ro
you
their
exp€riences,
Wc have brought
one
nurse
and one computer
scicntist 0o do this.
Nurse:
The objectives
of the Florcnce
proje.!
arc !o enable nurses
10
gain
conkol
over ahc computer sysfems
applied in our work.
We
belicvc this is not
possiblc
if
we don,t have innucnce
on ihe
process
of
derignirg
thcse systems. Forlunately
this view is
exprcsscd in rhe Norwegian Act
of Workers' Prolccdon
and Working Environmenr (1),
and
more
specifically in
rho
Technology Agrecmenrs (9).
Demanding
thar we
-
as
nurscs
-
should rcally
participare
in lhe
systcm
dcvelopment
proccss
is simply demanding
thar rhe
process proceeds
in a legal
Computer
scientistr Bu!
thc
poinr
is rhar
enabling
nurses
rro influence
lhc system
development
proccss
requires
a
possibilily
to
includc
this in the compuler
scicncc
discipline. R?aI
participation
mcans
rhat fie nurses
atso
parriciparc
in finding
out
$hal
kind of compurcr.
if any. rhcy
shoulJ hive.
In
thc Florence
projcct
we've spentalmosr
a
year
on this acliviry.
N: And
in this
phasc
of the
project
we have
lelllned
abour
how
compuier syscms
are being
applied in hospilals
today
(4).
Thesc
sysrems inrervenc in
the nurses'
work, but
only the administrativc
panof
it
(8).
We wanr computer
sysrems ro
support us in all
parts
ofnursing. That
is, we want
compurer sysrcms which
can
be applied
in our daily
work.
CS: Looking
for ncw
applicarions like
this is hard whcn viewing
the nurscs,
work
fiom tho
outside. we've found
that we havc
lo
go
into
a
ward
and use this
as a
stardng
point
for
approaching
system development
as a local
phcnomcnon.
Hcnce
the main
acriviry is ro learn
whar norses rcally
do in their work. This
will
be lhcbasis for
designing
a
useful
computer
systcm fot nurses. And it's
atso
fie
basis
for
designing
the system
devclopment
process.
N: And
in order
to
have
real influcnce
on a fulurc work
siruarion wilh
compurers,
$e syslem
dcvclopmen!
process
should
also support us in Icaming
computer
science.
We
nccd
to klow
about both theorctical
and
practical
aspecas of the
CS: Hence, the design
of the syslcm development
process
in the Florcnce
projccr
is
bascd on the idea of mutual leaming.
And our
pan
of fiis
leaming
srarred by observing nuses
at work.
We
followed you
around during
your
shifts
for
some months.
N: it was like
bcing in a zoo with
you
compurcr scicnrists hanging around,
jusr
looking.
We didn'l undersland
what
you
were looking for,
and
it
sccmcd lhat ir
had
nothing
to do with computers. And
in order to
ger
rid of
this
zoo-feeling
wc lricd
to teach
you
about nursing.
CS: I'll never forger
6c day
rrhen
you
made me try
the
medicincs.
This
experience
helped me understand nursing
a bit bener. But my
perceplion
of
nursing
as chaos Iasted a long timg.
When
you
obscrve,
you
just
see r,r,,,lal nurses
do, not 1,l,
they do it.
N: Ir is very
difficult to tell why wo
do the ftings we do, i!'s
so obvious 10 us
ftat it's nor visible
(29).
CS: And for
us this was no!
possible
to
$aspjusr
by observing
and
inlervicwing
you
in
your
work, So we had
!o sort all the impressions we
got,
and of coursc wc
then looked
for the info.mation
asp€cts of
your
work
(10).
And fortunatcly
wc
found
one
visiblc
information
system: the kardex.
(8)
N: For
those of
you
who
don'!know whaa kardex is,I will
givc
a shon
introduclion. First
of all, it is
our
wrirten
rcpon system. Ir looks liko
this:
4 Lnerarurc
concemed with
our basis in cducational
scicncc
ed
(17).
Wc
have also bccn
inspired by
(2).
282
is lound in
(r5), (16)
283
:rr:ririri;iri:iri.1i:$i{2IiI::i1:if
I1nI:1::::::::::::::::::::::
4 Bl'-zz-
VT #6'fleL
1fr 2azlaarz.tZ
Figffe l. Ka er. Incfudcs
(bctor's
nane and
patients'
ntmes.
N:
The
kardex is
sort of a
Iile of our
patients,
and
for
each
patien!
there arc thre€
different forms: the main
patient
form,
the
nursing care
plan,
and lhe test-form.
CS: Could
you
show the main
patient
form?
2M
4
ltzz
/7/5
-67
ilotz
4//t 4t
Flgu're
2. M ain
parient
fot
m.
Nr This is
the
main
patient
form. It
gives
all the
relcvant
dala on rhe
paiient,
and
lhe information
should be up-oo-daie. In emergency
caies wc check diagnosis,
rcsponsible doclor and nurses,
ard relevant medicines. We
also uso
it
whcn
booking
tests in other wards
at the
hospital,
because infomarion like name,
and
adalrcss,
social insurance area
and so
forth is
*ritten there. This form is
especially
designed for
the trealrnent of our
patients.
As
you
know,
our
parienb
are chilalren
suffcdng from asthma
and allergies.
CS: And wbat
does the nursing care
plan
look like?
CARE PLAN
REPORT
Frglrfe3.
Nurting
care
ploi.
N:
This is the care
plan.
We use it when
planning
and reconding
given
care and
Eeatment. I!
consists of a repon writton
when the
patient
a[ives,
and the
following
is
slructured by the
patient's
problems.
In the lefi cotumn we wrile
our
repolt
on each
problem,
in
the middle we *rite
suggestioos fot how io solve
the
problem,
and on the right hand
side we *rite our repor!
on each
problem.
The
problems
we writo
down are nor
only
medical
problems
like
asthma or allergy,
but also things like headache,
exhaust€d
parents,
mastering
of
medication
techniques, erc. The
problems
arc
arranged according to their
seriousness, s,o it
rcquires
professional
krcr,vledge
to
s€t the
problems
in order. W1&n we
*rite tbe
rcIut, we use differont
colours for different
shifB: The day shift reporr is writtcn
in
blue, thc evening shift in
green,
and rhe night
shift
in
rcd.
CS: What is this small
yellow
sheer of
paper?
Is it
the third form
you
mentioned,
the esi form?
286
23-t
I
Fig\rrc
4. Test
fom.
N: This is lhe
lest
form.
We use it to writo
down rhe recommended tests and whcn
they should be uken, and finally
the results of rhe
rcsB.
In rhis way kardex is
giving
us rhe informalion
we ne€d
both !o
nurse
the
pafients,
and to
plan
and coordinare
the work in
the ward. We use ir io find
out
when
we should look for te$ resulls,
when children
should be sent to other wards
to uke tests,
and
whelher
thcy should have
any special treatrnen! in
connection
with the tests.
CSr Ii is
the
nurses
who wrilc the kardex, isn't it?
N: The nu]se
with fte shifi responsibility hai
the
legal
responsibility for
ahe care
and reallnent
of tfie
palients,
ard she also has to write
the
kardex.
This is
considered
to be an adminisEative lzsk; we
don't consialer this as nursing.
When
you
have
fte shift responsiblity you
musr see ro it
that lhe doclors'
recommendations
are
follo\red,
and
you
have to
get
information
from
the other
nurses
and other
pe$onnel
in the ward. All this informalion
should be wrirten in
lhc
report.
CS: So,
you
use lhe kardex fu most
of ahe information
processing
in the ward, is
that right?
N: In some
s€ns€s
you're
fight. Kardex
is the written
basis of our rcport meedngs,
and all lhe rele\.ent
cbanges in rhe
pationts' problems
should be recorded
lhere. Bur
we
also use
quite
a Iot of time informing
each
other about the
patients
in an
informal
way,
because we don't have rhe
time to talk with all of them
every day.
CS:
Even
as oulriders
itdidnot takc
long before we
got
the impression thal a
large
pafl
of the nuscs' work
is
conccrned
wiih information. Bul
it
was difficut
to
verbalize
ahis
fecling.
Do
you
remembcr when we tricd to describe
the informaaion aspccls of nursing?
N: Wcll,lhe
descriptions we made wcrc definilely
noi descriptions ofnursing.
CSr But it tumcd oul 1o bc
very
good
opporluniies
(for
us) to lcarn
about
nuruing, bccausc
in
thc
process
of
describing
what
you
do,
you
answered somc of
our why-qucstions
(5)(10).
N: Andwc
lcamcd
somclhing
aboul computer scicnlisls'
way ofliinking. So,
even
if
lhe descriplions
were focused on the
wrilten information system, $e
process
of trying to minor our work in 1his way
was instrucdve. Wc saw lhai
fierc's a lot morc
paperwork
in
nursing
than
we originally thoughl
(11).
CS:
Making
descdptions
is somewha! similar to
observation:
you
focus upon
what is visible in ihe nurses' work.
The formal descriplion tcchnique fiat wc uscd
(23)
could of couse
not
express
what nursing
is whcn
secn
from
the
inside. But
wc
got
a
picturc
of
your
wrillen informadon syslcm
(27).
N: And in the nursing
gmup
wc
got
some
interesdng discussions on how to
describe nursing
(6).
CS: Yes, itwas the communicalion
in
the
description
process
ftatwzts
inrcrcsting. And I think most description techniques could be us.d as a
means
o[
communication
(5).
If wc should
make
a correct
formal
description
we'd have to
imposc
thc rules of the Fchnique
as rules for rhe descripdon
process.
Bur we did
not
apply
dpse rules
(2
t), and we were surprised bccausc
tlc
cxpcricnccd thal
different
goals
of the description
process
appear as diffcrcnccs
in
thc descriptions.
N: Slill anolher
kind
of dcscription was that of lhe
Exeter sysbm which
is
a
computer-based
kardex-system
(8).
This was very relevant to us.
Wc
could
easily
imagine how to use the system in our daily work, and
we leamed a lot about
wbal
CS: We also
lcarncd
a
lot from
Ihis beaause
you
had to explain what
was wrong
with
the sysr,em.
And by this
you
expressed what
is impo(ant in nursing.
N: That's
because the descriplion
gave
us a concrctc basis
for
discussion.
CS: Thc Exctcr-discussion was also a son
of shning
point
for us whcn wc tricd
10
find
out
how
to
mako
a useful computer
sysrcm for
yofi
work. Wc wanled to
make
a
kardex-system,
but
we had
to
make oul own because
you
didnl
want thc
Exeter
system.
And we thought we knew why.
So we made a
prclot)?c
bascd on the exi$ing
paper-based
kardcx
(22).
Our suggeslion
for
the
main
patient
form
lookcd
a bit dilferent
from the
original. Unfortunatcly the scrcen
was too small to dispay all of
it,
so
we had to
split
it into iwo
parts.
288
FigUJ|e 5. Computer-based
mai
pdfientfom.
CSr On lhe
first
picture
(figure
5)
we
pu!
$c
nelds on the
form which
you
use
most ftequently, and
on the second
picture
the less
ftequendy used
ficlds.
N:
And the first
misurderstanding was brought
to lhc surface-
You sec, the
main
patient
form
gives
us a
holistic
view
of the
patient
-
in
one
glance.
So
if we
have to split thc form, fte
first
piclure
should
give
us the
most rclevant
information on thc
holistic view on the
patrent.
The second
picture
could contain
fie
fields we frcquendy
update, likc
medicines and trcatmont
of eczcmas.
These
fields are of course
important, bu! in this connecaion
they are
delails.
CS: So
frequency is not imporlant
here. That
means that no
information is also
information to
you.
N: Exactly.
If
tho "cave"
field
is
empty,
we know that
ihis
patient
doesn't
have
heavy reactions on special
medicines. This is
vcry
useful
in emergency
cases.
CS: So
we changed $e main
patient
form.
And afterwarals wc
prcsented
a suggestion
for lhe
nurslng
care
plan.
Unfortunatcly,
it was impossiblc to combine
ftc tcxl editor
of our system
wilh
columns
-
as
in
the original
carc
plan (see
figurc 3). We
thought lhat the text
editing
was most
important !o
you,
so
we
proposed
nsing different
fonls
instead of
columns
(25).
,1/3 ventotine sin3.'pr.y
xr
2rl3 rheodur loo
|
200
289
Ali.e l7
15-67
Alice
affived 2118 for
the first iime
at VT.
She
was
dense.
p3.
She had be€n
oulside
(he
whole
dry.
playing
croquet wirh
flamingos.
A roseSarden
nearby.
Pu(cnls
anxioLrs
rbout her
passion
otcroquet
and her vivld
f.rniasy.
2118 AI,LERGY
nursing,
you
say
it is imporl2nt for nurses to have a hol;stic
vicw
of the
patients.
I
think lhal
when
you
do administrative tasks
you
get
an ovcrall
picturo
of
the
work in the ward, and that lhis
is nc.essary for
you
in
order
to coodinate the work
in
rhe ward, but also to
plan
the care of fie
patients.
But srill,
you
lalk about
administmtion as
somelhing different from nursing.
N: You'ro right. The
coordination
of work
gives
us an
overview
which is
necessary when
planning
fte carc and tlq[ment of each
patient.
The
problcm
is
fiat there
is
an ovcrload of administration compared 10 lhe
nursing
part.
You
know, it is nursing
that
is
our
profession,
and not adninistration
(14).
CS:
But
then the use of
kardex is nursing
because
you
also use it as a lool in
planning
the care?
N: Yes, the tool aspeci
-
and the legal aspect of kardex
-
are thc obvious and
visible
parts
of thc usc of
kardci(. You
shouldnl,
howcvcr, forgct lie
communicational aspccts of the use of
kardex- Kardex is
a
means of
communication both within $e nursing
group,
between diffcrcnt occupational
goups
in
thc ward, and bctwcan the
wards. Kardox is
$c
wrilten
basis of our
rcport meetings.
Other
pcoplc
read
the
kardex when $ey want information about
tle
patients,
and
we
uso
kardex in
communication
wifi labs and olher werds in thc
hospital.
CS:
Docs
thal
mean
thaa
we have
10 think
in terms
of
communication in order 10
fiIakc a useful computer-based kardcx?
N:
Ycs,I
suppose so, There is also anothei aspecl ofcommunication
in hospilals.
Today, there
are
two
wriltcn
report
systems:
thc kardcx
and
lhe medical record. I
6ink this will change. There is a development in hospital work away from the
strong division of labour rowards work in multi-disciptinary
groups.
Then itwill
bc inconvcnicnt to use two wdttcn rcport systems.
CS: We can then expect a
conflict
between nurses and doclors about wbal repon
system to use. As far as I understand the doctors are not too content with lhe
mcdical
record
(13).lrseems
like fie doctorc will solve $eir
informalon
problcm
with
computer-basod
mcdical records, wanting
all lhe
mcdical
staff
lo use d s as
lr€ informadon
system
at $e hospitals.
N: If
fie computer-ba.sed
medical record will
be similar
tC) the
present
one, this
will be a hmd blow ro us. We have spenr ale.ades 10 develop our
profcssion
and 10
gct
nurses
accepted to be
more
than lhc doctors' assislanLs.
With a report
system
wiihout
th€ care aspects, something
very important to us will be{ome invisible,
and our
holistic view
of the
patient
will
disappear.
CS: Hence, developing a computer-based kardcx
rcally mcans
1() t
te
parl
in the
conflict between nurses and doclors at the
hospilal
(19)-
Because a computer-based
kardex means
an
aliernative io a computer-based med;cal
rccord. And in
this
way,
rve
-
as oomputer saientists
-
are inlervening
inlo thc hislory of nursing.
E
2118:
N 2118:
D 22/8:
2118 NIG'IH
MARES
milk
and honev
N 2118:
woke up:
njghlmare,
almosr drowninS
in her
own rears
Ftgwe
6. Conpute.based
care
plan.
N: And w€
wete sory !o say wo
couldnl use rhis form
ei$er. Ir is impossible
Cr
8et
a holistic vicw
of the
patienr
with
this care
plan.
For many years
we have
tricd
to find a
suibblc care
plan.
We have
at
last
found
one, and wc donl want
!o
go
back
(o
a less
structured one.
We
also missed
the colours. Ir is impossible
ro
sec the differenr
shifts on lhis
compul€r-based
care
plan.
Usually imporirnr
rhings happen
at
nighL
So in order
to find oua what has
happencd
since
we las!
were
on dury, we
jusr
read
the report
wrilien in
red.
Hence, it
lumcd oua that iho
computcr,based kardex
was impossible for
us 10
use.
Wo couldn't
get
a
holistic
view of rhe
parient,
and ir was also morc
difficult
!o
get
an ovcrview of
all thc
parients.
By tfie way, how
would
you
rcally have arrangcd
this? We canl have refminals
in the
patient
rooms with
all thcsc curious litde
girls
hanging around. And if
we
can't use
pencil
and rubber, wo havc
!o have new
papcl
copics all the timo,
with
quite
sensfuiv€ information.
What
would we do with
this
immense
pile
of
papep
CS:
OK, OK. I agree that
the compurer-based kardcx
was of no use
to
you,
alftough I
spcnt
quite
a long
rime 10 undenhnd why
(12).
Thcrc's
another thing I havc
becn rhinking
ol
ir is
rhe
job
of wriring in drc
kardex.
You
say this is adminisration, nor
nuning. But when you
tatk about
290
tesl on fl^mingos.
roses. egg
uneasy, miss
the croquet- Pl
afrer medicines
goL worse
(P3).
grve
her Ventohne
on Pari
-
flamigos
+
(+)
ess
29l
To summarize
all this:
wo leamt a lot about nursing
on
many levels
-
by
doing system development.
Tbe
goal
of these aciivities was ,r!.rxal leaming. Do
you
think we succeeded in
lhis?
N: Well, isn't
this discussion an
evidence
of lhal? Of course,
I
didn't
leam what I
expected. I still know very litde about computer
science.
I have, however, learned
imporlant
lhings
in
rclation
to
fte use of computers in nursing, and I think I've
gor
a betaer understanding of this now. I must
admit lhat thc cxcursions, thc
discussions on the basis of the Exeter-system,
and
the
use of the
computer'based
kardex
gave
me most ideas
(3).
CS:
And
I have to admit that ir will take a long iine before I know nursing, even
lhough I unde{stand more of the informadon and communication aspects of
nursing now,
N: I've
also lmmt something about system devclopmenl and
rcquircmcn$
to
parlicipation:
I was surprised to learn that for nurscs the most important thing to
lstow is nursing.
CS: Collabo{ation between nurses and computer scientists has been essential. It
would have
becn difficult to do tho
protot'?ing
oulside the selring of mutual
le3rning.
Our
underslading
of compulers
in nursing has
developred
-
and the
most imponant things we have leamed have
bcen lhrough conlrontations bctween
nuscs
and computer scientists.
And here we le3ve
our two companions. As we have seen, Rorence has had the
same experience as Alice in Wonderland: they
bolh
met
sDrprises
\rhcrc
lhcy didn'r
expe.t them, and they have
both experienced &at wcll-known things are not what
ftey
seem to bc
(?).
To Florence,
lhe
joumey
through Wonderland was
just
likc
playing
cmquet
wilh hedgehogs and flamingos. In
lhe bcginning she didn't even know whaa
game
she was
playing.
When she found out that the
gamc
resembled
croquer, she Eied ro
apply fte cmquet rulcs she already lnew. That is,
she tried to apply systcm
development
methods.
But it tumed out that nol
all of the
rulcs
werc
va]id
in rhis
new
game.
And in
order to apply thc old
lorcwledge
of
croquet,
shc
had
to
learn
what the new
game
rcally
was
about, and shc had to find the
prerequisites
for
playing
it.
As her two
companions have lold already, they had to
explore the application
area, $at is nursing,
both as a
pan
of and a
prerequisite
for the sysiem
development
prccess,
So if
you
don'r see Florence for
a
whilc, maybc
shc's srill in Wonderland,
leaming how
to
play
croquet wi$ her friends.
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... Automation of work has been important in the Participatory Design (PD) community from the start. The origin of PD addressed automation of blue-collar work by computers and provided alternative views on technology and automation [44,54] and suggestions for alternative technology designs (e.g., UTOPIA [20][21][22], Florence [5][6][7]). As work is still important for most people, we suggest that PD researchers address the challenges that design of the new data-driven technologies pose to current work and workers. ...
... The focus on a prototype that functions and can demonstrate how it will work as a tool goes beyond "Wizard of Oz" and mock-ups of the UTOPIA project, and is more similar to the prototype in the contemporary Florence project. The Florence prototype was a simulation of a patient administrative system in a hospital although it was designed as a stand-alone system with no links to systems with real patient data [5,6]: to make it useful the nurses manually entered real patient data during the pilot period. Our case is also a functioning prototype where the data are simulated but are real, and where the functioning of the prototype is based on knowledge on how the data will appear in the work tool that is being designed. ...
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P/o/e$ion of Meditine,Hatwr &Ro\\t
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(14) Friedson, E.: P/o/e$ion of Meditine,Hatwr &Ro\\t, 1970.
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C'Trade Unions, Research and Edp te4hnology'), in Fjaleshd
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Keul, Vidai 'Fagbevegelse, foNkning og datateknologi." C'Trade Unions, Research and Edp te4hnology'), in Fjaleshd, Iost in (eA.r: Edb og arbeidsliv (Edp aidwo.ing Life), (in Norwegian), Norwegian Compuring Centre, Oslo, 1982.
Andrcas: SJstembeskivelse mecl bu4ete (SJSrem description Nithtl
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arc, Linkoping, 1982. (26) The Research Progranme Slstem Deyelopment Environftent and prohssian Ofiented LanguagesHuman Factors in Communication
  • Erik Sandewall
(2t Sandewall, Erik et al.i Stepwise Structwing - A Sryle of Life for Fteible S of tu"arc, Linkoping, 1982. (26) The Research Progranme Slstem Deyelopment Environftent and prohssian Ofiented Languages, Oslo, l98/', (27) Thomas, J.C. & Carroll, J.M.: "Human Factors in Communication", in IBM Slstems Jounal, Vo1.20. No.2. 1982.
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P/o/e$ion of Meditine,Hatwr &Ro\\t, 1970. 292 (lt Htuidal, Gunnar & l,au'r's,Peri PA eqne ilkit (On our own Vemises)
  • E Friedson
Friedson, E.: P/o/e$ion of Meditine,Hatwr &Ro\\t, 1970. 292 (lt Htuidal, Gunnar & l,au'r's,Peri PA eqne ilkit (On our own Vemises), (in Norwegian), Cappelen, Oslo, 1983.
Univeritetsmdenisning (UAiyetsiry kachin!)
  • Gunmr Handal
Handal, Gunmr et al.: Univeritetsmdenisning (UAiyetsiry kachin!), in Scandinavian, Studentlitteratur/Akademisk Forlag, Lund, 1973.