Article

Usability Issues in Web Site Design

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  • Professional UX Services
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Abstract

Unless a web site meets the needs of the intended users it will not meet the needs of the organisation providing the web site. Web site development should be user-centred, evaluating the evolving design against user requirements. The first step is to define the business objectives, the intended context of use and key scenarios of use. This helps prioritise design and provides a focus for evaluation. The design should take account of established guidelines for web writing style, navigation and page design. The site structure and page design should be evaluated by representative end users. Management and maintenance is important to maintain usability. INTRODUCTION Why are so many web sites frustratingly slow and difficult to use? The reasons include: .# Organisations often produce web sites with a content and structure which mirrors the internal concerns of the organisation rather than the needs of the users of the site. .# Web sites frequently contain material which would be appropr...

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... The state-of-the-art challenges of web-based applications were compiled based on a detailed review of 70 journal articles that were downloaded from various well-renowned databases like Springer, Web of Science, Emerald, Elsevier and etc. A total of 69 exhaustive challenges were detected as tabulated in Table 3. Ease of navigation [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Broadcast services [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Availability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Limited use of special plug-ins [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Adaptability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44]46] Valid links [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Reliability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Browser sniffing [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43] [44] Personalization [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Speedy page loading [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Interactivity [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Accessibility [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Multilanguage support [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Bookmark facility [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Usefulness of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Clarity of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Completeness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Uniqueness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Broadness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Originality of content [19,22,25,47,50] Currency of content [19,22,25,47,50] Conciseness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Accuracy of content [19,22,25,47,49,50] Diversity of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Attractiveness [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Distinctive hot buttons [19,26,[50][51][52]54] Changing look [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of fonts [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of colors [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of multimedia [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Style consistency [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Good labeling [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper choice of page length [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of language/style [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Color consistency [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of graphics [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Organization of content [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Graphics-text balance [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Interoperability [7] Performance [42,55] Scalability [16,42] Browser compatibility [30,43] Maintainability [56] Reusability [57] Supportability [58] Usability [48,59] Testability [55,60] Management [26] User Interface Design [61] Control Flow [62] Integrating Different Technologies [62] Network Load Management [63] Cryptic Error Message [64] Data Integrity [65] Socio culture [58] Bandwidth [32,66,67] Power Failure [32,[68][69][70] Literacy rate [32] Cost of mobile internet [32] Lack of resources [32,68] Accuracy [55,60] Download speed [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44]55] Coexistence [26] Profitability [71] Efficiency [42,55] Database designs [72] Installation ability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Portability [73] Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 34 (2), 2021 ...
... The state-of-the-art challenges of web-based applications were compiled based on a detailed review of 70 journal articles that were downloaded from various well-renowned databases like Springer, Web of Science, Emerald, Elsevier and etc. A total of 69 exhaustive challenges were detected as tabulated in Table 3. Ease of navigation [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Broadcast services [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Availability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Limited use of special plug-ins [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Adaptability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44]46] Valid links [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Reliability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Browser sniffing [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43] [44] Personalization [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Speedy page loading [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Interactivity [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Accessibility [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Multilanguage support [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Bookmark facility [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Usefulness of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Clarity of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Completeness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Uniqueness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Broadness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Originality of content [19,22,25,47,50] Currency of content [19,22,25,47,50] Conciseness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Accuracy of content [19,22,25,47,49,50] Diversity of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Attractiveness [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Distinctive hot buttons [19,26,[50][51][52]54] Changing look [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of fonts [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of colors [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of multimedia [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Style consistency [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Good labeling [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper choice of page length [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of language/style [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Color consistency [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of graphics [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Organization of content [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Graphics-text balance [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Interoperability [7] Performance [42,55] Scalability [16,42] Browser compatibility [30,43] Maintainability [56] Reusability [57] Supportability [58] Usability [48,59] Testability [55,60] Management [26] User Interface Design [61] Control Flow [62] Integrating Different Technologies [62] Network Load Management [63] Cryptic Error Message [64] Data Integrity [65] Socio culture [58] Bandwidth [32,66,67] Power Failure [32,[68][69][70] Literacy rate [32] Cost of mobile internet [32] Lack of resources [32,68] Accuracy [55,60] Download speed [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44]55] Coexistence [26] Profitability [71] Efficiency [42,55] Database designs [72] Installation ability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Portability [73] Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 34 (2), 2021 ...
... The state-of-the-art challenges of web-based applications were compiled based on a detailed review of 70 journal articles that were downloaded from various well-renowned databases like Springer, Web of Science, Emerald, Elsevier and etc. A total of 69 exhaustive challenges were detected as tabulated in Table 3. Ease of navigation [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Broadcast services [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Availability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Limited use of special plug-ins [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Adaptability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44]46] Valid links [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Reliability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Browser sniffing [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43] [44] Personalization [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Speedy page loading [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Interactivity [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Accessibility [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Multilanguage support [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Bookmark facility [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Usefulness of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Clarity of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Completeness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Uniqueness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Broadness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Originality of content [19,22,25,47,50] Currency of content [19,22,25,47,50] Conciseness of content [19,22,25,47,50] Accuracy of content [19,22,25,47,49,50] Diversity of content [19,22,25,[47][48][49][50] Attractiveness [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Distinctive hot buttons [19,26,[50][51][52]54] Changing look [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of fonts [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of colors [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of multimedia [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Style consistency [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Good labeling [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper choice of page length [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of language/style [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Color consistency [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Proper use of graphics [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Organization of content [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Graphics-text balance [19,26,[50][51][52][53][54] Interoperability [7] Performance [42,55] Scalability [16,42] Browser compatibility [30,43] Maintainability [56] Reusability [57] Supportability [58] Usability [48,59] Testability [55,60] Management [26] User Interface Design [61] Control Flow [62] Integrating Different Technologies [62] Network Load Management [63] Cryptic Error Message [64] Data Integrity [65] Socio culture [58] Bandwidth [32,66,67] Power Failure [32,[68][69][70] Literacy rate [32] Cost of mobile internet [32] Lack of resources [32,68] Accuracy [55,60] Download speed [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44]55] Coexistence [26] Profitability [71] Efficiency [42,55] Database designs [72] Installation ability [20,22,33,[39][40][41][42][43][44] Portability [73] Malaysian Journal of Computer Science, Vol. 34 (2), 2021 ...
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... For transaction purposes, it is crucial that customers are able to make purchases quickly with minimum pages in the check out process (Foremski, 2000;PR Newswire, 2000). Bevan (2004) added that make text easy to read and use. Amazon.com ...
... Text: Bevan (2004) described that: ...
... Background and Color: According to Bevan (2004) a nice color scheme, simple layout, and readable text is the very minimum that is required to make Web site as accessible when selecting your background and text colors. Busy backgrounds make text difficult to read and draw the attention away from the text. ...
... Por outro lado, Bevan (1998) afirma que a razão pela qual os websites são difíceis e extremamente lentos de se utilizar, é porque as organizações sempre produzem websites com conteúdo e estrutura, que mostram informações sobre a organização, em vez de produzir websites com informações úteis para os usuários. Muitas vezes são aproveitados materiais elaborados na forma impressa, mas que precisam de adaptações para a apresentação na web. ...
... Para Bevan (1998) O potencial tecnológico da Web pode ser amplamente explorado pelos websites de bibliotecas no desempenho das suas diversas funções, como organizações responsáveis pelas atividades específicas da coleta, tratamento, disseminação e uso da informação de interesse do público-alvo da biblioteca representada na Internet, mais especificamente na web. ...
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... The intended users will have expectations and needs, which if not met by the site, the provider of the service might risk lack of credibility and a big chance of site failure. Nigel Bevan also refers to sites having the need to meet "quality of use" [1]. The design process will undergo several stages during the web site creation. ...
... Keeping the records and log files can 7 therefore be part of determining the rate of success for a web site. During the end of the process the web site needs to undergo evaluation and maintenance/management in order to adopt to changes, and to ensure to meet the ever evolving and changing of users needs and expectations [13,1]. ...
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... To assess the newsroom usability, researchers examined how easy it was to find the information within the newsroom and whether a number of different ways of interaction or information exchange are available (Bevan, 1999). The availability of a search engine within the newsroom and interactive features were investigated. ...
... downloading time, broken links, inconsistent design and clutter) were not examined. The design usability should be further investigated in future studies because the website design could affect users' evaluation of contents as well (Bevan, 1999;Hallahan, 2001). ...
... Outras discussões apresentadas por Bevan [3] e Melo Ribeiro [4] apresentam os benefícios da aplicação de padrões Web de acessibilidade e de usabilidade, mostrando como as heurísticas são aplicáveis em situações práticas. Também são apresentados métodos de avaliação, que inspiram a criação de uma metodologia de aplicação de parâmetros de usabilidade De forma a sintetizar os conhecimentos adquiridos e categorizá-los para criar um método de avaliação, são definidos parâmetros que abordam as heurísticas de forma prática, tais como: aprendizagem; eficiência; memorização; erros; e satisfação subjetiva. ...
... Por meio da divisão em categorias, guia-se o raciocínio do testador durante a aplicação da abordagem, focando a sua análise em características de mesma natureza. Elas foram baseadas em Melo Ribeiro e Bevan [3,4]. ...
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... Both characteristics were measured by means of features (objectively) and perceptions (subjectively) (Huizingh, 2000). The management and maintenance process that needs to be focused are ensuring that new pages meet the quality and usability requirements, indexing and full maintenance (Bevan, 1999). A number of informal development models for Websites can be identified under a variety of guises. ...
... This study attempts to fill the void by developing a structural equation model to examine the interrelations of Website development and organisation performance ( Figure 1). Most of the literature on Website development has focused on planning and preparation (Bevan, 1999), design and development (Clyde, 2000;Moustakis et al., 2006;Zhao and Dholakia, 2009;and Chen et al., 2010), management and maintenance (Huizingh, 2000). ...
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... However, as the web site is the entry portal for both regular visitors and developers, the principle of scaled presentation should be adhered, meaning that what the degree of detail presented should correspond to the efforts put in by the reader [Fog05]. Unless the web site meets the needs of the intended users, it does not meet the need of the organization providing the web site [Bev04]. ...
... To create a web page that provides good usability, it is important to decide upon how it is to be navigated. User's expectations should be met by following conventions established by other sites, users should know where they are and to where they can go, and links should be self-explanatory [Bev04]. Thus, the navigational structure was inspired by the web sites of several other open source projects, the menu items were given self-explanatory names, and it was decided to use "breadcrumbs" 9 , to help users identify where they are at the page. ...
... Internet governance (Mueller, Mathiason, & McKnight, 2004), Internet politics (Williams, 2003b), Internet economics (Mueller, 2004), electronic identifiers (Rood, 1999), telecommunications (Yu, 2004), Internet standards (Bradner, 1996), domain name policies (Manheim & Solum, 2004), intellectual property (Rimmer, 2003), trademarks (Lipton, 2005), Internet security (Dhamija, Tygar, & Hearst, 2006), and Internet privacy (von Arx & Hagen, 2002). Literature concerning usability also covers a range of topic areas including: usability standards (ISO, 1998), web site design (Bevan, 1999), web site usability (Nielsen, 2003), human-computer interaction (Earthy, 1998), online marketing and online brands (Murphy & Scharl, 2007). Predominantly, literature in the field of domain names focuses on issues surrounding Internet governance (Williams, 2003a) and, in particular, concentrates on the evolution of the ICANN organisation (Froomkin, 2003). ...
... The literature review found that there is significant existing research in the separate research fields of domain names and usability (Bevan, 1999; Bradner, 1996; Dhamija, Tygar, & Hearst, 2006; Earthy, 1998; ISO, 1998; Lipton, 2005; Manheim & Solum, 2004; Mueller, 2004; Mueller, Mathiason & McKnight, 2004; Murphy & Scharl, 2007; Nielsen, 2003; Rimmer, 2003; Rood, 1999; von Arx & Hagen, 2002; Williams, 2003b; Yu, 2004). However, academic research at the intersection of the two topics – domain names and usability – is scarce. ...
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... Usability is defined as a system's capacity to allow a user to accomplish a task safely, effectively, and efficiently [1]. Usability related problems are termed usability issues [2]. One of the most integral parts of optimizing a User Experience (UX) is identifying and addressing usability issues. ...
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... Today's highly interactive web applications tend to adopt interaction styles borrowed from traditional software. However, this is not always acceptable, since the web poses special requirements that need to be taken into consideration [Bevan (1998)]. For instance, the characteristics of web users are not always well known in advance and can vary considerably. ...
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... • Quality of the information and content Abels, White and Hahn 1998; Salam et al. 1998 • Quantity of information Abels et al. 1998; White and Manning 1998 • Accessibility, easy to read Murphy 1999; Ceaparu 2003 • Understanding of the audience Reynolds 1997; Nel et al. 1999 • Appropriateness Bevan 1998, Cukier 2003 • Topography, design of the text White and Manning 1998; Nielsen 1999 • Locating information Jenkins et al, 2003; Ceaparu 2003; Hargittai 2003 ...
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... Maintenance covers a plan and reviews the site structure as it grows, reviews the users' needs and makes sure the site continues to meet the needs. This also covers monitoring feedback from users, keeping track on words used when searching the site and where people first arrive on the site; checking for broken links; and finally comparing the site to other comparable sites as Web browsers and Web designs evolve (Bevan, 1999). ...
Article
The main objective of this study is to review the adoption of Internet and ICT, Web site development and Internet marketing, as well as to study the correlation between these three factors. This study also tries to study marketers' perception in Malaysia and Singapore on the implication of the Internet and ICT on Web site development and implication of Web site development on Internet marketing. The overall of 200 samples shows that the correlation between the Internet and ICT, Web site development, and Internet marketing are positive. The analysis of each country, Malaysia and Singapore also shows that there are positive correlations for all the variables. The study proved that the Internet and ICT has a statistically significant positive impact on Web site development in Malaysia and Singapore. The study also concluded that Web site development has a statistically significant positive impact on the Internet marketing in Malaysia and Singapore.
... Today's highly interactive web applications tend to adopt interaction styles borrowed from traditional software. This is not however always acceptable, since the web poses special requirements that need to be taken into consideration [Bevan (1998)]. For instance, the characteristics of web users are not always well known in advance and can vary considerably. ...
Article
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Usability evaluation is a very important procedure for the quality assessment of websites. In this paper usability evaluation methods are discussed. The application of one of these methods, the Heuristic evaluation, is further examined and the findings of its employment in the usability assessment of the new website of Hellenic Open University are described.
... In order to deal with human factors entirely in any application or software design was a hot ongoing research across different aspects and areas. In the past, the research of the usability was effectively and widely done by many researchers to improve the quality of the design [1,2,3]. Human computer design (interface) is an intermediary in a communication between people and computers. ...
Article
äHuman computer interaction is concerned about the physical and mental activities between computers and humans. In terms of HCI perspective, one of the main problems that web developers, software developers, and hardware developers encounter in software design stage is a lack of experimental researches on the human factors. Mainly, developers are focused on the quantities and contents of the applications, but they are underestimating the importance of user experience and capabilities. There has been a research on the usability. However, there is still a gap in the design area called human factors which particularly needs careful consideration and findings. Thus, this research primarily investigates on how to understand and uncover the human factors in any application or software design. At this time, there are no accurate and particular models and methods on identifying and analyzing the human factors, therefore, we present new design model as our HPSLULFDOUHVHDUFKPRGHOFDOOHG� ≥,QWHQVLYH� 3URWRW\SH� 0RGHO¥� L n order to enhance and facilitate the design process. We also propose unique and relative analysis methods: user- centered design, online survey, distributed survey and so on which they can assist the designer on identifying human factors regarding to application and software design. Finally, we discuss the key principles of this research to support the early stage of application design and to anticipate the human needs and requirements in computer interaction.
... Punkterna redovisade ovan var en första CID-rapport med riktlinjer och tips för utformning , konstruktion och utvärdering av webbplatser. Liknande beskrivning görs av Bevan (1997) men här görs beskrivningar som följer olika projektfaser d.v.s. planering, konstruktion , utvärdering och underhåll. ...
... Further examination, however, reveals that many of our basic assumptions about and strat egies for approaching these learning dimensions require modification simply due to a change in the learning environment. Drawing on the considerabl e research devoted to the usability of perform ance systems and e-learning design (Bevan, 1998;Nielsen, 1994Nielsen, , 1997Mehlenbacher, 2002Mehlenbacher, , 2003, we can begin to outline a set of heuristics for the designers of e-learning environments: Does printing of the screen(s) require special configuration to optimize presentation and, if so, is this indicated on the site? Are individual preferences/sections clearly distinguishable from one another? ...
Article
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Our goal in this paper is to outline the challenges facing researchers and practitioners interested in merging theories of usability design and evaluation with developments in e-learning. We provide a brief overvi ew of usability research that is grounded in both early Human-Computer Int eraction (HCI) res earch and in classical and contemporary rhetorical theory. Our motivation for doing this is to describe a conceptual model of instruction that affords both usability and e-learning researchers a common framework for approaching the exponentially-growing number of studies devoted to e-learning in general and the design of us able e-learning specifi cally. Rather than simply applying methods from usability research to the study of e-learning environments, we maintain that (1) usability research encourages a task-oriented perspective towards (e-learning) instruction that has implications for learning theory and (2) e-learning research broadens our traditional definitions of user, task, and context derived from usability to account for form al and informal learning environments. Finally, we share an heuristic tool that we are developing for evaluating e-learning environm ents and experiences. Keywords: heuristics, learning, model, e- learning, usability. The fact that many serious and competent scholars can conclude that there has been little net productivity gain attributable to this (modern computing) technology seems enough proof that something is wrong. Landauer, 1997 1 Defining Usability Usability evaluation finds its beginnings in early research on human-information processing theory (Newell & Simon, 1972; Simon, 1979, 1981) and Human-Computer Interaction (Card, Moran, & Newell, 1983). At the heart of usability evaluation is the application of social science res earch and theories of computer and information technology to the challenge of designing tools that are us eful and usable to hum ans. Understanding hum ans as technology users necessitates an understanding of humans as audience, where audience is understood in the postmodern sense as actively engaged information producers and consumers (Ryan, 1994).
... The same or similar techniques as traditionally have been used. However, this new evaluation context requires new approaches (Borges et al, 1996(Borges et al, , 1998Bevan, 1998;Nielsen, 1999;Spool, 1999;Olsson, 2000aOlsson, , 2000b Kaasgard, 2000). ...
Article
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Observations collected during evaluation studies conducted on three web sites are reported in this paper. The sites have different target groups and represent different types of entertainment web sites. Every web site was tested with a group of approximately 20 subjects. The intention was to test these groups in different ways according to different usability evaluation techniques. The study focused on comparison of the following conditions: (1) Subjects working individually vs. in pairs, (2) Levels of structure in sessions, traditional tasks vs. 'free surf' vs. combined task analysis and 'free surf' (3) Testing children vs. testing adults. (4) Written vs. oral answers to questions concerning entertainment. The whole set was tested on the three sites in a number of ways. This to gain knowledge in order to give implications for testing different types of sites. The result show upon how different conditions in tests could be set in order to give fruitful guidance in finding usability issues connected to entertainment.
... To establish whether the initial quality in use goals have been met, measures are taken of the task time, the degree of success in achieving the tasks, and the rated satisfaction in using the Web site. For more information on a user-centred approach to design see for example Bevan (1997) for web site design guidelines, Bevan and Curson (1998) and Daly-Jones et al (1997) for information on methods for user-centred design, and Bevan (1995) and Macleod et all (1997) for quality in use measurement. ...
Article
Designing an interactive product or service for all possible users requires consideration of more than just physical accessibility. Even if there is sufficient physical accessibility, many systems will still present major barriers to their use, in terms of cognitive accessibility: the functionality, terminology, information structure and interface style frequently confuse the intended user. Usually, the main emphasis in systems design is on building systems that meet specific functional requirements, without a sufficiently detailed understanding of the cognitive and physical capabilities and expectations of the intended users, or a clear view of the context in which the system will be used. The problem is compounded by the difficulty that designers usually have in recognizing shortcomings or limitations in their own design. There are cost-effective procedures for dealing with this problem, which have recently been formalized in ISO 13407: Human-centred design process for interactive systems. User-centred design provides a framework which can potentially make "Design for All" a reality. The goal is to achieve quality in use for all. User-centred design encompasses processes, tools and techniques which can be used to identify and document the complete range of user requirements, including special needs arising from (dis-)abilities, skills, preferences, or any other characteristic of the end user population. The tight design / evaluation loop advocated by user-centred design provides feedback to correct design deficiencies at an early stage while changes are relatively simple to make. Procedures for evaluating quality in use have been developed as part of approaches to usability evaluation, and now need to be extended to encompass procedures for evaluating accessibility. In summary, "Design for All" entails both physical and cognitive accessibility. New hardware and software technologies are required to make it easier to provide physical accessibility. New integrated approaches to system development are required to make it easier to provide cognitive accessibility. Only by combining these activities can "Design for all" be achieved.
... This perspective is influenced by strategic advantage and return on investment and there is a continuing need for website owner's to be conscious of their business competitors' performance. From a visitor perspective, quality websites need to be easy to find, download and understand (Nielsen, 1996; Keeker, 1997; Bevan, 1998). Visitors need to be confident with the content and be reassured about the authority and integrity of the website. ...
Article
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There is a continuing need for quality eCommerce websites which satisfy their owner’s perspective of quality of design and visitor’s perspective of quality of use. More particularly there is a need for website owners to be able to specify what constitutes a website that will fully engage site visitors and consequently what needs to be designed into the website in order to insure return on investment. This paper argues that the term usability is inappropriate to quality websites and that website engagibility is a step beyond usability. The paper reports continuing research which seeks to identify the requirements of website engagibility, and to provide a mathematical solution for measuring and comparing website performance. The research relies on the Software Quality Star to provide an end-to-end conceptual model for studying website quality. In particular it focuses on the potential of a website’s design to support the engagibility of visitors. Using a comprehensive set of Quality-of-product criteria and counts for a set of eCommerce websites the paper explains how a ratio value can be calculated for a website. These metrics specifically avoid reliance on website traffic data and visitor statistics and the study concerns itself with website structure and design criteria. The approach is influenced by assessment and predictive measurement theory. Then, using Metric Ratio Analysis the paper shows how website engagibility performance ratings can be determined.
... Çalışmaya temel oluşturan verilerin toplanmasında içerik değerlendirme formundan yararlanılmıştır. Bu kapsamda belediye başkanının web sitesinde olması gereken kriterlerin belirlenmesinde Bevan (2004), Feinberg ve Kadam (2002), Turban (2006) çalışmalarından ayrıca araştırmacıların kişisel görüşlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Bu kapsamda 20 değerlendirme ölçütünden oluşan bir web site değerlendirme ölçeği oluşturulmuştur. ...
Article
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ZET Seçmen davranışlarını etkileyen değişkenlerin tespit edilmesinin güçlüğü ve seçmen tercihlerinin değişebilir olması, siyasi partilerin ve adayların tercihleri etkilemek için gösterdikleri çabaların artmasına neden olmaktadır. Siyasal pazarlama bakış açısıyla partilerin ve adayların seçmenler ile iletişim düzeyi, başarılarında önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu nedenle internetin siyasal pazarlama çalışmaları için kullanılması, iletişimin her iki taraf için daha hızlı ve daha etkili olmasını sağlamaktadır. Bu bağlamda, partilerin ve adayların sahip oldukları web siteleri ile seçmenlere yönelik doğrudan iletişim kurmaları, seçim dönemlerinde gerçekleştirecekleri çalışmalara olumlu katkı sağlayacaktır. Çalışmada, siyasetçiler için yeni bir iletişim aracı olan web sitelerinin değerlendirilmesi amacıyla öncelikle siyasal pazarlama konusu aktarılmış, konu ile ilgili literatür incelemesinde bulunulmuş, daha sonra da web sitesi kullanan belediye başkanlarının web siteleri çeşitli kriterlere göre değerlendirilmiştir. ABSTRACT The strength of determining voter behaviour of which variables influenced by and mutability of voter choices result in increasing effort undertaken by political parties and candidates for influencing voter choices. As a perspective of political marketing, the communication degrees of political parties and candidates with voters playing an important role on their success. For this reason the use of internet for political marketing efforts, make the communication come true more fast and more effective for two sides. Consequently, the direct communication linking the web sites of political parties and candidates with voters, will have a positive contribution to efforts in election periods. In this study, first the subject of political marketing is discussed and the related literature and as a new way of communicaion for politicians web sites are analyzed. Later, the web sites of mayors are analzyed by different criteria.
... Qualitative and quantitative parameters are two basic parts of criteria in this model that will be explained more. Basically qu alitative criteria [1][2][3][4][5] and [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] 2. Quantitative questionnaire gathers statistics and required information about the website functionality and its output. These data is achieved through the questionnaire which is given to the organization to gather and represent information from its related sectors or its service providers. ...
Article
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Continuous web site evaluation based on the site alignment with the mission of organization and providing more efficient site is discussed in this paper. This method integrates the quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods to measure the site’s success. The indicators are generated and changed throughout time with expert’s input.
... In order to capture human factors entirely in any application or software design is obviously ongoing research across diverse aspects and sectors. In the last decades, the research of the usability was effectively and widely done by many researchers to improve the quality of the design [1,2,3]. Human computer interface is an intermediary in a communication between people and computers. ...
Article
Full-text available
In software system development, an application interface is the main communication platform between human developers and applications. Interaction in any software application requires human's mental and physical activities. Although software systems have increased drastically in diverse sectors and many forms to quench human's needs and satisfactions, human always concern about the ease in usability of the software application so that it can be easily understood and navigated. Since many software developers still focus on the quantity of contents instead of the quality of the interface from the user's point of view, it is important to address human factors need in the early stage of the design and to continue addressing them during the entire stages of the software design for the persistent support of usability. In this paper, we propose the Modified Prototype Model (MPM), which helps the software designers and developers to design user-friendly software systems with easy-to-navigate interfaces by uncovering human factors in a convenient way. Moreover, we propose methods that assist to identify more human factors regarding software design. In this paper, we also study the implications of the proposed model and the proposed methods.
... It contributes to HCI by suggesting detailed and specific guidelines for the way in which systems and interfaces are designed. Bevan (1999) argues that organisations often produce websites that mirror the internal concerns of the organisation rather than what the users wants. He also believes that more attention is given to the design of printed material than websites. ...
Conference Paper
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When a large organisation spends a notable proportion of its budget on creating a positive web presence, one would assume the web site to be well designed, usable and to provide a good user experience. This is not always true. In this case study we investigated a large telecommunications organisation based in Africa to determine the value it places on usability and user experience. We evaluated a core function of the web site through an eye tracking usability study and found severe usability problems. This led to an investigation into the reasons for this. Through interviews with web designers in the organisation, we discovered how they view the design process and why they believe that basic, documented design guidelines are not worth following. The results will help management of large organisations understand why web sites fail to achieve their goals and provide pointers on how to address this.
... It is strongly recommend that you should use a strong and bright contrast between foreground and background colors not only for your pager text but also in your images. Even totally color blind readers can differentiate similar colors which contrast bright with dark [1][5]. ...
Research
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Websites are very important means of communication in this current era of information technology. Website can give a competitive edge to any organization only when it meets the needs of the intended users [1]. Different institutions / organizations put lots of efforts to portray complete information on beautifully designed websites. Lot of efforts are given to provide users with all the facilities of the concerned institutions / organizations online through websites, which act as an online agent through which a user can get his work done without physically visiting the organizations. With this the responsibility of the designer and the concerned institutions / organizations increases manifold so that the websites behavior should remain similar when accessed by different sections of users. Authors in this paper developed an online tool using .NET Framework using C# to study color combination as Design issue in various categories of the websites like Government, Commercial, Educational, Social networking and Job portals. The automated tool developed by author function on the basis of the different standards prescribed in W3C guidelines document WCAG 2.0 in guideline 1.4(Distinguishable) [4] and act like a parser and renders the complete code of the website and produces result on the basis of the various types of color combinations used by the web designers in developing various parts of the website and their effects on the different sections of the users that suffer from various color blindness problems. Various groups of user are sensitive to different combinations of colors. While certain users are able to recognize any combination of colors that may cause hindrances to other group of users. The results produced shows that out of the five different categories of websites employed for analysis the Job portal sites follow the minimum of standards as far as color combination parameter is concerned whereas govt. sites show least divergence from the standards.
... Reference [58] has introduced the concordance analysis approach to evaluate the ecommerce web sites, and established the comprehensive evaluation model. Reference [59] discussed in his study the usability issues in web site design. Reference [60] has focused on the challenge for the Web development organizations to help organizations finding and characterizing target groups for web sites and to create web applications that can be used to communicate certain information and values to these specific target groups. ...
... Qualitative and quantitative parameters are two basic parts of criteria in this model that will be explained more. Basically qu alitative criteria [1][2][3][4][5] and [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] 2. Quantitative questionnaire gathers statistics and required information about the website functionality and its output. These data is achieved through the questionnaire which is given to the organization to gather and represent information from its related sectors or its service providers. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Continuous web site evaluation based on the site alignment with the mission of organization and providing more efficient site is discussed in this paper. This method integrates the quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods to measure the site's success. The indicators are generated and changed throughout time with expert's input.
... Qualitative and quantitative parameters are two basic parts of criteria in this model that will be explained more. Basically qu alitative criteria [1][2][3][4][5] and [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] 2. Quantitative questionnaire gathers statistics and required information about the website functionality and its output. These data is achieved through the questionnaire which is given to the organization to gather and represent information from its related sectors or its service providers. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Continuous web site evaluation based on the site alignment with the mission of organization and providing more efficient site is discussed in this paper. This method integrates the quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods to measure the site's success. The indicators are generated and changed throughout time with expert's input.
... Moreover, the findings show that most of the participants without dyslexia found the bulleted points beneficial to both their reading and learning process. Bevan [9] and Nielsen [60] were among others who recommend the use of bulleted points to improve web text scan ability and support a more interactive learning experience for web users. This is supported by Atkinson and Mayer [4] who point out that a screen full of text overloads the mind's visual channel. ...
Article
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To date, guidelines for designing inclusive dyslexia-friendly online learning environments, which take into consideration both learners with and without dyslexia, are still scarce. As web text is one of the extensively used elements in online learning, this study aims to derive practical guidelines on this aspect by exploring the experience of learners with dyslexia and learners without dyslexia when using different online reading affordances. The study employed a within-subjects qualitative study and key patterns that emerged from the data collected via observations and interviews were interpreted based on two important aspects of learning experience, which were perceived learning and engagement. The study reveals that (1) the direct application of Printed Text on the web should be carefully considered, (2) existing web accessibility guidelines (limit to guidelines examined in this study) are appropriate and (3) the use of a Screen Reader for online reading should not be made compulsory and be available as an option instead. The comparison between the experience of learners with and without dyslexia in this study has yielded insights into affordances that are perceived positively by both groups of learners. As learners with dyslexia form a significant minority of the online learning population, the inclusive dyslexia-friendly guidelines derived from this study would better inform the future implementation of online reading affordances that acknowledge differences and similarities between online learners.
... Yet, Palmer (2002) postulates that usability is determined by download time, navigation, content, interactivity, and responsiveness. Similar to usability, many other key design elements, such as scannability, readability, and visual aesthetics, have not yet been clearly defined (Bevan, 1997;Brady & Phillips, 2003;Kim, Lee, Han, & Lee, 2002), and there are no clear guidelines that individuals can follow when designing websites to increase engagement. ...
Article
Proper design has become a critical element needed to engage website and mobile application users. However, little research has been conducted to define the specific elements used in effective website and mobile application design. We attempt to review and consolidate research on effective design and to define a short list of elements frequently used in research. The design elements mentioned most frequently in the reviewed literature were navigation, graphical representation, organization, content utility, purpose, simplicity, and readability. We discuss how previous studies define and evaluate these seven elements. This review and the resulting short list of design elements may be used to help designers and researchers to operationalize best practices for facilitating and predicting user engagement.
... Requirements on the presentation layer R-P1 -Usability: The system should adhere to well-established usability guidelines [34,41]. ...
Article
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Collaborative collection and sharing of data have become a core element of biomedical research. Typical applications are multi-site registries which collect sensitive person-related data prospectively, often together with biospecimens. To secure these sensitive data, national and international data protection laws and regulations demand the separation of identifying data from biomedical data and to introduce pseudonyms. Neither the formulation in laws and regulations nor existing pseudonymization concepts, however, are precise enough to directly provide an implementation guideline. We therefore describe core requirements as well as implementation options for registries and study databases with sensitive biomedical data. We first analyze existing concepts and compile a set of fundamental requirements for pseudonymized data management. Then we derive a system architecture that fulfills these requirements. Next, we provide a comprehensive overview and a comparison of different technical options for an implementation. Finally, we develop a generic software solution for managing pseudonymized data and show its feasibility by describing how we have used it to realize two research networks. We have found that pseudonymization models are highly heterogeneous, already on a conceptual level. We have compiled a set of requirements from different pseudonymization schemes. We propose an architecture and present an overview of technical options. Based on a selection of technical elements, we suggest a generic solution. It supports the multi-site collection and management of biomedical data. Security measures are multi-tier pseudonymity and physical separation of data over independent backend servers. Integrated views are provided by a web-based user interface. Our approach has been successfully used to implement a national and an international rare disease network. We were able to identify a set of core requirements out of several pseudonymization models. Considering various implementation options, we realized a generic solution which was implemented and deployed in research networks. Still, further conceptual work on pseudonymity is needed. Specifically, it remains unclear how exactly data is to be separated into distributed subsets. Moreover, a thorough risk and threat analysis is needed.
... Cf.Bevan, 1998;Nielsen, 1994Nielsen, , 1997Selber et al., 1997. ...
Article
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Designing interactive computer systems to be efficient and easy to use is important so that people in our society may realize the potential benefits of computer-based tools .... Although modern cognitive psychology contains a wealth of knowledge of human ...
... Bevan [4] stated that designer should take into account the user requirements and the expectations while developing website in order to satisfy the organization management. When developing an e-commerce website, taking a user-centered approach helps avoid many design and implementation errors. ...
Article
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Over the past few years the Internet has become an essential business platform by aiding trading, distribution and sales between organisations, consumers, and even between consumers. This has brought e-commerce to an entirely new level which raised some issues in websites usability and the human-computer interaction. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are to identify and analyse the extent to which the site is fulfilling all the user's requirements and needs. The related work covers the history of human-computer interaction and the benefits of using user-centered approach, which is the methodology been used in this paper. Moreover, a brief comparison between the most important development methods, such as Waterfall and user-centred methods are discussed in terms of addressing the issues of time saving and addressing fulfilment of users' needs. In order to address most of the issues that is related to the attributes in the usability stage of the evaluation, the data required to manage this study was collected using three research methods; the questionnaire, direct user observation and interviews. An evaluation of the current websites, based on statements of usability goals and criteria were chosen from the Arabic guidelines in the literature, were undertaken in connection with implementing and testing the proposed websites design. Many famous Arabic websites such as JARIR bookstore and Ahmad Abdul wahed website were chosen as a case study in this paper to investigate the usability and interactivity of the websites design. The analysis section includes needs, users and tasks and data analysis, whereas the design phase includes the user interface and database design. At the end of this paper, some recommendations are presented regarding these website that can be considered in developing these website in the future.
... The number of clicks to CSR pages was also obtained to gain perspective on the importance of CSR to the organizations. Bevan (1999) posited that the fewer the clicks taken to a section of the site from the homepage, the more important that section is to the owner. Table 5 shows no significant difference (χ 2 = 3.607, p < 0.05) across all organizations, and majority of the local (79.5%) ...
Article
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been found to be a strong predictor of a favorable corporate image [Gray, 1986. Managing the corporate image: The key to public trust. London: Quorum Books]. Websites have become an essential communication platform [Dawkins, 2004. Corporate responsibility: The communication challenge. Journal of Communication Management, 9(2), 108–119]. This study aims to investigate how CSR can be used in enhancing organizational corporate image. Content analyses of 150 corporate websites of organizations in Asia headquartered in Singapore were conducted, followed by in-depth interviews with public relations (PR) practitioners to examine the motivations behind their CSR engagement. Findings showed that organizations utilized CSR as a means to enhance corporate image via four ways: Engaging in two-way conversations with stakeholders, adopting an inside-out communication approach with employees, recognizing the relevance of other CSR communication channels, and communicating CSR with authenticity. However, some organizations hesitate to use CSR communication to enhance their corporate image because they wanted to avoid being seen as using CSR as a promotional tool.
... Qualitative criteria This group of criteria includes main criteria: User friendliness, Navigability, Maintenance, Technology suitability, Reusability, Involvement capacity, Functionality, Security and integrity & Content. (Mich &Franch,2002;Mich & Franch, 2000;Mich, Franch, Cilione & Marzani, 2003;Mich, Franch, Novi Inverardi & Marzani, 2003;Kececi & Abran, 2006;Bevan ,1998;Dreyfus, 1998;Keeker, 1997;Trower, 1999;Nielsen, 1999;Gehrke & Turban, 1999;Ivory & et al, 2001;Shedroff, 2005;Dragulanescu, 2002;Grannas, 2007). ...
Article
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The current web evaluation models are mainly based on the technical evaluation of the site and its appearance and usability from user's perspective. In other words, the site is evaluated as an independent entity from the underlying organization that it represents. The focus of this study is on evaluation of organizations' websites based on the quality management concepts. In this way, the measured performance indicators will be used to find the deficiencies of the websites and recommend corrections. For evaluating the organization's success in its website function, the concept of quality management is used and since evaluation and improvement are the center of attention in this model, the model is called Ev-Imp, which Ev stands for evaluation and Imp stands for improvement. Model includes four main components consist of objectives, processes, criteria and feedback. With the use of feedback tools such as quantitative and qualitative questionnaire for groups of stakeholders and service providers, the website's weaknesses and strengths would be identified and with analyzing the website's weaknesses required improvement would be determined and corrective action would be done.
Article
This paper tries to explore the adoption of m-commerce from the perspective of system usability. The definition and measurement of m-commerce system usability are discussed. Three categories of factors that will affect m-commerce system usability are clarified and analyzed, namely mobile devices, WAP web and mobile communication networks. This study presents an empirical study of the factors influencing users to adopt m-commerce. A total of 837 valid questionnaires were returned. A structural equation model (SEM) was applied to test the research hypothesis. From the results we find that all of our hypotheses are supported. That’s to say mobile devices, WAP web and wireless communication networks all have direct influence on mobile commerce usability. Additionally, usability of mobile commerce also has a positive influence on the consumers’ adoption.
Article
Web site development is maturing from the enthusiastic experimental practice of early years to a more professional discipline, addressing the needs of Web site visitors and owner organisations. Quality is central to this maturing and it is necessary to have a full understanding of the meaning of quality in the context of the ever-changing Web. This paper identifies five new quality factors for the Web (visibility, credibility, intelligibility, engagibility and differentiation), together with their characteristics and a checklist of enablers, which can be used by specifiers, designers, developers and evaluators to create quality Web sites.
Article
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The work aims to support the dissemination of information and spatial analysis within the GIS via the media of the world wide web "-the global network, which provides that documents are linked and executed on the Internet. For this task, it is necessary to understand the relationship of communication promoted by new digital media, particularly with regard to consultation and analysis of data spatially localized, with the aim of building information on the territorial reality. In this sense, our interest is understanding how to make the processes of communication, especially for studying this process in applications of information technology for dissemination and analysis of spatial data. Once studied the phenomenon, is proposed for modeling of a product based on GIS (geographic information system) to support decision making through the media web by implementing the proposal called Webgis in case studies in Brazil and Italy. From the assembly of prototypes, tests are designed for functionality and usability, through access to the network between countries, multi-access.
Chapter
The increasing role of travel websites in distributing tourism products highlights the need to study how travelers interact with tourism websites and what is a good service on the web. E-service quality (e-SQ) features are among the main factors contributing to service excellence and customer satisfaction. Tourism managers should identify and assess the underlying dimensions of electronic service quality, to deliver value-added services to their customers. Hence, tourism providers must constantly ensure their website is efficient, helpful, and appropriate, through proper website evaluation. The main objective of this chapter is to investigate the travel websites’ service quality dimensions. First, the concept of e-service quality (e-SQ) and the conceptual model for e-SQ are clarified. By reviewing the different methods of website evaluation in the tourism industry, this chapter provides a foundation for understanding how travel website design features contribute to website users’ online experience. This knowledge can improve the service delivery by tourism websites; it also helps tourism organizations to evaluate the e-SQ of their websites, to guide improvement efforts to increase the e-SQ level. This chapter provides recommendations for tourism service providers in implementing e-service quality measurements to develop attractive e-SQ attributes.
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Web site usability: A designers guide 10 http://applenet.apple.com/hi/web/find.html 11 http://www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/get/PAPER180.html 12 for example http://www.metacrawler.com has three simple options when searching for multiple words: 'any', 'all' or 'phrase' 13 http
  • Jm Spool
Spool JM et al (1997) Web site usability: A designers guide. User Inteface Engineering, North Andover, USA. 10 http://applenet.apple.com/hi/web/find.html 11 http://www6.nttlabs.com/HyperNews/get/PAPER180.html 12 for example http://www.metacrawler.com has three simple options when searching for multiple words: 'any', 'all' or 'phrase' 13 http://applenet.apple.com/hi/web/tell.html 14 http://www.useit.com/alertbox/980111.html 15 UIEtips 3/20/98. Jared Spool, User Interface Engineering (uie@uie.com)
Human centred design process for interactive systems
FDIS 13407 (1998) Human centred design process for interactive systems.
has three simple options when searching for multiple words: 'any
  • J M Spool
Spool JM et al (1997) Web site usability: A designers guide. User Inteface Engineering, North Andover, USA. example http://www.metacrawler.com has three simple options when searching for multiple words: 'any', 'all' or 'phrase'