Ginsenoside-Rd a new voltage-independent Ca2+ entry blocker reverses basilar hypertrophic remodeling in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats
The total saponins of Panax notoginseng have been clinically used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and stroke in China. Our recent study has identified ginsenoside-Rd, a purified component of total saponins of P. notoginseng, as an inhibitor to remarkably inhibit voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry. We deduced a hypothesis that the inhibition of voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry might contribute to its cerebrovascular benefits. Ginsenoside-Rd was administered to two-kidney, two-clip (2k2c) stroke-prone hypertensive rats to examine its effects on blood pressure, cerebrovascular remodeling and Ca(2+) entry in freshly isolated basilar arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (BAVSMCs). Its effects on endothelin-1 induced Ca(2+) entry and cellular proliferation were assessed in cultured BAVSMCs. The results showed that, in vivo, ginsenoside-Rd treatment attenuated basilar hypertrophic inward remodeling in 2k2c hypertensive rats without affecting systemic blood pressure.During the development of hypertension, there were time-dependent increases in receptor-operated Ca(2+) channel (ROCC)-, store-operated Ca(2+) channel (SOCC)- and voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC)-mediated Ca(2+) entries in freshly isolated BAVSMCs. Ginsenoside-Rd reversed the increase in SOCC- or ROCC- but not VDCC-mediated Ca(2+) entry. In vitro, ginsenoside-Rd concentration-dependently inhibited endothelin-1 induced BAVSMC proliferation and Mn(2+) quenching rate within the same concentration range as required for inhibition of increased SOCC- or ROCC-mediated Ca(2+) entries during hypertension. These results provide in vivo evidence showing attenuation of hypertensive cerebrovascular remodeling after ginsenoside-Rd treatment. The underlying mechanism might be associated with inhibitory effects of ginsenoside-Rd on voltage-independent Ca(2+) entry and BAVSMC proliferation, but not with VDCC-mediated Ca(2+) entry.
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