Volume of organ failure in Syria and obstacles to initiate a national cadaver donation program.

Surgical Kidney Hospital, Ibn Alnafis Medical Complex, Damascus, Syria.
Iranian journal of kidney diseases (Impact Factor: 0.92). 05/2008; 2(2):65-71.
Source: PubMed

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "In the year 2003, Syria began to address the issue of cadaveric donation of organs by enacting the Law number 30, which clearly for the first time recognized the concept of brain death. That law enabled transplant unit to begin the use of cadaveric organs with the aim of reducing the dependency on live related and live organ unrelated donors.[16] Prior to the enactment of Law number 30, the top Islamic authorities in 2001 had accented to the call for use of cadaveric donors on the proviso that consent had been obtained from relatives of the potential dead donor. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012
  • Source
    • "The estimated prevalence of ESRD patients undergoing dialysis is 143 pmp [8]; thus, nearly 70% of all ESRD patients can benefit dialysis facilities. The 3-year survival rate of Syrian dialysis population has been estimated to be up to 64% [9] which, together with the persisting low rate of kidney transplantation, has led to a severe shortage of kidney supplies. Although the supply increased to 7 pmp in 2002, it remained fairly insufficient and responded only to 10% of the demand which was estimated to be around 75 kidneys pmp per year [9]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. Objective: To examine the donor characteristics of kidney transplants in Syria and the impact of national Syrian legislation on the evolution of kidney transplantation activities in the private and public sectors. Methods: Available data on all kidney transplants performed in Syria over the last 2 decades was retrospectively analyzed to assess the characteristics of kidney donors and recipients with a focus upon transplants since 2003. Results: The kidney transplant rate has increased from 7 kidney transplants per million populations in 2002 to more than 17 in 2007. In the meantime, a substantial decline in the rate of kidney transplantation performed on Syrian nationals abroad was observed from 65% of all kidney transplantations in 1998 to less than 2% in 2007. Despite the prohibition to buy a kidney in Syria, vendors had found ways to sell their kidneys through disreputable brokers. Potential related donors were not inclined to donate kidneys to their relatives as long as kidneys could be bought from a non-related donor. By 2008, the percent of related donors in private sector represented only 8% of all donors, as compared to 50% in public hospitals. Consequently, in January 2008, the government of Syria issued a pronouncement restricting kidney transplantation to the public sector with a new national regulatory oversight of transplantation practices. Since this 2008 Administrative Order was promulgated, the kidney transplant rate in public hospitals has substantially increased by 55% with the establishment of new public transplant centers in the 3 largest cities in Syria. Conclusion: The recommendations of the Istanbul Declaration and the Revised Guiding Principles of the World Health Organization have yet to be implemented in Syria but the expansion of kidney transplants in the public sector is an important initial step for initiating a deceased organ donation program as an essential component of a comprehensive approach to the problem of the organ shortage.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
  • Source

    Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · International Journal of Organ Transplantation Medicine
Show more