Book

Maps of Meaning: The Architecture of Belief

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Abstract

It is not clear that either the categories "given" to us by our senses, or those abstracted for us by the processes of scientific investigation, constitute the most "real" or even the most "useful" modes of apprehending the fundamental nature of being or experience. The categories offered by traditional myths and religious systems might play that role. Such systems of apprehension present the world as a place of constant moral striving, conducted against a background of interplay between the "divine forces" of order and chaos. "Order" is the natural category of all those phenomena whose manifestations and transformations are currently predictable. "Chaos" is the natural category of "potential" - the potential that emerges whenever an error in prediction occurs. The capacity for creative exploration - embodied in mythology in the form of the "ever-resurrecting hero" - serves as the mediator between these fundamental constituent elements of experience. Voluntary failure to engage in such exploration - that is, forfeit of identification with "the worldredeeming savior" - produces a chain of causally interrelated events whose inevitable endpoint is adoption of a rigid, ideology-predicated, totalitarian identity, and violent suppression of the eternally threatening other.
... Throughout much of human history, explicit answers to the big questions have tended to take on a mythological or religious format, most often in the form of a narrative (Bouizegarene et al., 2020;Hirsh et al., 2013;Peterson, 1999;Peterson & Flanders, 2002). More recently, philosophy and science have attempted to provide answers to the big questions. ...
... Consider the life's work of the Swiss psychologist Carl Gustav Jung, for example. Jung was a highly intelligent and imaginative person who constructed a system of thought (whatever one's opinion of its validity may be) that has inspired a great deal of subsequent historical, scientific, and philosophical theorizing (Dunne, 2015;Peterson, 1999). Jung's system was highly concerned with religious and metaphysical questions, which is what the PSI hypothesis would predict if Jung was high in positive schizotypy ( Jung, 1979). ...
... According to some theories, the subjective sense of meaning is experienced when there is coherence between topdown beliefs or goals and bottom-up perceptions (Inzlicht et al., 2011). This coherence reduces anxiety by giving rise to the feeling that the world is an orderly, controlled place that we can understand and explain (Inzlicht et al., 2011;Peterson, 1999;Peterson & Flanders, 2002) and by reducing conflict between competing beliefs and goals (Hirsh, 2012;Hirsh et al., 2012;Proulx & Inzlicht, 2012). This view suggests that there may be at least two strategies by which one can find meaning. ...
Article
According to the predictive-processing framework, only prediction errors (rather than all sensory inputs) are processed by an organism’s perceptual system. Prediction errors can be weighted such that errors from more reliable sources will be more influential in updating prior beliefs. It has previously been argued that autism-spectrum conditions can be understood as resulting from a predictive-processing mechanism in which an inflexibly high weight is given to sensoryprediction errors that results in overfitting their predictive models to the world. Deficits in executive functioning, theory of mind, and central coherence are all argued to flow naturally from this core underlying mechanism. The diametric model of autism and psychosis suggests a simple extension of this hypothesis. If people on the autism spectrum give an inflexibly high weight to sensory input, could it be that people with a predisposition to psychosis (i.e., people high in positive schizotypy) give an inflexibly low weight to sensory input? In this article I argue that evidence strongly supports this hypothesis. An inflexibly low weight given to sensory input can explain such disparate features of positive schizotypy as increased exploratory behavior, apophenia, hyper theory of mind, hyperactive imagination, attentional differences, and having idiosyncratic worldviews.
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Chapter
The study of subjective wellbeing has grown substantially in recent decades and is now seeking to influence public policy. The complexities of this new application have revealed weaknesses in the foundations of the field. Its operationalist epistemology was appropriate given its historical context, but undermines its ability to explain the mechanisms by which policy can improve subjective wellbeing. Likewise, the field’s deliberate avoidance of the evaluative element of “wellbeing”—what is “good for” somebody—leaves it poorly equipped to engage with the ethical and political complexities of policymaking. The present volume provides the theoretical depth that the field of subjective wellbeing is lacking by integrating psychological, philosophical, economic, and political perspectives on wellbeing. The end result is a rich and ethically sensitive theory of subjective wellbeing that can underpin scholarly research, inform therapy and self-help, and guide wellbeing public policy
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Chapter
How do you measure a construct as complex as subjective wellbeing? The first part of this chapter reviews the many tools available for measuring each dimension of the construct, as well as the well-being profile—a new measure that holds some promise for capturing subjective wellbeing holistically in only fifteen questions. The second part of the chapter then explains why even fifteen questions is likely too long for many applications in policy and social science. Life satisfaction scales hold a great deal of promise as a unidimensional and sufficiently cardinal measure of subjective wellbeing for these applications. However, there are several concerns about these scales, notably inconsistent scale use across respondents or within respondents over time, that need to be investigated more thoroughly. The chapter provides a conceptual analysis of these concerns and uses them to differentiate adaptation, scale-norming, and reference point shifts.
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Chapter
Eudaimonic accounts of wellbeing have a rich and storied history in philosophy and psychology. This chapter opens with an explanation of the similarities and differences between these theories. The rest of the chapter focuses on psychological perspectives, especially that of self-determination theory. This body of psychological literature provides an enormous amount of insight into the nature of subjective wellbeing, especially how to get it. The chapter reviews the most important of these approaches, namely the ones focusing on basic psychological needs, the motivation spectrum, the notion of self-concordant goals, and the evolutionary underpinnings of our psychological makeup.
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, to review philosophical arguments against wellbeing theories of the sort I have outlined. This should hopefully sensitize subjective wellbeing scholars to the ethical nuances of applying subjective wellbeing outside the context of academic research. Ethical critiques of subjective wellbeing are especially potent when it is government rather than friends or therapists trying to promote it. This is the second purpose of the chapter: to argue that government should be very cautious about promoting subjective wellbeing directly. They should instead focus on welfare—the options available to citizens. The final part of the chapter discusses ways to begin applying subjective wellbeing in public policy without crossing ethical risky red lines.
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Chapter
While subjective well-being scholarship has its merits, it is not without its weaknesses, and these are the subject of this chapter. While the definition and approach of the field were appropriate in its historical context, they are inappropriate and indeed problematic for applications in public policy. In particular, this chapter demonstrates that the field is naive about the normative implications of “wellbeing” theories and that its measurement instruments lack precision. Both of these faults find their origins in the field’s atheoretic inclinations and operationalist epistemology. It is time to replace this with a more realist epistemology. That requires a thorough theory of subjective wellbeing that engages extensively with normativity, which this book provides.
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Book
The study of “subjective wellbeing” has seen explosive growth in recent decades, opening important new discourses in personality and social psychology, happiness economics, and moral philosophy. Now it is moving into the policy domain. In this it has arguably overstepped its limits. The shallow theoretical base of subjective wellbeing research, the limitations of its measurement instruments, and its ethical naivety make policymaking on the basis of its findings a risky venture. The present volume is an attempt to shore up these weaknesses and set subjective wellbeing scholarship on a course for several more decades of growth and maturation. It presents a theory of subjective wellbeing in two parts. The first is the subjective wellbeing production function—a model of wellbeing as outcome. The second is the coalescence of being—a model of the self-actualization process by which wellbeing is achieved. This two-part model integrates ideas from subjective wellbeing studies with complementary ideas in analytical and continental philosophy, clinical, moral, and developmental psychology, and welfare economics. Importantly, this theory is ethically sensitive, bridging the gap between the philosophical and psychological perspectives on wellbeing in a way that illuminates the complexities facing the application of subjective wellbeing in public policy. The book also provides a thorough review of various ways in which subjective wellbeing can be studied empirically, and the hard trade-offs we face between long surveys that capture the richness of the concept and the parsimony required by social surveys and policy analysis.
... SW-B scholars sometimes argue that we must be cautious with incorporating meaning into our definition of SWB because its literature is underdeveloped (OECD 2013, Clark et al. 2018. This puzzles me because the study of meaning and well-being predates the study of SW-B by decades, going back at least to Frankl (1946) if not the Jungian tradition (Peterson 1999). These early works are not quantitative nor experimental, but more recent writings in the logotherapy tradition (Wong 2010) and elsewhere (Baumeister 1992) certainly are. ...
... It is worth noting that most people do not suffer from nihilism. They are held up out of it by culture and other mechanisms that socialise us into value systems and identities that are palpable enough to stave off nihilism (Peterson 1999). Nihilism is on the march lately in the West, reaching a peak in the postmodern 1990s, because many traditional sources of normative order have dissolved in the last two centuries. ...
... That is, we are capable of sharing meanings for abstract concepts that we project through culture and its attendant tropes, notably art and ritual. This capacity is wired into us and has allowed our species to survive and flourish (Peterson 1999). ...
Chapter
The study of subjective wellbeing is dominated by two traditions: the psychological and philosophical. If the psychological is deficient, it makes sense to look for solutions in the philosophical. As such, this chapter begins with a thorough but not exhaustive review of the principal philosophical theories of wellbeing: mental state, objective list, preference satisfaction, eudaimonic, and subjectivist. As philosophers are predominantly concerned with the evaluative character of wellbeing, a key benefit of this exercise is that it sensitizes us to the complex value judgments that must be made when defining wellbeing. However, the philosophical tradition has its own problems. In particular, its tendency to delineate and classify has led it to overlook complementarities and overlaps between supposedly competing theories. And its disinterest in “applied” questions has left the practical issue of how you get wellbeing largely investigated, despite the insights it provides regarding what wellbeing is.
... 42) In a different article, DeYoung (2013) builds the case that dopaminergically regulated processes, such as those undergirding trait Extraversion (and trait Openness), are promoting exploration in light of perceived uncertainty. This hypothesis is predicated on the idea that the inherent value of uncertainty is neither positive nor negative, but irreducibly bi-valent (DeYoung, 2013;Hirsh et al., 2012;Peterson, 1999). To elaborate, although high-uncertainty settings present a greater risk of punishment (simply in virtue of their inherent indeterminacy) such that withdrawal via anxiety would be one adaptive way to respond, there is nevertheless inherent promise in engaging with uncertainty through exploration insofar as the unknown is not just where risks, but also opportunities for greater reward reside (Peterson, 1999). ...
... This hypothesis is predicated on the idea that the inherent value of uncertainty is neither positive nor negative, but irreducibly bi-valent (DeYoung, 2013;Hirsh et al., 2012;Peterson, 1999). To elaborate, although high-uncertainty settings present a greater risk of punishment (simply in virtue of their inherent indeterminacy) such that withdrawal via anxiety would be one adaptive way to respond, there is nevertheless inherent promise in engaging with uncertainty through exploration insofar as the unknown is not just where risks, but also opportunities for greater reward reside (Peterson, 1999). Trait Extraversion, on DeYoung's account, is therefore an adaptation to the incentive reward value of uncertainty and is predictive of how likely someone is to engage with uncertainty through such feelings as interest, curiosity, or excitement, rather than withdrawal by way of fear or anxiety (DeYoung, 2013(DeYoung, , 2015. ...
... A fundamental problem facing cognitive agency is that the world is entropic whereas the frames by which the world is interpreted and rendered sufficiently predictable are static (DeYoung, 2015;Peterson, 1999;2007;Thompson, 2007). This is a version of the frame problem discussed in Sect. 4. As such, when confronted with uncertainty, a decision must be made either to accommodate the world by changing one's frames or else to assimilate it into one's already existing frames. ...
Article
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The distinguishing feature of enactivist cognitive science is arguably its commitment to non-reductionism and its philosophical allegiance to first-person approaches, like phenomenology. The guiding theme of this article is that a theoretically mature enactivism is bound to be humanistic in its articulation, and only by becoming more humanistic can enactivism more fully embody the non-reductionist spirit that lay at its foundation. Our explanatory task is thus to bring forth such an articulation by advancing an enactivist theory of human personality. To this end, we synthesize core concepts from cognitive science, personality theory, and phenomenological philosophy in order to develop an Enactivist Big-5 Theory (EB5T) of personality. According to EB5T, personality traits are dispositional tendencies for how we come to optimally grip our distinctly human worlds. Individual differences in personality are therefore reflective of stylistic differences in optimal gripping tendencies between human beings. EB5T affords a non-reductionist understanding of the immanent teleology of the autopoietically embodied human mind as a kind of full-scale optimal gripping process that is achieved along five major dimensions of personality. To the degree that these dimensions are universal, therefore, we argue that our theory offers a viable path forward in advancing enactivist cognitive science beyond the life of a cell and into the mind of a person, a longstanding hope and ambition held by proponents of the enactive approach.
... Dit zijn enkele vragen die het proces van nieuwsgierigheid en communica- 34 Kortom, als je met zelfreflectie naar jouw typische -en dus ook sociaal geaccepteerde -copingvormen kijkt, zou het goed kunnen zijn dat er onverwerkte emotionele ervaringen en mentale modellen aan ten grondslag liggen die deze in stand houden. ...
... Het terug in contact komen met emoties kan voor mensen soms transformatieve veranderingen teweegbrengen in ongezonde copingstijlen en leefpatronen die voorheen onveranderbaar leken. Ook als dat niet het geval is, 34 ...
Book
Al bijna twintig jaar lang stijgen de stress- en burn-outcijfers. Deze trend is onhoudbaar en het is tijd voor een fundamentele verandering. Daarom willen Bas Snippert en Daniël Krikke vanuit hun ervaring binnen het Nederlands Expertisecentrum Vitaliteit een vitaliteitrevolutie starten in Nederland. Zij pleiten ervoor om niet alleen de symptomen van stress en burn-out te bestrijden, maar juist ook de dieperliggende oorzaken. In dit boek maak je kennis met de Zeven Pijlers voor Vitaliteit: een krachtig model voor vitaliteit dat is onderbouwd met decennia aan wetenschappelijk onderzoek. De auteurs hebben de Zeven Pijlers uitgebreid getest en doorontwikkeld met talloze teams en leidinggevenden binnen grote organisaties in Nederland. In De vitaliteitrevolutie leer je jouw Zeven Pijlers voor Vitaliteit te versterken, dankzij waardevolle inzichten en praktische handvatten waarmee je dagelijks kunt bouwen aan een opwaartse spiraal van vitaliteit. Zo voorkom je overmatige stress en een burn-out, maar nog belangrijker: je vergroot je levensplezier, veerkracht en vitaliteit in het dagelijkse leven. Voor meer informatie over De vitaliteitrevolutie ga naar: devitaliteitrevolutie.nl Meer weten over het Nederlands Expertisecentrum Vitaliteit? Kijk dan op: nederlandsvitaliteitscentrum.nl
... Throughout much of human history, explicit answers to the Big Questions have tended to take on a mythological or religious format, most often in the form of a narrative (Bouizegarene et al., 2020;Hirsh et al., 2013;Peterson, 1999;Peterson & Flanders, 2002 2020;Goplen & Plant, 2015;Peterson & Flanders, 2002;Hirsh et al., 2012). We know this intuitively, since sensory information which violates the belief that you have a dentist appointment today (a relatively low-level belief) is not nearly as distressing as sensory information which violates the notion that you're a good person (if your goal is to be a good person), that God exists (if you believe in God), or that the world is a just and fair place (if you believe in a just world). ...
... According to some theories, the subjective sense of meaning is experienced when there is coherence between top-down beliefs or goals and bottom-up perceptions (Inzlicht et al., 2011). This coherence reduces anxiety by giving rise to the feeling that the world is an orderly, controlled place that we can understand and explain (Inzlicht et al., 2011;Peterson, 1999;Peterson & Flanders, 2002) and by reducing conflict between competing beliefs and goals (Hirsh, 2012;Hirsh et al., 2012;Proulx & Inzlicht, 2012). In this view, there may be at least two strategies by which somebody can find meaning. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
According to the predictive processing framework, only prediction errors (rather than all sensory inputs) are processed by an organism’s perceptual system. Prediction errors can be weighted such that errors from more reliable sources will be more influential in updating prior beliefs. It has previously been argued that autism spectrum conditions can be understood as resulting from a predictive processing mechanism in which an inflexibly high weight is given to sensory prediction errors, which results in overfitting their predictive models to the world. Deficits in executive functioning, theory of mind, and central coherence are all argued to flow naturally from this core underlying mechanism. The diametric model of autism and psychosis suggests a simple extension of this hypothesis. If people on the autism spectrum give an inflexibly high weight to sensory input, could it be that people with a predisposition to psychosis (i.e., people high in positive schizotypy) give an inflexibly low weight to sensory input? In this article I argue that evidence strongly supports this hypothesis. An inflexibly low weight given to sensory input can explain such disparate features of positive schizotypy as increased exploratory behavior, apophenia, hyper-theory of mind, hyper-active imagination, attentional differences, and having idiosyncratic worldviews.
... One reads a book like Maps of Meaning (Peterson 1999) or The Hero with a Thousand Faces (Campbell 2004) and discovers -that there were similarities between messiah stories in different religions and that throughout human history, civilizations produced religion and the structures of religion, which were human attempts at dealing with the challenges of life‖ (DeWitt 2013, pp. 188-189). ...
... Aside from truisms about inheriting a culture and language, collective trends are largely irrelevant, since individuals are the only agents of change and only individuals undergo experiences. So, whereas a book like Maps of Meaning (Peterson 1999) makes sweeping historical claims, commentators like Sandra Woien prefer to drag Peterson onto safer terrain by insisting that, in his lectures, -Peterson is not trying to provide a religious or inductive justification […]. Instead, he is simply trying to show that Biblical stories have a psychological or prescriptive significance that should not be ignored‖ (Woien 2021, p. TBA). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Jordan Peterson gave a series of lectures on the Psychological Significance of the Biblical Stories. His first lecture lasted two hours. In that time, Peterson managed to cover only a single line from the Bible. This lopsided gloss-to-text ratio, I argue, entails that the rational explanations actually do all the work while the Bible is dispensable.
... Nature-, the other world that is constructed by civilization as an artificial construct often contradicts its desires. This world of instinctual source, as Peterson (2002) has tackled thoroughly -by taking Jungian psychology as an important basis-within the terms of "unknown" or "chaos", is interlinked with the psychological symbolism of the womb and the unconscious state. While in this case also "mother figure symbolizes the unconscious" (Jung, 2015, p. 35), a child's or man's unwillingness for adapting to the conscious reality which is partly detached from motherly unconscious state grows and accumulates itself. ...
... It is the manifestation of the experience which resides out of the conscious mind, and thus, which can threaten it. In the same time, because it is on the outside of the enlightened conscious territory, it can bring the novelty, development, destruction and creation (-concerning bringing of novelty and growth by the hero-see Peterson, 2002); and therefore the wholeness in the manner of awaking the one-sidedness of the conscious: "It is a personification of vital forces quite outside the limited range of our conscious mind; of ways and possibilities of which our one-sided conscious mind knows nothing; a wholeness which embraces the very depths of Nature" (Jung, 1969, p. 170). ...
Article
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), either historically or personally, is an original and a highly controversial figure. He has been the precursor of the Romantic Movement and has been a great influencer for the environment of the French Revolution and the Declaration of Human Rights which follows it. Rousseau's theories are focused on the idea that man has been corrupted by civilization and "has been chained everywhere he goes". It is stated in this paper that these ideas of Rousseau are driven by a certain psychological bias: a possession by the archetype of "puer aeternus" or "eternal child". In order to open up this psychology, we took into consideration both Rousseau as a historical figure and an individual (along with his own experiences). It has been argued that personal psychology and philosophy of Rousseau-in relationship with his time period-is thus interlinked. Our approach has taken Jungian psychoanalysis as its method and revolved around it.
... Für ein adäquates neuropsychologisches Assessment muss die Person somit als eingebettet in ihre Umwelt betrachtet und das Prinzip der Kontextspezifizität der Untersuchung anerkannt werden (ebd.). Die Umwelt, in die die Person eingebettet ist, ist primär eine bedeutungshafte (Gibson, 1979;Peterson, 1999 (Gibson, 1979) (Hewstone & Martin, 2014). Es ist ferner anzuführen, dass Wahrnehmung ohne Motorik nicht entsteht (Held & Hein, 1963). ...
Thesis
Es werden drei Bedingungen an ein neuropsychologisches Metamodell formuliert. Für ihre Rechtfertigung wird sich begriffstheoretischer, phänomenologischer und empirischer Zugänge bedient. Erstens sollte dieses Modell skizzieren, was eine neuropsychologische Erklärung ist. Es sollte zweitens die Möglichkeit neuropsychologischer Kausalschlüsse konzeptionellfassen, indem auch die Kausalität psychologischer Konstrukte in die Versuchsplanung integriert wird (Peper, 2018). Drittens sollten Personen als eingebunden in ihre Umwelt verstanden werden. Die beiden letztgenannten Bedingungen stützen sich auf das Konzept der Zirkulären Kausalität (Fuchs, 2020). In der Arbeit finden sich konkrete Vorschläge, für die Integration Zirkulärer Kausalität in die Konzeption von Experimenten. Außerdem wird der reduktionistischen Tendenz, psychologische Konzepte in neurobiologischen fundieren zu wollen, eine verkörpert-ökologisch-phänomenologische Sichtweise des Psychischen und der Idee psychologische Erklärungen seien funktionale Analysen, eine ‚Emanzipation der Zahlen’ (Wendt, 2019) in der Begründung und Forderung einer phänomenologischen Messtheorie entgegengehalten. Die Arbeit schließt mit Anmerkungen dazu, wie auf Basis der theoretischen Argumente und der empirischen Literatur die ökologische Validität neuropsychologischer Diagnostik erhöht werden kann.
... Philosophically, there are two ways in which we can choose to view the world -as a shopwindow of objects and as a stage of activities [48]. The structure-function-behaviour model [15] echoes this thinking -the structure is about the objects that have properties. ...
Article
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Today, the built environment is designed, built, and managed using digital technology, making it increasingly exposed to cyber security risks. Cybersecurity is a general topic, and the construction sector has been borrowing general solutions and frameworks. However, the construction industry is specific and needs a specialized framework that would assist in understanding and managing cybersecurity. We have studied general cybersecurity frameworks, cybersecurity standards, research literature, and first principles of systems theory and process engineering. Drawing from that, we developed an original framework that identifies three kinds of wrongful activities: stealing, lying, and harming. It identifies four elements that can be affected by wrongful activities: information asset, material asset, person, and system. It defines cybersecurity as the absence of the three wrongs across the four kinds of elements. The framework is construction-specific, and as such, a useful tool for senior management to understand security problems and organize security processes. It can lead to better standardization and also helps the researchers to structure future work on the topic. The latter should be concentrated in areas where construction was found to be different: the dynamic and overlapping process and organizational boundaries in the design stage, the exposed shared design information, and the vulnerability of control information of the built environment, particularly in critical infrastructures.
... Talvez, de certa forma, tentar compreender os mistérios e as tragédias humanas, como a morte, tenha levado os primeiros homens a buscar explicações mais generalistas e mesmo fora do alcance dos mortais. Algo transcendental que, de certa maneira, talvez tenha sido necessário para a perpetuação da própria humanidade na formação civilizacional (Peterson, 1999). Assim, grandes eventos catastróficos, como a já citada Peste Negra na Idade Média, a Gripe Espanhola e a atual pandemia e outras tragédias, poderiam levar parte da sociedade novamente a esse pensamento ancestral, mítico, atávico, que via na natureza ou no fatalismo (destino) explicação para tudo, mesmo para o que não podia ser mensurado ou explicado, aquilo regido pelos deuses. ...
Article
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A crítica de qualquer conceito passa necessariamente pela capacidade de se compreender suas origens e sua esfera de alcance. Talvez um dos legados mais tristes da pós-modernidade seja o negacionismo, quando se compreende que ele faz parte de uma estratégia de dominação a partir de uma guerra declarada à Ciência e à Razão. O escopo principal desse ensaio é, portanto, colocar algumas questões básicas sobre a origem do negacionismo científico na mesa, ainda que para elas não se tenham respostas definitivas. Por exemplo, em que medida ele se insere num processo de valorização do fanatismo e do individualismo? A falta de uma divulgação científica institucionalizada pode ser considerada uma causa do negacionismo vigente em nosso país? Está o negacionismo relacionado ao problema geral da educação? Há como identificar seus pilares na sociedade contemporânea? Essas são algumas perguntas que serão discutidas aqui, para as quais é urgente que se encontrem respostas, se desejamos evitar um enorme retrocesso sociocultural.
... As Peterson (1999) argues, people have an innate need to make sense of the world around them. This has also been shown to hold true for audiences engaging with television 18 TEXT Vol 24 No 2 October 2020 www.textjournal.com.au ...
... The first is to reduce the primary source -the uncertainty that elicits anxiety in the first place. Since any situation offers a range of perceptual and behavioral possibilities (Gibson, 2014), a person can reduce uncertainty by gaining knowledge about the environment and the appropriate responses to make in order to further valued goals (Peterson, 1999;Peterson & Flanders, 2002). However, attempts to reduce short-term anxiety and uncertainty with concrete plans and behavioral restraints (if too rigid) may result in a failure to adapt to changing circumstances and pathology (e.g., Bickhard, 1989). ...
Thesis
Mental health interventions are severely underutilized for a number of reasons, including high costs and social stigma. An alternative non-stigmatizing method to address many trans-diagnostic psychotherapeutic goals (e.g., psychological flexibility in Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda, & Lillis, 2006; Bermant, 2013) is modern American improvisational theater, which has its roots in the 1920s as a tool for facilitating personal and social development (Steitzer, 2011). It has been suggested that improvisation training may reduce anxiety (Krueger, Murphy, & Bink, 2017; Phillips Sheesley, Pfeffer, & Barish, 2016); however, no prior study has examined the relationship between improvisation trainning and social anxiety. Further, no study has explored whether improvisation promotes tolerance for uncertainty, which has been linked to reduced anxiety and shown to explain variance in social anxiety (Boelen, & Reijntjes, 2009). Further, positive effects on mood have been identified in both improvisation and social interaction treatments (Lewis & Lovatt, 2013). This dissertation aims to empirically test whether improvising might benefit psychological health and explore reasons why. Chapter 2 evaluates an existing improvisational theater training program created by The Detroit Creativity Project called The Improv Project, which teaches life skills through improvisational theater to middle and high schoolers in Detroit public schools. Specifically, we find that participating in an improv course predicts reductions in social anxiety. Further, social anxiety does not appear to be a barrier to participation in the project. However, as a field study of an existing program, this method lacks a randomly assigned control condition. Chapter 3 follows an experimental paradigm from previous research linking improvisation training to improvements in divergent thinking in the laboratory (Lewis & Lovatt, 2013). We examine whether a short exposure to improvisational theater training can increase tolerance of uncertainty, shown to predict reductions in social anxiety during cognitive behavior therapy (Mahoney & McEvoy, 2012). We find across two experiments that a brief session of improvising causes improvements in uncertainty tolerance and divergent thinking, as well as affective well-being, compared to a social interaction control. Further, these relative gains appear to depend on which specific features of the improv condition differ from the social interaction control condition. As an experiment with random assignment to condition, this work offers desirable features for internal validity, but lacks generalizability (Cook, Campbell, & Shadish, 2002). Chapter 4 tests the relationship established in Chapter 3 between improv and uncertainty tolerance back in the field setting. Specifically, we find that participating in an improvisational theater program for adolescents (described in Chapter 2) predicts increases in uncertainty tolerance, and replicate the Chapter 2 analysis linking improvisational theater training program with reductions in social anxiety symptoms. Additionally, we find that the increase in uncertainty tolerance in this study also predicts reductions in social anxiety. Taken together, this research provides the first empirical evidence that improvisational theater training benefits those with social anxiety problems, and that this is likely in part because engaging in improvisational theater exercises causes increased tolerance of uncertainty.
... Inter-temporally coherent belief-desire coalitions more consistently achieve higher value [275,276], and so tend to be reinforced, and so tend to dominate persona evolution [60]. Shared narratives co-evolving with these pattern coalitions [271,277,278] are shaped by repeated games both within [279][280][281] and between individuals [121,269,282]. Although self-processes may become extremely complex (and abstract) in these ways, in all cases such generative models both originate from and must continually deal with the constraints and affordances of their radically embodied nature. ...
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Drawing from both enactivist and cognitivist perspectives on mind, I propose that explaining teleological phenomena may require reappraising both “Cartesian theaters” and mental homunculi in terms of embodied self-models (ESMs), understood as body maps with agentic properties, functioning as predictive-memory systems and cybernetic controllers. Quasi-homuncular ESMs are suggested to constitute a major organizing principle for neural architectures due to their initial and ongoing significance for solutions to inference problems in cognitive (and affective) development. Embodied experiences provide foundational lessons in learning curriculums in which agents explore increasingly challenging problem spaces, so answering an unresolved question in Bayesian cognitive science: what are biologically plausible mechanisms for equipping learners with sufficiently powerful inductive biases to adequately constrain inference spaces? Drawing on models from neurophysiology, psychology, and developmental robotics, I describe how embodiment provides fundamental sources of empirical priors (as reliably learnable posterior expectations). If ESMs play this kind of foundational role in cognitive development, then bidirectional linkages will be found between all sensory modalities and frontal-parietal control hierarchies, so infusing all senses with somatic-motoric properties, thereby structuring all perception by relevant affordances, so solving frame problems for embodied agents. Drawing upon the Free Energy Principle and Active Inference framework, I describe a particular mechanism for intentional action selection via consciously imagined (and explicitly represented) goal realization, where contrasts between desired and present states influence ongoing policy selection via predictive coding mechanisms and backward-chained imaginings (as self-realizing predictions). This embodied developmental legacy suggests a mechanism by which imaginings can be intentionally shaped by (internalized) partially-expressed motor acts, so providing means of agentic control for attention, working memory, imagination, and behavior. I further describe the nature(s) of mental causation and self-control, and also provide an account of readiness potentials in Libet paradigms wherein conscious intentions shape causal streams leading to enaction. Finally, I provide neurophenomenological handlings of prototypical qualia including pleasure, pain, and desire in terms of self-annihilating free energy gradients via quasi-synesthetic interoceptive active inference. In brief, this manuscript is intended to illustrate how radically embodied minds may create foundations for intelligence (as capacity for learning and inference), consciousness (as somatically-grounded self-world modeling), and will (as deployment of predictive models for enacting valued goals).
... The confusion caused by COVID-19 is expressed in doubts as to the confidence of decision-makers in obtaining information perceived as true and relying on dubious sources of information, such as conspiracy theories, based on the assumption that powerful forces conceal everything. Conspiracy theories are informed by teleological thought, in which everything has a specific secret purpose (95). The use of conspiratorial theories can also be explained on the cognitive level through automated, rapid, and shallow processing of information influenced by limited cognitive resources (96,97). ...
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The global dissemination of COVID-19 creates confusion and ambiguity in nearly every aspect of life, including fear of contagion, heightened awareness of the mortality of self and family members, lack of power, and distrust of experts and decision-makers. In this stressful situation, the question arises as to what mechanisms distinguish between adaptive and maladaptive self-regulation. The theory of Motivated Cue-Integration (MCI) is a novel theory of self-regulation that provides a new perspective on the effect of COVID-19 on self-regulation deficiency as an example of psychological distress. Inspired by predictive coding, social cognition, embodied cognition, and experiential approach, MCI suggests that self-regulation is based on interaction between (1) high-level values and goals, (2) low-level interoceptive and exteroceptive signals, and (3) trust in epistemic authority or a significant other. Motivated Cue-Integration posits that individuals create meaning by making moment-to-moment predictions that affect their interpretation of the experience of ambiguity influenced by their relationship with epistemic authority. According to MCI, deficiency in self-regulation during COVID-19 could result either from over-sensitivity or under-sensitivity to low-level interoceptive and exteroceptive cues; rigidity or ambiguity of high-level goals, poor integration between the two levels of processing as well as distrust in epistemic authority. According to MCI, variations of these deficiencies may occur in various clinical phenomena such as alexithymia and somatization, as well as in social phenomena such as goal radicalization. Based on this reasoning, MCI claims that the mentalization of the relationship between interoceptive cues, exteroceptive cues, goals, and psychological needs of the person, as well as the improvement of confidence in epistemic authority, can promote adaptive self-regulation. Psychological intervention can foster trust in epistemic authority, increase the mentalization of interoceptive and exteroceptive cues, and their association with adaptive goals. As such, the integration of these elements in a way that facilitates incentives pathways and insight fosters a more integrated subjective experience, higher clarity of emotion, and positive internal dialogue which promotes action tendency.
... An apple in front of you might codify something like 'tool for reaching satiation' when you are hungry, in another situation it might codify something like 'disgusting thing to avoid' when you are already stuffed. This idea has-amongst others-been further developed and elaborated by Panksepp [27] on a neurological level and by Peterson [28] on a psychological level amongst others. In summary, the term functionality was chosen for the set of (potential) functions a gestalt codes to. . . ...
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A poorly elaborated learner’s understanding of models has been reported to be one of the major sources for learning difficulties in the quantum domain. To be able to provide physics education in schools with evidence as to how this problem can be tackled, a deeper theoretical understanding of the structure of learners’ mental models in quantum physics seems essential. In this respect, previous research has proposed two dimensions in learners’ mental models in the atomic hull context, labelled Fidelity of Gestalt and Functional Fidelity. In this article, we investigate whether this proposed two-factorial structure can be transferred to quantum concepts beyond the atomic hull context. To approach this, we surveyed the structure of students’ mental models in the context of photons’ properties and behavior. We conducted a questionnaire study: 170 secondary school students completed a survey instrument adapted from the literature. Using exploratory factor analysis, the two factors Fidelity of Gestalt and Functional Fidelity to describe the students’ mental models could be replicated for the photon context. We provide a selection of results from physics education literature to reveal that our two-factor framework to describe the students’ mental models seems to be a promising endeavor in the landscape of science education research in general.
... Dr Jordan Peterson has studied human behaviour, practises as a clinical psychologist and is a best-selling author (Peterson, 1999). He observed how nature deals with diverse and different ideas during his research. ...
Conference Paper
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Conventional diversity training consistently fails to alter behaviour; thus, this paper explores potential theories driving it's failures/successes with conceptual and simulation models. Diversity training failure is a repetitive pattern that implores asking what structures may be driving the pattern and if the structure can produce better behaviour. The theories explored in the paper include those by psychology experts Jung, Brown, Peterson and McGilchrist, yet focuses on the hypothesis proposed by the Theory of Enchantment (ToE), founde d by Chloé Valdary. The main dynamic hypothesis focus on how insecurities (triggering or resolving) directly affect negative behaviour, amplifying or diminishing diversity destruction. The theory is first expressed as a Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) and systematically expanded into system dynamics simulation using the Loop Stock Transform (LST) methodology. Three main scenarios are explored, revealing that "taking no action is not a solution". Secondly, poor training may create long-term damage to people's ability to deal with diversity, while, effective training that considers and deal with insecurity triggers could create successful diversity integration. Although the simulation is a qualitative exploration of psychological theories, it shows how system dynamics can expand parts of ToE and how diversity training can fail but also succeed.
... Bibliotherapy often accompanies Poetry Therapy as it supports the process of writing by making available narratives and perspectives prepared by others with identical or similar background stories as well as a range of individual solutions and mitigating strategies [17]. This builds upon the place of narratives within human history and their role in shaping everyday lives and capturing personal experiences [31]. By dealing with other people's narratives, it invites active reflection on non-informational texts. ...
... The question is: What three classes can the space of myth be divided into in the picture below? The picture shown in Figure 1 on the right is borrowed from the work of J. Peterson [13]. The answer to the question asked is the diagram on the left in Figure 1, where all three classes are indicated by words. ...
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In the light of the Cultural-Historical Theory (L.S. Vygotsky) and the Theory of Transcendental Psychology of Perception (A.I. Mirakyan), the author considers the position and functional role of the perceptual process in the development of the mind of an adult. The hypothesis is that the functional role of perception in the mind of the person at the end of its period of maturation is subordinate to the higher mental functions, in particular, the process of thinking, which is based on the search for a person available memory capacity and the possibility of finding knowledge in the relevant external sources. Therefore, in semantic terms, visual perception can be excluded from a conscious process of finding semantic solutions. This suggests the subordinate function of visual perception in cognitive adult life and the virtually automatic nature of the process that serves the knowledge-based development opportunities. In this context, we presented and experimentally tested on 30 students the effect of perceptual-semantic blindness, which shows that the mental process of solving semantic tasks is in the main ignoring additional visual stimuli containing the solution in the general visual field. In contrast to inattentional blindness, these stimuli are constantly presented in the field of vision and perceptual blindness was due not so much to inattention, but semantic processes. The presented effect of perceptual-semantic blindness is clearly expressed in more than 60% of cases (up to 100% for graphical variants). This situation can be regarded as the result of a kind of sociocultural development, formed in the conditions of modern information technology society. It also points to the need for special and purposeful perceptual-cognitive training as one of the effective means of using unclaimed perceptual possibilities to avoid the phenomena of perceptual-semantic blindness. These means are especially important for the educational process.
... Spiritual and mythological literature is littered with references to great transformative journeys, most notable being that of St John of the Cross who endured a long, dark night of the soul. Greek mythology speaks of a descent into the Underworld-katabasis or breakdown-followed by a journey back to the light; Carl Jung uncovered the process of individuation, an often painful confrontation with and integration of one's shadow and more recently, Jordan Peterson (1999) writes about the necessity and function of chaos, the unknown, in our personal development. This body of literature provides a wealth of ideas and new avenues of exploration in terms of understanding healing. ...
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Curare 42 (2019) 3+4: 69-80 | VWB | © arBeitsgemeinsChaft ethnologie und medizin (agem) Homeopathic prescribing as an apprehension of the whole natalie harriman
... Although Peterson's rather exotic intellectual roots lie in Jung, Piaget, and Joseph Campbell's mythology, laced with some watered-down cognitive-behavioral therapy, he ends up in the same normative place as those who take a more direct route from the Bible to the sort of hierarchical mentality that undergirds Conservatism. His first book, published nearly a quarter-century ago, is revealing in this regard (Peterson 1999). ...
... Although Peterson's rather exotic intellectual roots lie in Jung, Piaget, and Joseph Campbell's mythology, laced with some watered-down cognitive-behavioral therapy, he ends up in the same normative place as those who take a more direct route from the Bible to the sort of hierarchical mentality that undergirds Conservatism. His first book, published nearly a quarter-century ago, is revealing in this regard (Peterson 1999). ...
... Although Peterson's rather exotic intellectual roots lie in Jung, Piaget, and Joseph Campbell's mythology, laced with some watered-down cognitive-behavioral therapy, he ends up in the same normative place as those who take a more direct route from the Bible to the sort of hierarchical mentality that undergirds Conservatism. His first book, published nearly a quarter-century ago, is revealing in this regard (Peterson 1999). ...
... About the entrenchment and pervasiveness of this political correctness, Peterson (1990) wrote this. ...
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This study of how higher education leaders see the free speech phenomenon, i.e., how they are experiencing and responding to free speech issues is significant because universities, perhaps more than any other democracy’s institutions, are considered to have a special responsibility for safeguarding democratic values, such as free speech. The leaders of universities set the tone for the institution. Thus, the primary research question guiding this study was: How are higher education leaders experiencing and responding to free speech issues? From an empirical perspective, the study is about how leaders in higher education perceive the issue of free speech on their campuses, particularly how they are experiencing it and how they are responding. Nearly all the leaders claim to support free speech, yet, when an incident involving a free speech issue arises on campus, many leaders back down to public pressure against it. The study attempted to discover if the leader’s political ideology and leadership position affect how higher education leaders experience free speech and how they respond. This study resulted in four major findings: (1) Higher education leaders believe a university should have a free and open discourse for faculty and students; (2) There was disagreement on the limits, if any, that should be imposed on speech; (3) During the interviews, no higher education leader categorically expressed the origin of free speech as delineated in the founding documents of the United States, mainly the Declaration of Independence; and (4) Terms like free speech, diversity, inclusion, and equity need concise clarification to avoid confusion and the fear of “cancel culture.” Keywords: freedom of speech or expression, crisis, diversity, equity, inclusion.
... For example, both religious traditions of saints and martyrs, and the mythological representation of ancient Greek heroes represent positive individualism. In a sense, those forms of individualism reach the highest point of sacrifice to affirm certain values (Peterson, 1999). On the contrary, in the context of capitalism, individualism has a negative connotation since it leads to selfish behavior. ...
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We analyze stakeholder management (STM) relative to cooperation and individualism within the fourth industrial revolution (FIR). STM is a recent corporate governance tool boosting cooperation and allowing representativeness of individualistic behaviors even in dialectical environments. Though forerunning it, cooperatives massively use STM now, while the FIR demands cooperation also at non-cooperative enterprises. We reach two main conclusions. Deeper orientation towards STM helps solve the shareholder management (SHM) crisis. Moreover, exemplifying the benefits of STM towards social and environmental goals, cooperatives can inspire also other companies aiming to reduce the negative externalities of SHM and profit from cooperation within the FIR.
... For example, both religious traditions of saints and martyrs, and the mythological representation of ancient Greek heroes represent positive individualism. In a sense, those forms of individualism reach the highest point of sacrifice to affirm certain values (Peterson, 1999). On the contrary, in the context of capitalism, individualism has a negative connotation since it leads to selfish behavior. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
We analyze stakeholder management (STM) relative to cooperation and individualism within the fourth industrial revolution (FIR). STM is a recent corporate governance tool boosting cooperation and allowing representativeness of individualistic behaviors even in dialectical environments. Though forerunning it, cooperatives massively use STM now, while the FIR demands cooperation also at non-cooperative enterprises. We reach two main conclusions. Deeper orientation towards STM helps solve the shareholder management (SHM) crisis. Moreover, exemplifying the benefits of STM towards social and environmental goals, cooperatives can inspire also other companies aiming to reduce the negative externalities of SHM and profit from cooperation within the FIR.
... Bibliotherapy often accompanies Poetry Therapy as it supports the process of writing by making available narratives and perspectives prepared by others with identical or similar background stories as well as a range of individual solutions and mitigating strategies (Heimes 2012). This builds upon the place of narratives within human history and their role in shaping everyday lives and capturing personal experiences (Peterson 1999). By dealing with other people's narratives, it invites active reflection on non-informational texts. ...
Conference Paper
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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has penetrated almost all areas of life today and has the potential to create positive change. This paper addresses the opportunities offered by ICT for improving the resilience and psychosocial well-being of refugees who have experienced mentally stressful events when forced to leave their home country and seek shelter in a different host country. We want to distinguish between perceived stress and clinically-defined trauma, for which therapeutic interventions require direct personal contact with psychological experts. However, we also want to focus on the digital possibilities that currently exist to support establishing this kind of personal connection. Many refugees need to seek psychological help, but social, economic and cultural barriers hold them back. Our qualitative study with refugees, psychologists and volunteers provides insights into how refugees deal with their mental issues and the challenges they face in everyday life. We aim to show that ICT can play a major role in terms of addressing awareness and self-empowerment as an entry point for this vulnerable group. We also discuss the potential challenges and benefits of ICT for refugees seeking to recover their mental stability.
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Identity formation requires recognition of relevant knowledge content and consistent application of internalized content. While support systems provide context and influence, the mechanisms of judgment and preference enable relevant knowledge content to be filtered for relevance and application. In order for the adolescent to enable judgment and preference to be adequately recognized and to consistently apply knowledge content as related to the self, such mechanisms must be exercised. The stage of adolescence provides a psycho-social moratorium for the individual to filter self-knowledge, contextually develop self-construal, and solidify the varying facets of individual identity. Given appropriate circumstances, the psycho-social moratorium is a period wherein the adolescent forms their identity, by engaging with varying behaviors and contexts, and temporarily removing their self from the confines of society and its constructs, to ultimately develop the self-concept that will define their adult life and processes of mature decision making. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Article
Wenzel’s response to Fergnani (2022) is a laudable effort to advance the study of corporate foresight practices and processes, an important yet underinvestigated area of research in management and strategy scholarship. Wenzel’s arguments encourage us to reflect not only on the arguments made by Fergnani (2022) but also on the core tenets of the futures studies and foresight literature1—tenets that could be misapprehended. Such reflection opens opportunities to clarify the construct of corporate foresight and further integrate it with existing management and strategy scholarship, which can encourage conceptual and empirical research in this domain. This rejoinder elaborates on these points in more detail as follows.
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Cuadernos abiertos de crítica y coproducción : autores colectivos institución y coproducción. Covid-19 como obstáculo
Chapter
This chapter discusses the challenges for managers resulting from modern and flexible workplace concepts. It will specifically reflect on stressors that arise for employees when working in a multi-space environment and how employees bind to their workplace. Using a combined methodological approach, which integrates a literature review with the experiences of our daily work as workplace change consultants, managers receive concrete advice on how to lead in multi-space. This article thus aims to reduce the uncertainties and stressors triggered by New Work environments, or even to convert these into growth potential for the entire company, by naming concrete leadership measures based on values formulation and emotional leadership.
Chapter
Relatively little attention has been paid to the final stage of Goffman’s moral career trajectory, when role incumbents develop an ‘ex-’ identity. Research on stigma management concerns the phase after labelling, once an actor is recognised as an ex-, but how do they get to that point? Ebaugh’s model of role exit helps to theorise this transition (becoming an ex-) as a socially negotiated process, through which actors manage the ‘dynamics of disengagement’ from a previously significant identity. However, this model has only been considered in relation to relatively ordinary, everyday roles relating to family or occupational life. We question whether and to what extent the same pattern of sequential stages can apply to actors seeking to extricate themselves from total institutions that have a more extremist, separatist or radical agenda. Taking examples from military contexts, we explore the unique dramaturgical, moral and existential dilemmas confronting those who become disenfranchised, how they manage their role exit process, and how they make sense of the experience. We compare two war veterans’ accounts of dis-identification, disillusionment, guilt and shame, emphasising the agency with which they performed reparative biographical work on their ex-identities. We observe two contrasting strategies of narrative realignment and therapeutic animation, showing how both serve to reintegrate disturbingly negative parts into an otherwise ‘good’ moral self.
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Metaphysics is like semiotics: you either do it well or do it badly, but avoiding commitments in that domain is not an option. However, when we engage explicitly in metaphysical reflection, we realize that semiosis enjoys a double standing. On the one hand, the action of signs must be relied on to even raise the question of what is real and what is not. Yet, even if one is willing to accept that the conveyance of meaning currently under way (as you read these words) is as real as the ink and/or photons which support it, signs – as relations – are not mentioned in the official vocabulary of science. I explore three basic ways to respond to this exclusion: 1. One can bite the bullet and accept that semiosis is not real in the mind-independent sense. 2. One can retain the view that to be real is to be mind-independent yet show that semiosis is indeed mind-independent, thereby securing its status as real. 3. One can reject the view that to be real is to be mind-independent. Far from being a matter of personal preference, each stance has distinctive work to do in order to be justified: 1ʹ. Since the action of signs must be relied on in order to adjudicate debates about what is real and what is not, one must show how denying the reality of semiosis is not self-defeating. 2ʹ. One must show how, exactly, semiosis is mind-independent. 3ʹ. One must show how the mind-independent construal of reality can be rejected without lapsing into an implausible view of reality as wholly fabricated. I look at each of these argumentative trajectories in turn and conclude that 1ʹ cannot be shown whereas 2ʹ and 3ʹ could, with some work, be rendered tenable.
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The author proposes that particular oedipal dynamics in individuals suffering with compulsive sexual behaviours tend to be characterized by imbalance between maternal and paternal functions. The maternal object is experienced as overwhelming and potentially annihilating. The paternal object is relatively weak and incapable of moderating fear of symbiosis. There is failure to develop a triangular space within the mind to enable the capacity to apprehend psychic reality and to relate. Compulsive sexual behaviours are defined as a series of compelling sexualized enactments, which function as a ‘curative device’ to prevent psychic collapse. Due to a lack of adequate internalized paternal function, perverse enactments signify premature attempts to structure reality. Enactment mitigates emotional contact and manifests within the here-and-now of treatment. The psychotherapist has to contend with enticements and pressures to act, sometimes in a retaliatory way. The setting or frame, representing the paternal function, is an arena for these dynamics to be manifest. There is an inducement to be drawn towards ‘management’ rather than the ‘being with’ of the maternal function.
Article
Aspekti ljudskog ponašanja pripisivani savremenom dobu ostaju suštinski nepromijenjeni prethodnih nekoliko stotina hiljada godina, ali savremena globalno dostupna tehnologija danas obezbjeđuje platformu za stvaranje novih selekcionih pritisaka na ljudsku vrstu, na ovaj način omogućavajući izmjenu ne samo genetičkog opisa jedinke nazvane čovjek, već i njenog fenomenskog iskustva. Globalno dostupna tehnologija omogućava amplifikaciju i propagaciju posthumanističke ideologije kroz implicitne semiotičke mehanizme zaobilazeći svjesnu percepciju i tako indirektno prijeteći izmjenom čovjeka i njegove svijesti na fenomenskom nivou. Na primjeru akademskog ideala, ovdje izlažem analitički argument za postojanje ideološke prijetnje dijeljenom fenomenskom iskustvu, pod premisom etičke i ontološke relevantnosti tog iskustva.
Chapter
The Jordan Peterson moment is over. We have entered a Post Peterson Paradigm. But the lessons learned for academics and our universities can now be audited. It is time for scholars from the humanities and social sciences to recover from decades of disrespect and institutional decay, and treat the Post Peterson Paradigm as a moment of warning, reflection and change.
Chapter
I have never understood why a PhD is the gateway qualification into an academic career. It is an apprenticeship for research but the idea that a PhD offers any capacity to prepare academics to write curriculum and teach or to contribute to public debates is bizarre. This chapter explores the nature of 'expertise' in higher education. While respecting discipinary expertise, it is necessary to recognize that a PhD in most disciplines does not prepare an academic to teach, or offer informed commentary about higher education.
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As Heavy Metal music's most extreme subgenre of, motives of destruction, death and darkness are largely characteristic of Black Metal. A frequently anti-Christian message and commercially driven aim to shock the audiences have led to the impression that Black Metal is an expression of nihilism, Satanism, or simple transgression. However, this stigma does not capture the entirety of the concepts musically embodied in this genre with its distortion and screamed vocals. The aim of this work is to show that there is more to this genre, and to provide a description of the dual nature of the original motifs in this genre, how they are expressed using archetype and myth, and an alternative to nihilism. It will be seen that destruction is a prerequisite for rebuilding, death a precursor of rebirth, and darkness a call to courage so that one may conquer fear by facing it.
Chapter
Zusammenfassung Nachdem sich die sozialwissenschaftliche Analyse des Unterhaltungsfilms lange Zeit in Geiselhaft einer kritisch-negativistischen Perspektive befunden hat, erwacht neuerdings im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung des Quality-TV ein unvoreingenommeneres Interesse an Film und Fernsehen. Die vermutlich schon seit Anbeginn der Menschheit existierende Faszination für fiktionale Geschichten und Erzählungen, die sich auch in audiovisuellen Medien transportieren lassen, liegt begründet in einer Reihe von psycho-sozialen Funktionen, die diese für Individuen wie auch Kollektive erfüllen (Eskapismus, Katharsis, Edukation, Transformation, Identität). Am Beispiel von Game of Thrones lässt sich zeigen, dass Fernsehserien auch eine unbewusste Tiefendimension haben, die mehr oder weniger kollektivierte Phantasien über die Verfasstheit der Gesellschaft einfangen und widerspiegeln, aber auch herausfordern. Anhand der Topographie von Game of Thrones mit den drei zentralen Lokalitäten Westeros, Essos und dem Norden wird gezeigt, dass diese die Elemente von Angst, Verdrängung und Hoffnung repräsentieren, wobei die unerwarteten Brüche und Schocks in der Serienhandlung, darunter insbesondere das Finale, diese gesellschaftliche Phantasie auch hinterfragen und die Zuschauer auf sich selbst zurückwerfen.
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If "Women in Love" is the epitome of modernist literature chronicling a religious thematic fissure between the conventional and the non-conventional, i.e., between faith and unfaith, then it is also a novel that draws significantly from these two sources of meaning, departing from certainty to reach uncertainty as the final destination. The aim of this paper is threefold. First, to show how the novel pulls the brakes on the quintessential theme of religion and expands on it from a rather epistemic standpoint, relying heavily on uncertainty as the guiding principle of the work of Lawrence. Second, to illuminate the persistence of an ongoing struggle of the being into the becoming reified in the characters, and lastly, to demonstrate Lawrence's affiliation with the rather non-reputable religious stance, that is agnosticism.
Article
In the particular context of post-Cold War Japanese animation, the name of Miyazaki Gorō 宮崎 吾朗 (born 1967) is mostly related to the name of his illustrious father, Miyazaki Hayao 宮崎 駿 (born 1942). Professionally speaking, Miyazaki Gorō is a landscaper (construction consultant in the planning and designing of parks and gardens) as well as an animation director of two animation movies and one TV animation series. This paper focuses on the two animation movies released by Studio Ghibli under Miyazaki Gorō’s direction: Tales from the Earthsea (ゲド戦記 Gedo senki, 2006) and From Up On Poppy Hill (コクリコ坂から Kokuriko-zaka kara , 2011). Miyazaki Gorō’s two animation movies are described and analyzed, both as ideological manifestos continuing and, from a certain point onward, transcending what might be called the “Ghibli paradigm” and as aesthetical masterworks combining the “Ghibli paradigm” with fresh visions of employing animation as a medium, exploring, absorbing and integrating influences from beyond geographical boundaries and striving to break the “Japanese” limitations of the artistic language utilized in his approach to animated expressive modes.
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Mystics and philosophers across the ages have interrogated ideological systems to reveal truth and the praxes that ensure a good life. The 2019 debate “Happiness: Marxism vs Capitalism” between Jordan B. Peterson and Slavoj Žižek exemplifies the perennial quest to link consciousness with a source of lasting happiness. This essay first deconstructs Peterson’s responses to Žižek regarding the biblical devolution of consciousness and religious belief. The second half addresses Žižek’s appraisal of Indian mysticism per the Nazi regime’s misuse of the Bhagavad Gītā contrasted with P. R. Sarkar’s exegesis of the text’s Tantric philosophy. This essay concludes that as Christianity’s religious narrative denies spiritual transcendence (humanity is irrevocably separated from its perfect cause), it struggles to stand the philosophical test of James’s spiritual pragmatism.
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The five-factor model has recently received wide attention as a comprehensive model of personality traits. The claim that these five factors represent basic dimensions of personality is based on four lines of reasoning and evidence: (a) longitudinal and cross-observer studies demonstrate that all five factors are enduring dispositions that are manifest in patterns of behavior; (b) traits related to each of the factors are found in a variety of personality systems and in the natural language of trait description; (c) the factors are found in different age, sex, race, and language groups, although they may be somewhat differently expressed in different cultures; and (d) evidence of heritability suggests that all have some biological basis. To clarify some remaining confusions about the five-factor model, the relation between Openness and psychometric intelligence is described, and problems in factor rotation are discussed.
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This article assessed whether resting electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry in anterior regions of the brain can predict affective responses to emotion elicitors. Baseline EEG was recorded from 32 female adults, after which Ss viewed film clips preselected to elicit positive or negative affect. Resting alpha power asymmetry in the frontal region significantly predicted self-reported global negative affect in response to clips and predicted the difference between global positive and negative affect. Analyses of discrete emotions revealed a strong relation between frontal asymmetry and fear responses to films. Effects were independent of Ss mood ratings at the time at which baseline EEG was measured. Resting anterior asymmetry may be a state-independent index of the individual's predisposition to respond affectively.
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The evidence is convincing that each human cerebral hemisphere is capable of human mental activity. This being so, every normal human thought and action demands either a consensus between the two hemispheres, or a dominance of one over the other, in any event integrated into a unity of conscious mentation. How this is achieved remains wholly mysterious, but anatomical and behavioral data suggest that the two hemispheres, and their respective bilateral, anatomical-functional components, maintain a dynamic equilibrium through neural competition. While the forebrain commissures must contribute substantially to this competitive process, it is emphasized in this review that the serotonergic raphé nuclei of pons and mesencephalon are also participants in interhemispheric events. Each side of the raphé projects heavily to both sides of the forebrain, and each is in receipt of bilateral input from the forebrain and the habenulo-interpeduncular system. A multifarious loop thus exists between the two hemispheres, comprised of both forebrain commissural and brainstem paths. There are many reasons for believing that perturbation of this loop, by a variety of pathogenic agents or processes, probably including severe mental stress in susceptible individuals, underlies the extraordinarily diverse symptomatology of schizophrenia. Abnormality of features reflecting interhemispheric processes is common in schizophrenic patients; and the 'first rank' symptoms of delusions or hallucinations are prototypical of what might be expected were the two hemispheres unable to integrate their potentially independent thoughts. Furthermore, additional evidence suggests that the disorder lies within, or is focused primarily through, the raphé serotonergic system, that plays such a fundamental role in consciousness, in dreaming, in response to psychotomimetic drugs, and probably in movement, and even the trophic state of the neocortex. This system is also well situated to control the dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area, thus relating to the prominence of dopaminergic features in schizophrenia; and the lipofuscin loading and intimate relation with blood vessels and ependyma may make neurons of the raphé uniquely vulnerable to deleterious agents.
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The hippocampal formation (comprising the hippocampus proper, the dentate gyrus, and the subiculum) has been repeatedly implicated in information storage models of the mammalian brain. The precise nature of the hippocampal role in the storage of information has, however, remained elusive. Here it is proposed that the role of the hippocampus is to form and retain an index of neocortical areas activated by experiential events. The hippocampal index, thus, represents those unique cortical regions activated by specific events. The neuronal mechanism underlying the memory index is hypothesized to be long-term potentiation. It is asserted that the reactivation of the stored hippocampal memory index will serve to also reactivate the associated unique array of neocortical areas and thus will result in a memorial experience. This hippocampal reactivation of a neocortical array may also be involved in establishing a cortically based memory trace.
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Nonorganic failure to thrive (NOFTT) is characterized by physical and developmental retardation and a disturbed mother-infant relationship. This study sought to quantify differences in interactions between mother-NOFTT infant pairs and control mother-thriving infant pairs. Eleven mother-NOFTT infant dyads and 11 control mother-infant dyads were videotaped for 30 minutes through a one-way mirror. Mother and infant behaviors were evaluated for 21 behavioral categories: 12 maternal, 7 infant, and 2 mutual. Statistically significant differences were noted in five (24 percent) categories. The quantity of maternal and infant vocalizations and the responsiveness of the mother to the infant's vocal cues were strikingly reduced in the NOFTT dyads.
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Single unit activity was recorded from the hippocampus while Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata, n = 4) were performing a delayed response (DR) task. A total of 272 units showed an obvious change in discharge rate in relation to the events of the DR task. These 272 related units were classified into 6 groups: cue-light related units (n = 24), cue- and choice-light related units (n = 41), choice-light related units (n = 21), response-related units (n = 51), reward-error units (n = 17), and delay units (n = 118). Reward-error units contained reward-related and error-related units. Error-related units showed changes in firing after incorrect responses and/or after omission of reward on correct trials. It is noteworthy that 43.4% of the related units are delay units which showed increased or decreased firing preferentially during the delay period. Some units showed a differential firing pattern during cue or delay period depending on the spatial position of the cue. The results of the present study are interpreted as an experimental evidence for the involvement of the hippocampus in DR task.
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Gave 8 male albino rats control operations and 10 Ss large radio-frequency lesions of the amygdaloid area. Lesioned Ss showed reduced freezing to an immobile cat or to previously neutral stimuli associated with footshock. These Ss also failed to avoid either the immobile cat or an approaching shock prod. In a 2nd experiment with 16 Ss, smaller electrolytic lesions, largely involving the corticomedial amygdaloid nuclei, produced similar results. This pattern of alterations of reactivity to unconditioned and conditioned threat stimuli suggests that the amygdaloid area has a central role in the regulation of defensive reactions.
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Reviews the literature on the neurotransmitter substrates controlling motor readiness, showing that these substrates produce qualitative changes in the flow of information in the brain: Dopaminergic activation increases informational redundancy, whereas noradrenergic arousal facilitates orienting to novelty. Evidence that these neurotransmitter pathways are lateralized in the human brain is consistent with the left hemisphere's specialization for complex motor operations and the right hemisphere's integration of bilateral perceptual input. Principles of attentional control are suggested by the operational characteristics of neural control systems. The affective features of the activation and arousal systems are integral to their adaptive roles and may suggest how specific emotional processes dynamically regulate cognitive function. (4½ p ref)
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Ten-month-old infants viewed videotape segments of an actress spontaneously generating a happy or sad facial expression. Brain activity was recorded from the left and right frontal and parietal scalp regions. In two studies, infants showed greater activation of the left frontal than of the right frontal area in response to the happy segments. Parietal asymmetry failed to discriminate between the conditions. Differential lateralization of the hemispheres for affective processes seems to be established by 10 months of age.
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Specific psychiatric disorders are characterized by impaired selective inhibition or "gating" of responses to sensory or cognitive information. Less is known about gating differences among normal individuals. We tested carefully screened controls in measures of central inhibition: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, the Stroop test, and negative priming (NP). Subjects were defined as "normal" or "psychosis prone," based on theoretically and empirically derived MMPI criteria. Performance on all measures by "psychosis-prone" individuals suggested reduced sensorimotor gating and/or increased cognitive or visual interference. Performance was most impaired in individuals scoring highest on the MMPI Goldberg Index, which was originally designed to distinguish "psychotic" from "neurotic" inpatients. Inhibition in Stroop and NP was correlated across all subjects, but PPI was not correlated with other measures. Gender differences were noted in PPI (male > female), but not Stroop or NP. Performance deteriorated with age in Stroop and NP, but not PPI. The results are discussed as they relate to psychophysical and neural correlates of normal personality dimensions.
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Inconsistencies in the effects of alcohol on aggression in rodent models suggest that this effect is mediated through some other factor that is differentially involved in the various tests. The patterning of alcohol enhancement of aggression suggests that this may be most apparent in tests in which defensiveness or anxiety act to reduce aggression. Thus, an understanding of the relationship between alcohol and aggression may also involve determination of alcohol effects on anxiety. New ethoexperimental models of anxiety in rodents involve the measurement of a range of defensive behaviors to approaching, contacting predators, or to situations associated with (absent) predators. A Fear/Defense Test Battery, measuring the former, showed little, and inconsistent, response to traditional (benzodiazepine) or nontraditional (5-HT1A agonist) anxiolytics. However, an Anxiety/Defense Test Battery, measuring the latter, produced an "anxiolytic profile" of changes seen consistently to both traditional and nontraditional anxiolytics, but not to nonanxiolytic drugs. Alcohol (0.6 and 1.2 g/kg) altered the four behaviors of the "anxiolytic profile" in a manner consistent with the effects of diazepam (2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg), indicating that it is also anxiolytic. The consistency of alcohol and diazepam effects on anxiety provide a possible mechanism for their somewhat similar effects on aggression. However, alcohol at nonsedative doses, but not diazepam, additionally enhances defensive attack. Although defensive attack is behaviorally and neurally different from offensive aggression, the two are not separated in analyses of human "aggression," suggesting that alcohol effects in the latter may also be mediated by changes in defensive attack.
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Individuals differ dramatically in the quality and intensity of their response to affectively evocative stimuli. On the basis of prior theory and research, we hypothesized that these individual differences are related to variation in activation of the left and right frontal brain regions. We recorded baseline brain electrical activity from subjects on two occasions 3 weeks apart. Immediately following the second recording, subjects were exposed to brief positive and negative emotional film clips. For subjects whose frontal asymmetry was stable across the 3-week period, greater left frontal activation was associated with reports of more intense positive affect in response to the positive films, whereas greater right frontal activation was associated with more intense reports of negative affect in response to the negative film clips. The methodological and theoretical implications of these data are discussed.
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Following damage to specific sectors of the prefrontal cortex, humans develop a defect in real-life decision making, in spite of otherwise normal intellectual performance. The patients so affected may even realize the consequences of their actions but fail to act accordingly, thus appearing oblivious to the future. The neural basis of this defect has resisted explanation. Here we identify a physiological correlate for the defect and discuss its possible significance. We measured the skin conductance responses (SCRs) of 7 patients with prefrontal damage, and 12 normal controls, during the performance of a novel task, a card game that simulates real-life decision making in the way it factors uncertainty, rewards, and penalties. Both patients and controls generated SCRs after selecting cards that were followed by penalties or by reward. However, after a number of trials, controls also began to generate SCRs prior to their selection of a card, while they pondered from which deck to choose, but no patients showed such anticipatory SCRs. The absence of anticipatory SCRs in patients with prefrontal damage is a correlate of their insensitivity to future outcomes. It is compatible with the idea that these patients fail to activate biasing signals that would serve as value markers in the distinction between choices with good or bad future outcomes; that these signals also participate in the enhancement of attention and working memory relative to representations pertinent to the decision process; and that the signals hail from the bioregulatory machinery that sustains somatic homeostasis and can be expressed in emotion and feeling.
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Deciding advantageously in a complex situation is thought to require overt reasoning on declarative knowledge, namely, on facts pertaining to premises, options for action, and outcomes of actions that embody the pertinent previous experience. An alternative possibility was investigated: that overt reasoning is preceded by a nonconscious biasing step that uses neural systems other than those that support declarative knowledge. Normal participants and patients with prefrontal damage and decision-making defects performed a gambling task in which behavioral, psychophysiological, and self-account measures were obtained in parallel. Normals began to choose advantageously before they realized which strategy worked best, whereas prefrontal patients continued to choose disadvantageously even after they knew the correct strategy. Moreover, normals began to generate anticipatory skin conductance responses (SCRs) whenever they pondered a choice that turned out to be risky, before they knew explicitly that it was a risky choice, whereas patients never developed anticipatory SCRs, although some eventually realized which choices were risky. The results suggest that, in normal individuals, nonconscious biases guide behavior before conscious knowledge does. Without the help of such biases, overt knowledge may be insufficient to ensure advantageous behavior.
The inferno: Dante’s immortal drama of a journey through hell
  • A Dante
Dante, A. (1982). The inferno: Dante’s immortal drama of a journey through hell (J. Ciardi, Trans.). New York: Mentor Books