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A new species of Gallirallus from Calayan Island, Philippines

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An unidentifiable species of rail was observed in May 2004 on Calayan island in the Babuyan islands, northern Philippines. One specimen of the bird was collected. Comparison with other rails of the region show it to be a previously undescribed species for which the name Gallirallus calayanensis, Calayan Rail, is proposed. It is apparently most closely related to Okinawa Rail G. okinawae of Okinawa in the Ryukyu islands, Japan. It is common in at least the north-central part of Calayan where forest overlies coralline limestone with sinkholes. It was neither seen nor heard on the other Babuyan islands visited. Although not apparently under immedi- ate threat, given its small currently known range and population it may warrant classification as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
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FORKTAIL 20 (2004): 1–7
THE GENUS GALLIRALLUS
Sixteen species of Gallirallus rails have been recognised
to date, ranging from the west Pacific islands and
Australia to India and China (Taylor 1998). Almost all
of these are island species, many are endemic to small
islands, and some are already extinct.Three species are
known from the Philippines: Slaty-breasted Rail G.
striatus and Buff-banded Rail G. philippensis, which are
the most wide-ranging of all the Gallirallus species, and
Barred Rail G. torquatus.To the north, Okinawa Rail G.
okinawae is restricted to Okinawa in the central Ryukyu
Islands, Japan. Gallirallus rails are characterised by a
robust bill and barring on the primaries (Olson 1973).
The above species are also characterised by barring on
the underparts. Another species, Sharpe’s Rail G.
sharpei,known from one specimen of unknown prove-
nance, may possibly also originate in this region
(BirdLife International 2004).
DISCOVERY OF THE NEW
GALLIRALLUS
Two groups of islands lie in deep water between Luzon
in the Philippines and Taiwan: the more northerly
Batanes islands, and the Babuyan islands which lie
closer to Luzon. They are believed not to have been
connected by land bridges to either Luzon or Taiwan
during the Middle or Late Pleistocene (Heaney 1985).
Of these islands, Calayan has been remarkably little
explored by ornithologists: R. C. McGregor visited
from October 1903 to January 1904 (Dickinson et al.
1991), but a century has elapsed since that time; we
know of no further visits by ornithologists except our
own.
At 11h30 on 11 May 2004, CE was birdwatching
in central Calayan island as part of a faunal inventory
being conducted by the Babuyan Islands Expedition
organised by CO and GB. On a path in a coconut
grove, a group of four rails were noticed making loud,
harsh, rasping calls from a slope close by. Two silent
birds were then seen crossing the trail and foraging by
turning over dried leaves with a side-to-side motion of
their bills. The birds were dark overall, lacked any
barring, and had an orange-red bill and legs. Two
individuals appeared to be the same size as Barred
Rail, while the other two appeared to be smaller. As
they were unfamiliar, several photographs were taken,
the calls were recorded, and notes were made. The
observations were reported to the rest of the team
members, and the next day DA searched the same
area. Calls were heard in a nearby area of secondary
growth, and playback resulted in a brief sighting of a
silhouetted bird. On returning towards camp, DA
heard the calls again in an area of primary forest.
Following playback, a rail soon approached to within
2m.The uniform dark plumage, red legs and medium-
length red bill suggested that this was a hitherto
undescribed species of rail.
Later that day DA made a short video-recording
of one of the rails and showed it to the other team
members. Over subsequent days many observations
were made by all the authors.The number of sightings
indicated that the rail was quite common in the area.
As the group had a collecting permit issued by the
University of the Philippines Los Baños (UPLB)
through an Academic Research Agreement (ARA) with
the Department of Environment and Natural
Resources (DENR), it was decided that a specimen
should be taken. The next day a bird was caught, and
on the basis of this specimen we propose the name:
Gallirallus calayanensis,sp.nov.
Calayan Rail
Holotype
Deposited in the National Museum of the Philippines,
Manila, accession number NMB-019612 collected by
Carl Oliveros on 14 May 2004 at 19
o
19.348
N
121
o
26.905
E, Longog, Barangay Magsidel, Calayan
island, municipality of Calayan, Cagayan province,
Philippines, at an altitude of 300 m. The bird appears
to be a subadult female, as a poorly developed left
oviduct was found on dissection, although no ovaries
were visible.
Description of holotype
Crown, nape, breast, belly, back and upperwing-
coverts all dark olive; cheeks, ear-coverts, throat and
lores blackish; chin white; rump olive-brown, and tail
A new species of Gallirallus
from Calayan island, Philippines
DESMOND ALLEN, CARL OLIVEROS, CARMELA ESPAÑOLA,
GENEVIEVE BROAD and JUAN CARLOS T. GONZALEZ
An unidentifiable species of rail was observed in May 2004 on Calayan island in the Babuyan islands, northern Philippines. One
specimen of the bird was collected. Comparison with other rails of the region show it to be a previously undescribed species for which
the name Gallirallus calayanensis, Calayan Rail, is proposed. It is apparently most closely related to Okinawa Rail G. okinawae of
Okinawa in the Ryukyu islands, Japan. It is common in at least the north-central part of Calayan where forest overlies coralline
limestone with sinkholes. It was neither seen nor heard on the other Babuyan islands visited. Although not apparently under immedi-
ate threat, given its small currently known range and population it may warrant classification as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.
Forktail 20 (2004)2 DESMOND ALLEN et al.
Plate 1. Front view of Calayan Rail, Longog, Calayan island, Philippines, 14 May 2004.
Plate 2. Upperparts of Calayan Rail, Longog, Calayan
island, Philippines, 14 May 2004.
Plate 3. Underwing of Calayan Rail, Longog, Calayan island,
Philippines, 14 May 2004.
Forktail 20 (2004) 3A new species of Gallirallus from Calayan island, Philippines
Plate 4. Close-up of underwing of Calayan Rail, Longog,
Calayan island, Philippines, 14 May 2004.
Plate 6. Calayan Rail showing rufous coloration in sunlight, Longog, Calayan island, Philippines, 16 May 2004.
Plate 5. Presumed juvenile or immature Calayan Rail
showing pale ear-coverts, Longog, Calayan island,
Philippines, 16 May 2004.
Forktail 20 (2004)4 DESMOND ALLEN et al.
blackish-brown (Plates 1–2). Remiges: upper surface
black, edged brown on outer web, more broadly edged
brown on inner primaries; lower surface blackish-
brown narrowly edged pale brown; base of primaries
white. Some primaries appeared very worn with a
bristle projecting from the remaining rachis.
Underwing-coverts blackish-brown irregularly marked
with cream, forming four more-or-less regular narrow
bars along the marginal, lesser and median underwing-
coverts, with one bar extending onto the median
underprimary coverts; greater underwing-coverts also
irregularly spotted with cream (Plates 3–4). The tail
feathers are decomposed, giving the tail a tufted, hairy
appearance (Plate 2). Feet and legs orange-red in the
living bird but darker red in the dried specimen, claws
pale horn, but orange-red on ridge. Lower mandible
scarlet at base, grading to orange at gonys; upper
mandible scarlet basally grading to orange at distal end
of nares. Bill yellowish distally from gonys, with tip and
cutting edge buffy-horn, and ridge of culmen darker
horn. Iris orange with narrow orange orbital ring.
These colours were recorded in indirect sunlight; in
direct sunlight the plumage appears browner.
Measurements of holotype
Measurements (in millimetres) were taken from the
preserved skin at least 25 days after collection.
Minimum wing chord: 142.6 (left), 147.1 (right).
Maximum chord of flattened, straightened wing: 150.9
(left), 153.6 (right). Tail length: 59.7. Bill length to
skull: 33.7; bill length from gape: 40.6; width at base of
nares: 7.7; depth at gonys: 7.7.Tarsus: 48.6 (left), 46.9
(right). Middle toe: 52.1 (left), 52.9 (right). Length of
keel of sternum: 46.0; length of clavicle: 38.5. Weight
(of live bird): 244.5 g.
Diagnosis
The size and shape of the bill, pattern of scutes on the
tarsus, overall body size, and geographical location
indicate that the specimen belongs in the genus
Gallirallus.However, it is somewhat aberrant as the
other members of the genus have barred primaries
(Olson 1973), whereas it retains barring only on the
underwing-coverts. Table 1 compares the key charac-
ters of Calayan Rail with a number of other rails of the
region. The other Gallirallus species occurring in the
Philippines, Slaty-breasted, Buff-banded and Barred
Rails, all have barred underparts and have a horn-
coloured, brown or grey bill and legs. Calayan Rail is
most similar to Okinawa Rail in its red bill and legs,
olive back, and decomposed tail (the latter confirmed
by K. Ozaki in litt. 2004), but lacks the striking black
face and throat, white cheek-line and barred under-
parts. Sharpe’s Rail also has a red bill and legs, but it
has white spotted upperparts and primaries barred
with white (Taylor 1998). The only rail in the region
that has a uniform plumage with red bill and legs is
Drummer Rail Habroptila wallacii. This is superficially
similar to Calayan Rail but is much larger and
geographically rather distant, being confined to
Halmahera in the North Moluccas, Indonesia (Taylor
1998 BirdLife International 2001). Moreover,
Habroptila differs from Gallirallus in having a frontal
shield and feathered tibiotarsus, and lacking barring on
the primaries and underwing-coverts. del Hoyo et al.
(1996) considered Barred Rail and Okinawa Rail
(together with New Britain Rail G. insignis) to form a
distinct subgroup within Gallirallus. Calayan Rail
would seem to belong to this subgroup.
We noted a number of smaller Calayan Rail
individuals, presumed to be juveniles.These birds were
nearly uniform in colour, and had orange-red bills and
Ta ble 1. Comparison of characters of Calayan Rail with other rail species (Philippine race where indicated by trinomials; data for other
species from Taylor 1998 and Kennedy et al. 2000).
CALAYAN RAIL
Gallirallus calayanensis
Calayan island,
Philippines
Bill and legs red; plumage rather uniformly olive
or rufous with barring only on underwing-coverts
151–154 47–49 60 33.7
OKINAWA RAIL
Gallirallus okinawae
Okinawa island,
Japan:
Bill and legs red; upperparts olive/olive-brown;
face and throat black with prominent white cheek-
stripe; underparts black barred white
139,148 59, 65 53 45, 52.5
BARRED RAIL
Gallirallus torquatus
torquatus
Philippines,
[Indonesia to New
Guinea]
Bill and legs dark horn; upperparts dark brown;
face, chin and throat black with prominent white
cheek-stripe; underparts black barred white
135–156 46–53 45–62 41–48
SHARPES RAIL
Gallirallus sharpei
Unknown Bill and legs red; upperparts brownish-black
spotted white, remiges barred white
140 41.5 65 26
BUFF-BANDED RAIL
Gallirallus philippensis
philippensis
Philippines
[Australasia,
Indonesia]
Bill greyish-horn with purplish-red base; legs and
feet greyish-brown; white eyebrow and rufous
facial stripe and hindneck; underparts mostly
barred black and white
129–144 39–46 65–68 27–33
SLATY-BREASTED RAIL
Gallirallus striatus striatus
Philippines [India,
China to Greater
Sundas]
Bill horn with purplish-red base; legs greyish-
horn; sides of face and breast light grey;
upperparts brown, barred white; belly barred
black and white
111–122 32–36 32–40 34–40
D
RUMMER RAIL
Habroptila wallacii
Halmahera,
Indonesia
Bill red with frontal shield; legs red; upperparts
brownish-black and slaty-grey
179–185 79–99 55–71 70–84
Species Distribution Characters Wing Tarsus Tail Bill
(mm) (mm) (mm) (mm)
Forktail 20 (2004) 5A new species of Gallirallus from Calayan island, Philippines
legs. Some individuals had whitish ear-spots, and one
such bird also had a shorter bill (Plate 5). Juveniles of
Okinawa Rail and Barred Rail are not uniform in
colour but show the blackish face with white cheek-line
of adults.
Most birds observed appeared very dark olive-
brown or even sooty in the gloom of the forest floor,
but more olive on better-lit open paths. Occasionally,
notably in bright sunlight, individuals appeared rufous
with browner wings (Plate 6).This may be an effect of
lighting, as in Plates 1 and 3 the primaries show a
strong rufous tinge with light shining through them.
Nevertheless, we have been unable to reproduce this
effect with the holotype specimen and the matter
remains unresolved.
Etymology
The species is named after the island to which it is
thought to be endemic, and it is hoped that the scien-
tific and common names will draw attention to the
ornithological importance of the island. There are two
subspecies of bird occurring on Calayan with the trino-
mial calayensis (sic) but this is the first full species to be
named after the island.
Behaviour
When undisturbed, Calayan Rails foraged by pecking
at the ground, occasionally overturning leaves with a
sideways sweep of the head and bill. In some areas, the
rails appeared to be very shy and ran off quickly giving
an alarm call; in other areas birds were tamer and toler-
ated closer approach to within 1 m. Although singles
were often seen, small (presumably family) groups
were also observed. When birds were relaxed, the tail
was held horizontal; it was cocked when they became
nervous. Occasionally, birds resembled Barred Rails
with their characteristic stance of cocked tail and head
drawn back with the bill parallel to the ground. No
birds were seen to fly. A preliminary examination of the
holotype revealed a small sternum and pectoral
muscles; this, and the weak tail, suggests that the
species is flightless or nearly so, as are some congeners
(e.g. Okinawa Rail).
Diet
The stomach of the holotype contained the opercula of
snails, beetle fragments and millipede rings. A
limestone gastrolith and strands of grass-like plant
material were also present.
Distribution and habitat
Calayan Rail is presently known only from Calayan
island in the Babuyan group of islands, northern
Philippines. The Babuyan islands comprise five main
islands: Camiguin Norte, Babuyan Claro, Calayan,
Dalupiri and Fuga, together with some small islets
including Pamoctan, Guinapao Rocks and Didicas.We
visited all of these islands except Fuga. While time did
not permit all areas on all islands to be surveyed
directly, local residents were questioned closely about
which birds they knew, and often acted as our guides.
Close attention was paid to bird calls, and recordings
were made and discussed. No-one reported birds
fitting the description of Calayan Rail on any other
island. Thus we believe that the species may be
restricted to Calayan.
Calayan is not densely populated. The main town
and population centre of the island (Poblacion) is
located on the south side of the island, behind which
are extensive areas of rice fields.We thoroughly investi-
gated these fields and adjacent areas of forest and
scrub. While Barred Rail was common in this area,
Calayan Rail was not observed.To the north of the rice
fields lies a large block of primary forest on apparently
clay soils. We established a camp on the north side of
this block in a large rice-field clearing in the geograph-
ical centre of the island; this was connected by a
network of paths through secondary forest to other
such clearings. This area lies on coralline limestone
that is permeated with sink-holes and caves, although
streams flow at the surface in some places and are
diverted for rice irrigation.
Calayan Rail was found to be common in primary
and secondary forest on this limestone, and even in
degraded areas with young secondary growth of low
trees. For example, up to eight individuals were seen or
heard along a 2 km trail in one morning. The species
appeared to prefer areas near streams, but it was not
clear if it was tied to them. Discussion with local
people established that it was well known in the area
and called piding, although this name is also used for
the Plain Bush-hen Amaurornis olivaceus.However,
Calayan Rail was not found in rice-fields or in open
clearings, where White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis
phoenicurus and Plain Bush-hen occurred; nor was it
found along trails that traversed the primary forest
block in the southern half of the island, and there was
no response when tapes of its calls were played there.
The rail may be restricted to, or prefer, areas of
coralline limestone, but further surveys are required to
confirm this.
Unfortunately, we did not have time to explore
further than 2 km from camp along two trails. These
formed a triangle encompassing an area of c.2 km
2
.By
extrapolating from the frequency of observations, we
estimate there could be one pair per 1–2 hectares in
suitable habitat, giving an approximate total of
100–200 pairs in the area we surveyed. We have no
information on the total extent of the area of forested
coralline limestone, but areas near the north and west
coasts have a dispersed human population with associ-
ated agricultural clearings.The extent of occurrence of
the Calayan Rail is likely to be much less than 100 km
2
,
and possibly lower than 10 km
2
.
Vocalisations
Birds were observed making a series of hoarse,
staccato, ngeck ngeck ngeck… calls repeated at a rate of
about seven per second and given in a series lasting 30
seconds or more (Fig. 1). Both individuals and small
(possibly family) groups gave this call, sometimes in
response to playback of the call.The call resembles one
of the calls of Okinawa Rail (Kabaya and Matsuda
2001), although the energy distribution within the
harmonics appears different. Barred Rails give calls at
a slower rate (c.4 notes per second). A hand-held bird
gave an alarm call ngreeek (Fig. 2), and a similar call
krrreert was also heard in the field (Fig. 3), sometimes
extended into a trumpeting scream. It is apparently
Forktail 20 (2004)6 DESMOND ALLEN et al.
quite different from any call of the Okinawa Rail (K.
Ozaki in litt. 2004). A shorter form of this call, skeet!
was occasionally heard when individuals dashed for
cover.
Affinities of the Babuyan avifauna
The principal biogeographical influence on the
Babuyan islands is that of Luzon. However, both the
Babuyan islands and the more northerly Batanes have
some affinities with Lanyu (Taiwan) and the Ryukyu
islands of Japan to the north. This is the only part of
the Philippines where northern species such as
Whistling Green Pigeon Treron formosae, Ryukyu Scops
Owl Otus elegans and Brown-eared Bulbul Ixos amauro-
tis occur, as well as, among mammals, Ryukyu Flying
Fox Pteropus dasymallus. If Calayan Rail is most closely
related to Okinawa Rail, this is further evidence for a
northerly influence.
Conservation
Calayan is a small island of 196 km
2
, and Calayan Rail
may be restricted to only those parts of the island with
forested coralline limestone outcrops. Here the soil is
often very thin or absent, and hence unsuitable for
agriculture. The rail was seen in both primary and
degraded forest. The human population of the area is
very low. Although the rails are apparently occasionally
caught in traps set for Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus,
they are not directly targeted. Introduced predators
such as dogs and cats were largely absent. Potential
natural predators include monitor lizards Va r anus
salvator, one of which was seen pursuing a pair of rails
on one occasion. Snakes are also likely predators,
although the recently introduced poisonous toad Bufo
marinus may have reduced snake numbers on the
island. Some of the larger raptors that migrate through
Calayan may also prey on rails. However, we found no
evidence to infer that the population is declining.
The human population on Calayan is low (8,451
individuals) and is concentrated in the south of the
island. However, the construction of a road around the
periphery of the island, and a link to its centre, have
already been started. These roads may well encourage
the spread of settlements and hence cats, dogs and rats,
and could threaten the Calayan Rail population. In the
longer term, the witting or unwitting introduction of
predators or niche competitors is an ever-present
danger.
Conservation is already being promoted in the
Babuyan islands. The Worldwide Fund for Nature
(WWF)-Philippines has been working to preserve
humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae in the area,
and has been promoting environmental awareness in
local schools since 2001. More recently, in June 2003,
a bill was filed in the Lower House of the Philippine
Congress that seeks to declare the islands of Calayan
municipality and the surrounding waters a protected
area.
These measures may encourage the protection of
the rail’s habitat. However, it should be borne in mind
that flightless rails are particularly vulnerable to extinc-
tion. Of 20 extant flightless rail species, only two are
not considered threatened, and neither is restricted to
a small island (Taylor 1998). Of the 20 species or
subspecies of rail that have almost certainly become
extinct since 1600, 90% were flightless (Taylor 1998).
Some of these were hunted to extinction, but the main
cause was the introduction of predators such as dogs,
cats, mongooses, pigs and, on Guam, the brown tree
snake Boiga irregularis;a secondary cause has been
habitat destruction (Taylor 1998). The Okinawa Rail
has continued to decline in numbers since its discov-
ery, owing to predation by cats and mongooses, despite
official protection and public awareness (Ozaki et al.
2002).
On the basis of its small currently known popula-
tion and range size, the Calayan Rail appears to qualify
as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List under criteria D1
(population <1,000 mature individuals) and D2 (area
of occupancy <20 km
2
or restricted to <5 locations:
IUCN 2001). This is a precautionary preliminary
Figure 1. Sonagram of calls of Calayan Rail, Longog,
Calayan island, Philippines, May 2004.
Figure 3. Sonagram of alarm calls of presumed Calayan Rail
(bird not seen whilst recording made), Longog, Calayan
island, Philippines, May 2004.
Figure 2. Sonagram of alarm calls of Calayan Rail, given by
hand-held bird, Longog, Calayan island, Philippines, May
2004.
Forktail 20 (2004) 7A new species of Gallirallus from Calayan island, Philippines
assessment and further research is needed to clarify the
habitat requirements, range size and population size of
the species. It is likely to become more threatened in
the future, and action is needed to pre-empt potential
threats to the Calayan Rail and its habitat.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks to: an anonymous reviewer for helpful comments and advice;
Nigel Collar and Edward Dickinson for useful discussions; Marisol
Pedregosa and Harvey John Garcia for anatomical preparation of the
specimen; Kiyoaki Ozaki and Takashi Hiraoka and the Yamashina
Institute for Ornithology for details of Okinawa Rail specimens and
for help with sound recordings of Okinawa Rail; Robert Pry
^
s-Jones
and Mark Adams at the Natural History Museum at Tring for help
with access to specimens and reference materials; Maria Josefa Veluz
and Francis Veluz of the National Museum of the Philippines for
help with access to specimens; our guides on Calayan: Roel (Amboy)
Payas, R. J. Escalante, and Roger Cobo who trapped the rail;
Fernando Estabillo for the use of his huts as a base at Longog; Joel
Escalante and family for the use of his house in Calayan; Barangay
Councillor Roque Ventura, Rodel Gudoy, Alfredo Ruiz Jr., Mark
Anthony Reyes, Amado Bajarias and Nancy Dian for logistical assis-
tance; Calayan Mayor Joseph Llopis; Calayan Municipal
Administrator Bella Llopis; Barangay Captain Lino Escalante of
Brgy. Magsidel; DENR Region 2 Executive Director Antonio
Principe; Cagayan PENR Officer Armando Bucat; University of the
Philippines-Los Baños Interdisciplinary Committee for assistance
with the collection permit; the Rufford Small Grant Committee and
the Oriental Bird Club as sponsors of the expedition; and Ideawild
(U.S.A.) and the Wild Bird Club of the Philippines for support with
equipment.
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and Fisher, T. H. (2000) A guide to the birds of the Philippines.
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T. (2002) The declining distribution of the Okinawa Rail
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of the world. Robertsbridge, Sussex, U.K.: Pica Press.
Desmond Allen, 97 Sussex Way, London N7 6RU, U.K. Email: dnsallen@konline.co.uk
Carmela P. Española, 30-D Delgado Street, Iloilo City 5000, Philippines. Email: lala924@yahoo.com
Carl H. Oliveros, 9 Bougainvillea St, Manuela Subdivision, Las Piñas City, Philippines 1741.
Email: carl_oliveros@yahoo.com
Genevieve Broad, Dickon,Walberswick, Southwold, Suffolk, IP18 6UX, U.K. Email: genbroad@hotmail.com
Juan Carlos T. Gonzalez, Animal Biology Division, Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences,
University of the Philippines-Los Baños, College, Laguna 4031 Philippines. Email: jctgonzalez@yahoo.com
... To resolve the polyphyly of Crex, we recommend that the available genus name Crecopsis, which was erected by Sharpe (1893) for the African Crake Crecopsis egregia, be resurrected and applied again to that species, as the Corncrake Crex crex has priority for a monotypic Crex. The Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis, which was described (Allen et al. 2004) and has never been classified in any other genus despite having repeatedly been shown (herein, Kirchman 2012, Garcia-R et al. 2014a, Boast et al. 2019, Garcia-R et al. 2020 to occupy a long branch outside the Hypotaenidia radiation and well-apart from the Weka Gallirallus australis, which retains its genus name by priority. Here we propose a new genus name for the Calayan Rail: ...
... Type species. Gallirallus calayanensis Allen, Oliveros, Española, Broad, and Gonzalez, 2004. Included species. ...
Article
The rails (Family Rallidae) are the most diverse and widespread group in the Gruiformes. Their extensive fossil history, global geographic distribution, and tendency to rapidly evolve flightless species on islands make them an attractive subject of evolutionary studies, but the rarity of modern museum specimens of so many rail species has, until recently, limited the scope of molecular phylogenetics studies. As a result, the classification of rails remains one of the most unsettled among major bird radiations. We extracted DNA from museum specimens of 82 species, including 27 from study skins collected as long ago as 1875, and generated nucleotide sequences from thousands of homologous ultra-conserved elements (UCEs). Our phylogenetic analyses, using both concatenation and multispecies coalescent approaches, resulted in well-supported and highly congruent phylogenies that resolve the major lineages of rails and reveal several currently recognized genera to be polyphyletic. A fossil-calibrated time tree is well-resolved and supports the hypothesis that rails split into 2 major lineages (subfamilies Himantornithinae and Rallinae) ~34 mya, but clade age estimates have wide confidence intervals. Our results, combined with results of other recently published phylogenomics studies of rails and other Gruiformes, form the basis for a proposed classification of the Rallidae that recognizes 40 genera in 9 tribes.
... Los detalles del cambio en coloración de la subespecie durante su desarrollo permiten determinar la edad de individuos silvestres. limitación en las capacidades de movimiento de algunos Rallidae no se limita a los varios taxones endémicos de islas dentro de la familia como la Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis Mathews, 1927, endémica de Hawaii (DesRochers et al. 2010, Gallirallus australis Sparrmn, 1786, endémica de Nueva Zelanda (Beauchamp 1998), algunas descritas recientemente como Rallus rovianae Diamond, 1991 y Gallirallus calayanensis Allen, Oliveros, Española, Broad & Gonzalez, 2004 tienen distribuciones muy limitadas, representando taxones diferenciados en subespecies o hasta especies distintas (Diamond 1991, Allen et al. 2004. Por sus poblaciones de distribuciones muy limitadas y a menudo pequeñas, estas especies son potencialmente vulnerables a la extinción, especialmente como resultado de la intervención humana, alteraciones de sus hábitats, introducción de especies exóticas, o cacería . ...
... Los detalles del cambio en coloración de la subespecie durante su desarrollo permiten determinar la edad de individuos silvestres. limitación en las capacidades de movimiento de algunos Rallidae no se limita a los varios taxones endémicos de islas dentro de la familia como la Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis Mathews, 1927, endémica de Hawaii (DesRochers et al. 2010, Gallirallus australis Sparrmn, 1786, endémica de Nueva Zelanda (Beauchamp 1998), algunas descritas recientemente como Rallus rovianae Diamond, 1991 y Gallirallus calayanensis Allen, Oliveros, Española, Broad & Gonzalez, 2004 tienen distribuciones muy limitadas, representando taxones diferenciados en subespecies o hasta especies distintas (Diamond 1991, Allen et al. 2004. Por sus poblaciones de distribuciones muy limitadas y a menudo pequeñas, estas especies son potencialmente vulnerables a la extinción, especialmente como resultado de la intervención humana, alteraciones de sus hábitats, introducción de especies exóticas, o cacería . ...
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La familia Rallidae, ampliamente distribuida, tiene una alta proporción de especies amenazadas e información limitada sobre su biología reproductiva. La subespecie endémica y amenazada de la tingua moteada Porphyriops melanops bogotensis constituye un grupo aislado de Colombia con poca información sobre su reproducción y desarrollo. Describimos la biología reproductiva y el desarrollo de los pollos de P. m. bogotensis, aportando información novedosa y útil para su conservación. El estudio se hizo en la sabana de Bogotá, Colombia entre 2016 y 2019. Semanalmente hicimos recorridos en busca de nidos para su descripción y seguimiento. Se incubaron artificialmente catorce huevos; los polluelos fueron criados en cautiverio, haciendo seguimiento de su crecimiento y cambio de plumaje hasta terminar su desarrollo. Las aves anidaron durante todo el año; el número de huevos varió entre tres y seis, con un período de incubación de 18-20 días. Se alcanzó el tamaño definitivo alrededor de los 55 días, con diferencias significativas entre sexos. El color definitivo del pico se adquiere a los 75, días mientras que el color del iris y plumaje adulto se alcanza entre los días 150 y 165. En términos generales la reproducción y desarrollo de P. m. bogotensis concuerda con lo descrito para otros miembros de la familia Rallidae. Los detalles del cambio en coloración de la subespecie durante su desarrollo permiten determinar la edad de individuos silvestres.
... The Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis is a recently discovered near-flightless species endemic to the small (196 km 2 ) island of Calayan in the northern Philippines (Allen et al. 2004). Presently classified as Vulnerable to extinction under the IUCN Red List (IUCN 2009), recent field surveys have found that the species occurs throughout most of the island's forests (Oliveros et al. unpublished data). ...
... This Calayan Rail nest and eggs are the first to be encountered in five years of rail survey work on Calayan, although fledged rail chicks have been observed as early as 6 April (C. Española and Oliveros unpublished data) and juveniles have been observed during the month of May (Allen et al. 2004). The discovery of the nest and eggs extends the known breeding period of the species to June. ...
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We describe for the first time the nest and eggs of the Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis. The nest was built on the ground at the base of a fig tree and loosely constructed with dried leaves and stems. The eggs were pale pink and blotched reddish-brown and dark lilac, measuring 35 mm×25 mm in size. Nest placement, construction and egg coloration was similar to its congener, the Okinawa Rail G. okinawae.
... Assuming the distributions indicated in Kennedy et al. (2000) represent all currently accepted records of birds for the islands, we made 220 new distributional records for 114 species, including the discovery of Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis, which was new to science (Allen et al. 2004). Two new species for the Philippines were also recorded: Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus and Orangeflanked Bush Robin Tarsiger cyanurus. ...
... Vulnerable; restricted-range. The discovery of this new species was described in Allen et al. (2004). ...
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In April–June 2004, we visited the Babuyan islands, Philippines, with the principal objective of surveying birds. Calayan, Camiguin Norte, Babuyan Claro, Dalupiri and three islets were visited, resulting in the discovery of a new species to science: Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis, 220 new distributional records for 114 species, including two new records for the Philippines, Pied Cuckoo Clamator jacobinus and Orange-flanked Bush Robin Tarsiger cyanurus, and new information on breeding and timing of migration for several species.
... Dari 20 spesies dari genus Galirallus hanya dua yang dianggap tidak terancam dan salah satunya adalah jenis G. philippensis (Taylor & Van Perlo, 1998). Sebagian besar anggota genus Gallirallus adalah spesies kepulauan dan beberapa diantaranya endemik dan masuk dalam kategori endangered dan extinct (Lambey, 2013 (Allen et al. 2004). Ukuran panjang badan G. philipensis adalah 28-33 cm, warna alis abu-abu pucat panjang, pita karat lebar melalui mata, bagian atas berbintik putih (Coates & Bishop 2000). ...
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This study aims to determine species and conservation status of Rallidae family in Forestry and Environment Research and Development Institute of Manado; also the prospect of its development. This study may provide a source of data and information on the diversity of certain bird species. Observations conducted in June 2015 included the species of birds in Rallidae family found around the BP2LHK Manado. Data were analyzed descriptively in the forms of figures and tables. Results showed that there were three species within this family found in BP2LHK Manado. Those were isabelline bush-hen (Amaurornis isabellina), buff-banded rail (Gallirallus philippensis), and Barred Rail (Gallirallus torquatus). All three species are not protected in Indonesia and IUCN categorized them as Least Concern (LC). Isabelline bush-hen is endemic to the island of Sulawesi, while buff-banded rail and barred rail have a wide distribution. Weris has a good prospect to be domesticated.
... The five main islands, namely Camiguin, Fuga, Dalupiri, Calayan and Babuyan Claro, lie in deep waters, and it is believed that they were never connected to the mainland or to each other during the last glacial period (Heaney 1985). Until recently, the island group has been the subject of little scientific attention, probably because of its isolation from mainland Luzon, with recent research efforts focusing mainly on terrestrial vertebrates and marine mammals (Allen et al. 2004, Oliveros et al. 2008, Acebes et al. 2007, Silberg et al. 2013). Despite this, the area has been classified as an Important Bird Area (Mallari et al. 2001), as a secondary area for endemic birds (Stattersfield et al. 1998) and a distinct ecoregion (Ong et al. 2002), in recognition of its rich avifauna (Dickinson et al. 1991, Kennedy et al. 2000). ...
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This paper is the first comprehensive report of seabirds in the Babuyan Channel, Northern Luzon, Philippines. We compiled photographic evidence of seabird sightings during cetacean surveys in this region from 2000 to 2015. A total of 18 species were recorded, of which two species were new country records and a further five species were new area records. Our results provide novel knowledge on the distribution of some of these species. They further highlight the importance of the Babuyan Channel to the East Asia–Australasian Flyway, and support the designation of the Babuyan Marine Corridor as a high priority area for conservation and an Important Bird Area in the Philippines. Extensive surveys in the Babuyan Marine Corridor dedicated to seabirds are recommended to continue to identify species and to contribute to the knowledge of seabird distribution and migration patterns.
... Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of concatenated cyt b, 12S, and CR sequences used a GRT + I + G 1991 (Diamond 1991). f Described as G. calayanensis in 2004 (Allen et al. 2004). ...
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The living and extinct flightless rails of the Pacific are among the most species-rich examples of parallel evolution in vertebrates. The “typical” rails of this region comprise a diverse assemblage of long-billed species variously placed in the genera Rallus, Lewinia, Nesoclopeus, Gallirallus, Habropteryx, Tricholimnas, Aramidopsis, Amaurornis, Eulabeornis, and Habroptila. I present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this group based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of 12S, control region, and cytochrome-b data obtained from museum specimens (frozen tissues, toe pads from study skins, and bones from archaeological sites) of living and extinct species. All previously recognized genera are either monotypic or non-monophyletic, and I advocate lumping nearly all species into a broadly defined Gallirallus sensu lato. Volant species are not paraphyletic with respect to nearly all flightless species. Instead flightless species branch off in rapid succession from lineages leading to extant volant species. The nesting of the flightless species G. pendiculentus with G. philippensis suggests that the flightless condition may evolve prior to reproductive isolation. A locally calibrated relaxed molecular clock indicates that species from Oceania evolved only within the last 400,000 years, supporting the hypothesis that speciation proceeds rapidly in flightless rails. These results help resolve a long-standing taxonomic quagmire and have important implications for Pacific biogeography and the tempo and mode of speciation in island birds.
... More intriguing still, and an important twist to the story so far, is a report by C. Española (pers. comm., 2006), who discovered the Calayan Rail Gallirallus calayanensis (Allen et al. 2004) and who lived on Jolo in 2003 while pursuing her master's thesis. Owing to security considerations she was allowed very little opportunity to explore the island, and she never personally saw a bleeding-heart pigeon there. ...
Article
The type specimen of the Mindanao Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba crinigera was acquired on Jolo in the Sulu Archipelago, southern Philippines, but a presumption of biogeographic improbability led to the type locality being “corrected” to Mindanao. Birds from Basilan, geographically interposed between Mindanao and Jolo, have been separated as G. c. bartletti chiefly for their smaller size, but comparison with the type of crinigera is impossible owing to the latter’s lack of outer primaries and tail; in any case bartletti and Mindanao crinigera overlap strongly in size and differ in no diagnostic plumage feature so that bartletti is probably invalid. Given that a Gallicolumba was seen in the wild on Jolo in the nineteenth century, at least five slightly different taxonomic arrangements are possible depending on viewpoint. Reversion of type locality to Jolo would be destabilising at this stage, but it is plausible that the type of crinigera did in fact derive from native birds on Jolo. Resolution of the issue might still be possible, as a local man recently reported that a bird resembling G. crinigera survives on the island.
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Discusses the geological and biogeographical evidence for land bridges. None linked to the main part of the Philippines during the Middle or Late Pleistocene but there was a middle Pleistocene connection of the Palawan Chain to Borneo and so to Asia, while Late Pleistocene low sea-levels linked most of the Philippine Islands.-K.Clayton
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The distribution of the Okinawa Rail Gallirallus okinawae was studied, using the voice play back method, at 296 sites in 19961999 and at 564 sites in 20002001, in the northern part of Okinawa Island. The results were plotted on a 1.25 km0.925 km map grid. The presence of Okinawa Rails was confirmed at 49 out of 95 grid intersections (51.6%) during 19961999 and at 116 out of 255 grid intersections (45.5%) in 20002001. These results were compared with similar research undertaken by the Environmental Agency in 19851986. This comparison indicates that the border of the species' range has shifted north by about 10 km over the past 15 years, resulting in a 25% decrease in the range of this species. Between 2 October 2000 and 30 March 2001 Okinawa Prefectural Government carried out controls of the introduced mongoose Herpestes javanicus in northern Okinawa Island using approximately 800 traps located at a total of 2,470 sites. A total of 303 mongoose were caught, mainly in the southern area from which Okinawa Rails have disappeared in recent years. The result of rail population mapping and of mongoose trapping strongly imply that the mongoose has caused the range contraction of the Okinawa Rail. We believe that urgent conservation measures are required in order to prevent this species from becoming extinct.
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Article
T HE family Rallidae, containing over 150 living or recently extinct species and having one of the widest distributions of any family of terrestrial vertebrates, has, in proportion to its size and interest, received less study than perhaps any other major group of birds. The only two attempts at a classifi-cation of all of the recent rallid genera are those of Sharpe (1894) and Peters (1934). Although each of these lists has some merit, neither is satisfactory in reflecting relationships between the genera and both often separate closely related groups. In the past, no attempt has been made to identify the more primitive members of the Rallidae or to illuminate evolutionary trends in the family. Lists almost invariably begin with the genus Rdus which is actually one of the most specialized genera of the family and does not represent an ancestral or primitive stock. One of the difficulties of rallid taxonomy arises from the relative homo-geneity of the family, rails for the most part being rather generalized birds with few groups having morphological modifications that clearly define them. As a consequence, particularly well-marked genera have been elevated to subfamily rank on the basis of characters that in more diverse families would not be considered as significant. Another weakness of former classifications of the family arose from what Mayr (194933) referred to as the "instability of the morphology of rails." This "instability of morphology," while seeming to belie what I have just said about homogeneity, refers only to the characteristics associated with flightlessness-a condition that appears with great regularity in island rails and which has evolved many times. I have elsewhere (Olson, 1973) argued that flightlessness in rails is a neotenic condition that is evolved very rapidly, involves little genetic modification, and is without major phylogenetic sig-nificance. Flightlessness and its associated morphology can be used as a taxonomic character in the Rallidae only at the specific or subspecific levels. When this is done, the result is the elimination of much fragmenting of genera that had previously obscured the origins and relationships of many species.
Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world
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Taylor, B. (1998) Rails: a guide to the rails, crakes, gallinules and coots of the world. Robertsbridge, Sussex, U.K.: Pica Press.
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