Article

A prospective study of meat, cooking methods, meat mutagens, heme iron, and lung cancer risks

Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD 20892-7242, USA.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 6.77). 05/2009; 89(6):1884-94. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27272
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Red and processed meat consumption may play a role in lung cancer pathogenesis because of these meats' fat and carcinogen content.
We prospectively investigated whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, and intake of specific meat mutagens and heme iron are associated with lung carcinoma.
Men (n = 278,380) and women (n = 189,596) from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study with no history of cancer at baseline were monitored for 8 y. Diet was assessed with a 124-item food-frequency questionnaire. A meat-cooking module was used to estimate the intake of individual heterocyclic amines, benzo(a)pyrene, and heme iron. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs.
In a comparison of quintiles 5 with 1 (Q5vsQ1), a high intake of red meat was associated with an increased risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.38; P for trend = 0.005) and women (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.13; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.32; P for trend = 0.05). A high intake of processed meat increased the risk only in men (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.23; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.37; P for trend = 0.003). In an analysis stratified by smoking status, we observed a tendency for an increased risk with red meat intake in never smoking men and women; however, the risks were not statistically significant. In a comparison of tertiles 3 and 1 (T3vsT1), the risk of lung carcinoma was associated with intake of well-/very-well-done meat (HR(T3vsT1): 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.35; P for trend = 0.002) and the intake of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.20; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.38; P for trend = 0.04) in men. Heme iron intake increased the risk of lung carcinoma in both men (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.25; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.45; P for trend = 0.02) and women (HR(Q5vsQ1): 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.42; P for trend = 0.002).
We observed a moderate association between meat consumption and lung carcinoma, which might be explained by heme iron intake, high-temperature cooking, and associated mutagens.

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    • "Fax: +86-28-8641-6805. 2011) and a high intake of processed meat (pork chops, sausages and hotdogs) was found to increase the risk of lung cancer in men (Tasevska et al., 2009). Fried meat was associated with a higher risk of cancer of oral cavity, pharynx and esophagus, roasting/grilling meat increased risk of prostate cancer (Di Maso et al., 2013). "

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    • "Dietary intake of HCAs and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a PAH found in the diet (Rothman et al, 1993; Kazerouni et al, 2001), have been linked to tumour formation at multiple organ sites in animal feeding studies (Nagao and Sugimura, 1993; Sinha and Norat, 2002). These compounds have also been associated with cancers of the colorectum (Sinha et al, 2005b; Cross et al, 2010), lung (Lam et al, 2009; Tasevska et al, 2009), pancreas (Anderson et al, 2005; Stolzenberg-Solomon et al, 2007), prostate (Cross et al, 2005), and breast (Sinha et al, 2000) in several large epidemiological investigations; however, results across studies and cancer sites are not consistent (Alaejos et al, 2008; Mignone et al, 2009; Tasevska et al, 2010; Wu et al, 2010). Despite the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds (Turteltaub et al, 1997; Peters et al, 2004), human investigations of meat mutagens and kidney cancer are sparse and limited by small numbers of cases (Lindblad et al, 1997; De Stefani et al, 1998; Augustsson et al, 1999), narrow range of intake (Augustsson et al, 1999), and/or lack of comprehensive assessments of cooking methods and doneness to calculate the levels of potential meat-cooking carcinogens (Wolk et al, 1996; Lindblad et al, 1997). "
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    • "red and processed meat intake has been associated with increased risk of lung cancer ( Cross et al . , 2007 ; World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research , 2007 ; Hu et al . , 2008 ; Aune et al . , 2009a ; 2009b ; Lam et al . , 2009 ; Tasevska et al . , 2009 ) perhaps through effects of heme - iron and heterocyclic amines ( Tasevska et al . , 2009 ) . We found positive associations between intake of salted meat and cancers of the cervix , prostate , bladder , kidney , non - Hodgkin ' s lymphoma and all cancers combined , but no association with breast cancer . Except for two previous studies from Uruguay which found a positive association between salted meat and bladder cancer ( "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of salted meat may increase the risk of esophageal and stomach cancers, but the results are not conclusive. We used polytomous logistic regression to analyseestimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) ford the association between salted meat intake and the risk of several cancers in a case-control study from Uruguay that was conducted between 1988 and 2005. The study included 13,050 participants (9,252 cases and 3,798 controls) which were drawn from the four major public health hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Salted meat intake was significantly associated with increased odds of cancers of the oesophagus (OR= 2.28, 95% CI: 1.75-2.97), colon and rectum (OR= 1.53, 95% CI: 1.16-2.03), lung (OR= 1.57, 95% CI: 1.26-1.97), cervix uteri (OR= 1.76, 95% CI: 1.05-2.25), prostate (OR= 1.60, 95% CI: 1.18-2.17), urinary bladder (OR= 2.23, 95% CI: 1.63-3.04), kidney (OR= 1.62, 95% CI: 1.03-2.54) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (OR= 1.81, 95% CI: 1.12-2.95). Our results confirm previous reports of an elevated risk of oesophageal cancer with higher intake of salted meat, but also suggest that salted meat intake may increase the risk of several other cancers.
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