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One increasingly popular type of alternative therapy is aromatherapy, but scientific validation in this field is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rose oil (Rosa damascena Mill, Rosaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Five autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and skin temperature, were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, rose oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate, blood oxygen saturation and systolic blood pressure, which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the rose oil group rated themselves as more calm, more relaxed and less alert than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent a relaxing effect of the rose oil and provide some evidence for the use of rose oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief of depression and stress in humans.
... 6 Additionally, R. damascena has been implicated for therapeutic purposes in traditional medicines. 7 There is no review on neuropharmacological impacts of R. damascena. 8 This literature review, therefore, was aimed to summarize the neuropharmacological impacts of R. damascena. ...
... Phenolic compounds of R. damascena possess antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidepressant properties. 7,18 The essential oil of R. damascena contains a lot of nonterpenoid hydrocarbones. The essential oil also is rich of compounds such as linalool, geraniol, n-tricosane, 1-nonadecene, n-pentacosane, nerol and nhexatriacontane. ...
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Background: Rosa damascena Herrm (R. damascena) is a species of the Rosaceae family. The R. damascena has been shown to improve depression, anxiety and grief, it also suppresses allergic reactions and migraine headache. In addition, amelioration of learning and memory deficits, delay in onset of seizure attacks, alleviation of pain and improvement of sleep disorders have been attributed to extract and essential oil of R. damascena. This review was conducted to integrate the neuropharmacological effects of R. damascena. Methods: Employed scientific databases for collecting information were including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar. Results: The results of animal and clinical trial studies indicate that the extract of R. damascena and its essential oil apply useful therapeutic effects on depressant and anxiety- like behaviors, epileptic seizures, learning and memory impairments, sleep disturbances and pain. Conclusion: Based on scientific findings, the neuroprotective effects of R. damascena can be mainly linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
... Moreover, the stress system activity, through glucocorticoid receptor resistance and cognitive function, was greatly affected by the inhalation of RDM essential oil (Ghoshooni et al., 2017). The relaxing effects of RDM could be justified by the fact that the aroma might stimulate the raphe nuclei of the brain into releasing serotonin, a neurotransmitter creating relaxing or sedative effects (Hongratanaworakit, 2009). Moreover, RDM oil exhibited an antidepressant activity by decreasing lipid peroxidation and increasing antioxidants in the cerebral cortex (Naziroglu, Kozlu, Yorgancigil, Uguz, & Karakus, 2013). ...
... Moreover, RDM contains steric, ketone, aldehyde, and terpenic compounds, which can reduce anxiety by stimulating the olfactory center of the brain (Daneshpajooh et al., 2019). Geraniol, as the main component of RDM, has estrogenic activity and estrogens can reduce anxiety (Hongratanaworakit, 2009). In addition, RDM oil showed beneficial effects on the symptoms of depression at the molecular level because of containing quercetin and kaempferol, as two key flavonoids (Naziroglu et al., 2013). ...
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Recent studies have reported conflicting findings on the antianxiety, antidepressant, and anti‐stress properties of Rosa Damascena Mill (RDM). Therefore, the present systematic review and meta‐analysis were conducted on the effects of RDM for treating anxiety, depression, and stress amongst adults. The online data sources of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, ProQuest, and Scientific Information Database were searched from inception to June 30, 2021. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which examined the effects of RDM (in any form of administration) on adults' anxiety, depression, and stress, were included. A random‐effects model was applied to pool the data, and a total of 32 publications were included. The results of the meta‐analysis revealed that administration of RDM significantly reduced state anxiety (effect size [ES]: 24, standardized mean difference [SMD]: −1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −2.29, −1.20; p < .001), depression (ES: 7, SMD: −0.87, 95% CI: −1.47, −0.28; p = .004), and stress (ES: 4, SMD: −1.33, 95% CI: −1.98, −0.69; p < .001). However, the treatment had no significant effect on trait anxiety (ES: 6, weighted mean difference: −0.75, 95% CI: −1.93, 0.43; p = .214). The association between the total administration dosage and/or duration of RDM and the changes in state anxiety and depression was not dose‐dependent. Most RCTs had a fair methodological quality based on the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Besides, the quality of evidence ranged from very low to moderate according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Hence, further high‐quality RCTs are needed to draw reliable conclusions regarding the use of RDM for treating adults' anxiety, depression, and stress.
... There are many evidences the crude distillation of roses for the oil was known in the late 7th century AD [6] . Historically, R. damascena was used in therapy of abdominal and chest pain, heart health [7], menstrual bleeding [8] digestive problems, and prevention of inflammation [9] . It has been effective as a cough treatment especially in children besides being a gentle laxative. ...
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For centuries, the Damask rose has symbolized beauty and love. The fragrance of the rose has been captured and preserved in the form of rose water by a method that can be traced to ancient times in the Middle East and later to the Indian subcontinent. Damascene Rose or Rosa damascene is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. This herb can grow in different climatic regions, but the best climate for this herb in arid and semi-arid regions with low temperature Damask Rose was originated from Damascus, Syria. It was suggested that the French Crusader Robert de Brie, who took part in the Siege of Damascus in 1148 at the second crusade, is sometimes credited for bringing the Damask rose from Syria to Europe. Other accounts state that the ancient Romans brought it to their colonies in England. R. damascena is an ornamental plant which have in addition to perfuming effect, several pharmacological and nutritional properties including antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, soothing, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, and culinary properties. The medicinal functions of Rosaceae are partly attributed to their abundance of phenolics compound. Phenolics possess a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and antidepressant.
... The most effective bacterial strains B4, S2, D7 and C9 were found to have the highest percentage of inhibition (p≥0.05) and a statistically significant difference (p≤0.05) with other strains in terms of inhibition percentage. Important PGP (promoting plant growth) properties such as HCN, siderophore production and phosphate dissolving activities were studied and isolates showing the highest siderophore production were determined to be D8: 37 ...
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Today, one of the most important issues in big cities is transportation and city traffic. The development of all countries in the world depends on the development of transport systems. One of the most effective solutions to this problem is to develop and strengthen urban public transportation systems. Also, deficiencies and inadequacies in the land transportation system, especially urban transportation, are considered as one of the obstacles to the growth and development of any country. Due to the urbanization phenomenon in Afghanistan and the increase in the number of cars in cities, we are witnessing exponentially increasing traffic and environmental pollution on the streets of cities, which has become a major problem for city administrators in Mazar-e-Sharif city. This research first mentions the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in terms of location, type of urban roads, existing public transport systems and traffic management. Then, the performance of existing systems, problems, existing challenges and high influencing factors of Mazar e-Sharif transportation system are examined. Finally, after the analysis, logical solutions to the existing problems are presented using the experiences of developed countries. Keywords: transportation, sustainable system, traffic, public transport system, road network
... One study mentioned that lactulose has less side effects such as bloating, nausea, and vomiting than Rosa damascene Mill. Furthermore, it has sedative, stress-reducing, and depressing properties [35] . ...
Article
Consideration and improvement for anxiety and depression are important during global pandemic diseases. Appropriate healthcare can be obtained by paying more attention to traditional medicinal sciences. The adverse effects of stress with its various symptoms can be managed by introducing plants that boost mental health. The most relevant psychological reactions in the general population related to global pandemic are pervasice anxiety, frustration and boredom, aspecific and uncontrolled fear, disabling loneliness, significant lifestyle changes, and psychiatric conditions. Ginseng, chamomile, passionflower, herbal tea, lavender, saffron, kava, rose, cardamom, Chinese date and some chief formula like yokukansan, Dan-zhi-xiao-yao-san, so-ochim-tang-gamiband, and saikokaryukotsuboreito are notable herbal treatments for mental health problems. The most common medicinal plants which have been used in Iran for the cure of stress and anxiety are Viper,s-buglosses, Dracocephalum, valerian, chamomile, common hop, Hawhorns, and Lavender. Medicinal plants and herbs can be used for treatment and alleviating negative effects of stress, anger and depression during the global pandemic.
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Recent studies have reported conflicting results regarding the pain-alleviating effects of Rosa Damascena in topical and oral administration forms. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of topical application and oral intake of this herbal medicine on adults’ acute pain severity in a meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, SID, and MagIran from inception to March 20, 2021. We included parallel-group and cross-over randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of any products of Rosa Damascena in oral and topical administration forms to placebo, non-treatment, or conventional treatment. Two independent researchers performed study screening and selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. A random-effect model was used to pool the data. Of the 11 studies that met the inclusion criteria, four and seven administered Rosa damascena through topical application and oral intake, respectively. The oral intake of Rosa damascena reduced pain severity nonsignificantly ]standardized mean difference (SMD): -0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.27, 0.17; P= 0.132[. However, the topical application of this treatment had no painalleviating effect ]SMD: 0.10; 95% CI: -0.75, 0.96; P= 0.814[. Most studies (n= 6) had fair methodological quality, and one reported mild allergic rhinitis as an adverse effect of the treatment. Further robust RCTs are suggested to compare the effects of oral intake and topical application of Rosa damascena on the severity of different types of acute pain in adults.
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Essential oils are used increasingly for the improvement in quality of life and relief of various symptoms in patients, but scientific validation is still rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis, Rutaceae) on human autonomic parameters and emotional responses in healthy subjects after transdermal absorption. In order to exclude any olfactory stimulation, the inhalation of the fragrances was prevented by breathing masks. Thirty nine healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Four autonomic parameters, i.e. blood pressure, breathing rate, pulse rate and skin temperature were recorded. Emotional responses were assessed by means of rating scales. Compared to placebo, sweet orange oil caused significant decreases of breathing rate and pulse rate which indicate a decrease of autonomic arousal. At the emotional level, subjects in the sweet orange oil group rated themselves more cheerful and more vigorous than subjects in the control group. This finding suggests an increase of arousal in terms of self-evaluation
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Although essential oils are used increasingly for the improvement in quality of life as well as for the relief of various symptoms in patients, scientific evaluation of the effects of fragrances in healthy volunteers is rather scarce. Up to now, no experiments about the effects of sweet orange oil (Citrus sinensis) on human physiological parameters and on behavioral measures after inhalation have been carried out. Therefore, the main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of this fragrance compound on physiological parameters as well as selfevaluation in healthy human subjects following inhalation. Physiological parameters recorded were blood pressure, breathing rate, skin temperature, and heart rate. Self-evaluation was assessed in terms of alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation, and vigour. Additionally, the fragrance was rated in terms of pleasantness, intensity, and effect. Sweet orange oil caused significant increases in heart rate as well as in subjective alertness, which are likely to represent a stimulating effect of the oil. These findings furnish scientific proof for the use of sweet orange oil in aromatherapy for the relief of mild forms of depression and stress in humans.
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In the present study we evaluated the composition and antimicrobial activity of various rose oils from Bulgaria, Turkey, Morocco, Iran and China against three Gram-positive, three Gram-negative bacteria and two yeasts. The composition of the studied essential oils was determined by GC and GC/MS. Citronellol was the major compound of all the oil samples: 31.7% (Chinese oil); 32.6% (Iranian oil); 33.6% (Moroccan oil); 34.9% (Bulgarian oil) and 38,7 % (Turkish oil). For the Bulgarian oil we could determine the highest activity against all microorganisms. Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 was the most sensitive strain to Bulgarian rose oil (MCC 128 μg/mL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9627 and P. fluorescens were more resistible strains (MCC 4096 μg/mL). Antimicrobial activity of rose oils is mainly due to the action of oxygenated acyclic monoterpenes citronellol, geraniol, nerol and linalool, their acetate derivatives and the phenolic compound eugenol.
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The genus Acanthostrongylophora is famous for producing a wide array of manzamine alkaloids as natural hydrochloride salts. An examination of A. ingens has now yielded two tertiary bases, (+)-8-hydroxymanzamine A (1) and (+)-manzamine A (2), by chromatography over alumina using CHCl3-MeOH-NH3.H2O as solvent. In addition, (+)-8-hydroxymanzamine A hydrochloride (3) and (+)-manzamine A hydrochloride (4) were isolated under the same conditions from the same source by silica gel chromatography. The structures of 1-4 were determined from 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra and by circular dichroism experiments, and the spectral features of the bases 1 and 2 were found to be different from those of the salts 3 and 4. Compounds 3 and 4 were deprotonated by both A12O3 and strong base to afford 1 and 2, which were converted again to their respective salts 3 and 4. Both the compounds 1 and 3 showed equally potent in vitro antimalarial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and -resistant (W2) strains of P. falciparum (IC50 = 19.5 and 22.0 ng/mL vs. 27.0 and 36.5 ng/mL, respectively), while 2 was >3-fold less potent than 4 (IC50 = 20.8 and 25.8 ng/mL vs. 6.1 and 7.3 ng/mL, respectively). Compounds 1, 3 and 4 showed good antimicrobial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare and antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. In contrast, manzamine A base (2) showed relatively weaker antimicrobial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic activities [towards cancer (HepG2: Human hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma), and non-cancer cells (VERO: Monkey kidney fibroblast; LLC-PK11: Pig kidney epithelial)], compared with salt 4.
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Two experiments examined the relationship between time domain patterns of EEG activity and self-reports for individuals exposed to different odorants. In Exp 1, 3 odorants produced different patterns of EEG theta activity and self reports from 9 adults, suggesting that odor administration is a reliable variable in manipulating neurophysiological response systems and may influence performance and mood. In Exp 2, EEG activity was recorded while 10 adults smelled 5 similar commercial odorous chemicals and an unscented base. Ss also completed questionnaires on odor character and mood. Results indicate that few perceptual or mood differences were produced by the odors. EEG alpha and theta activity in the left and right hemispheres, however, differed depending upon the odor presented and was dissociated from self-reports. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Kaffir lime essential oil was obtained from fresh peels of Citrus hystrix (Rutaceae) by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC–MS. The effects of kaffir lime oil on human autonomic and behavioural parameters after massage were investigated in this study. Forty healthy volunteers participated in the experiments. Autonomic parameters recorded were skin temperature, pulse rate, breathing rate and blood pressure. Behavioural parameters were assessed by means of visual analogue scales (VAS). The kaffir lime oil caused a significant increase in blood pressure and a significant decrease in skin temperature. Regarding the behavioural parameters, subjects in the kaffir lime oil group rated themselves more alert, attentive, cheerful and vigorous than subjects in the control group. These findings are likely to represent stimulating/activating effects of the kaffir lime oil and provide some evidence for the use of kaffir lime oil in aromatherapy, such as causing relief from depression and stress in humans. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Estrogen administration elicits anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects in female rats; however, the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme which degrades the endocannabinoid anandamide, has been shown to be regulated by estrogen. Thus, we examined if the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of estrogen implicated the endocannabinoid system. In the first experiment, ovariectomized female rats were administered a single injection of 17beta-estradiol (10 microg) or oil, and 48 h later were given an injection of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg) or vehicle. One hour after AM251 or vehicle administration, subjects were tested in either the open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM) or the forced swim test (FST). Estradiol treatment resulted in a significant increase in open arm entries in the EPM and time spent in the center quadrant of the OFT, which were reversed by co-treatment with AM251, suggesting that endocannabinoids are integral to the anxiolytic effects of estrogen. No significant effects of estradiol or AM251 were seen in the FST. In the second experiment, administration of the FAAH inhibitor URB597 (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) increased open arm entries in the EPM and time spent in the center quadrant in the OFT as well as significantly reduced immobility in the FST. Collectively, these data demonstrate that estrogen may elicit changes in emotional behavior through an endocannabinoid mechanism, and suggest that inhibition of FAAH represents a therapeutic target for anxiety and depression in women.