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Rethinking Desalinated Water Quality and Agriculture

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With almost half of humanity suffering insufficient access to potable water and water scarcity for agriculture considered to be a global crisis, seawater desalination has emerged as a feasible solution. Between 1994 and 2004, world desalination capacity increased from 17.3 to 35.6 million m3/day. At present, sea-water desalination provides 1% of the world’s drinking water. Desalinized water is increasingly considered a source of water for agriculture as well. With 69% of the global water supply going to irrigation, present freshwater resources may soon be insufficient to meet the growing demand for food. A recent report concludes that, although the costs of desalination remain prohibitively expensive for full use by irrigated agriculture, for high-value cash crops like greenhouse vegetables and flowers, its use may be economically feasible.

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... Sodium and chlorides ranged from 65 to 237 mg L −1 (mean ~126 mg L −1 ) and from 120 to 410 mg L −1 (mean ~209 mg L −1 ), respectively. In both cases, those levels greatly exceed the 20 mg L −1 established, as recommended limit for DSW use in irrigation [28]. Attending to the general guidelines for interpretation of water quality for irrigation, the Na + and Cl − concentration would imply a moderate degree of restrictions on use [30]. ...
... As a large portion of B in seawater takes the form of boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ), with no ionic charge, makes it can pass through the RO membranes and a lower percentage of B is therefore eliminated [36]. Yermiyahu, et al. (2007) [28] reported that, without additional treatment, B in Mediterranean seawater after RO reach 2 mg L −1 , which is toxic for numerous crops. Irrigation with DSW has been found to significantly increase soil B content, even with lower water B levels than those that are found here (i.e., 0.5-1.1 mg B L −1 ; Díaz, et al., 2013) [31], and it has triggered B toxicity problems and led to diminished yields in several sensitive crops [28]. ...
... As a large portion of B in seawater takes the form of boric acid (H 3 BO 3 ), with no ionic charge, makes it can pass through the RO membranes and a lower percentage of B is therefore eliminated [36]. Yermiyahu, et al. (2007) [28] reported that, without additional treatment, B in Mediterranean seawater after RO reach 2 mg L −1 , which is toxic for numerous crops. Irrigation with DSW has been found to significantly increase soil B content, even with lower water B levels than those that are found here (i.e., 0.5-1.1 mg B L −1 ; Díaz, et al., 2013) [31], and it has triggered B toxicity problems and led to diminished yields in several sensitive crops [28]. ...
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The growing need for alternative water resources for irrigation has led to advanced technological developments, which are addressing some of the challenges that our planet is facing regarding the water supply. The Canary Islands Archipelago (Spain) is a singular territory with several years of desalination experience while using desalinated seawater (DSW) for agricultural purposes. The current paper will address the conducted research of one of the case studies done into the Horizon 2020 project MAGIC, with the aim of analyzing the use of DSW for crop production in the Southeast of Gran Canaria Island. A methodology of surveying farmers in the area has been put in practice, as well as an assessment of potential soil degradation risks that are related to DSW irrigation (with fifteen years of DSW data). Additionally, local good practices to improve the DSW quality for irrigation are discussed. This study demonstrates an excellent endorsement of the surveyed farmers in the studied area regarding the use of DSW for irrigation: the strategy of combining this type of water with other water resources, such as groundwater and/or reclaimed water is very frequent and it can guarantee water and food security in the island’s territory.
... To counteract this and improve fresh water supply, facilities have been built for the desalination of seawater. Over 17,000 desalination plants in 150 countries produce more than 80 million cubic meters of water per day for over 300 million people [1]. ...
... The impact of DSW consumption in Israel and globally on public health has not yet been fully assessed. Fresh water from the Israeli National Water Carrier (NWC) is considered "hard," with concentrations of 45-60 mg calcium and 20-25 mg magnesium per liter, desalinated seawater contains little or no calcium or magnesium [1]. ...
... Early (2002)(2003)(2004)(2005)(2006) Late ( liter, DSW contains very little magnesium or does not contain at all [1]. According to these data, standard tap water contributes about 20% to daily magnesium intake. ...
... Initial experiences with DSW for crop irrigation have highlighted its main strengths [7,9,10]: (i) it is an unlimited agricultural water supply, which additionally provides drought risk-buffering value; (ii) its low salinity can produce significant increases in the quality and quantity of crop yields, especially when replacing low quality water supplies in water stressed regions; and (iii) the replacement of traditional water sources with DSW provides new water policies and water management options. The principal concerns are: (i) the high energy consumption, which results in considerably higher costs than for other water supply options [7]; (ii) the boron concentration, which is above the threshold for sensitive crops, implying toxicity risks [11]; and (iii) the exacerbation of the water-energy nexus in DSW production, i.e., high greenhouse gas emissions that feed the climate change processes [6]. Moreover, the impact of the disposal of the elevated salinity brines on oceanic life and the risk to marine ecosystems of the release of chemicals used in desalination processes through the brine are also important general environmental concerns in seawater desalination [12,13]. ...
... For that reason, DSW is currently considered as a complementary source for crop irrigation in SE Spain, and water blending is the most recommended management practice. In fact, in addition to counterbalancing high costs, it can mitigate the most relevant agronomical concerns related to the singular chemical composition of DSW [11,15,54]. Therefore, agronomic and economic issues highlight the benefits of an integrated planning and management of DSW and other available water resources in each irrigation district. ...
... However, it must be highlighted that DSW plays a complementary role in most irrigation districts, where it is usually managed along with other conventional water resources. This makes using DSW economically affordable and it might additionally minimize the main agronomic concerns highlighted in other studies (lack of essential nutrients, high presence of phytotoxic ions and soil alkalinization) [6,11,14]. ...
Article
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The increasing shortage of water for crop irrigation in arid and semiarid regions is encouraging the use of non-conventional resources. In the last decade, seawater desalination has consolidated its position as an alternative source to increase the supply for agricultural irrigation in Spain and Israel, where the farmers’ acceptance is progressively rising, despite the supply price being much higher than that of other conventional water sources. This article describes the current situation of desalinated seawater production and supply to agriculture in the southeast of Spain, and analyzes key questions such as its role in regional water planning, the infrastructure needed for conveyance and distribution, the energy requirements, the production and distribution costs, and the final price to farmers. The study is based on descriptive and quantitative data collected from desalination plants and irrigation district managers through technical questionnaires and personal interviews. The results show how seawater desalination is effectively alleviating the regional constraints in the irrigated agriculture supply, and why it is becoming strategic to maintaining food production and socioeconomic development. However, the high-energy requirements and associated costs in comparison with other water sources limit a more widespread use for agriculture, and for this reason desalinated water still only plays a complementary role in most irrigation districts.
... [1,3], it was stated that water-scarce countries especially the Middle East countries located in the arid and semi-arid zones will have to rely more on the use of non-conventional irrigation water resources such as saline aquifers to partly alleviate water scarcity. Although, the present freshwater resources may soon be insufficient to meet the growing demand for food [4], most of these drought-proof water resources contain dissolved solids and chemicals such as salts. The application of these water resources for irrigation purposes often result to the detrimental effect of salinization of soils, environmental degradation and low crop yield. ...
... Hence, desalination, which is any process that removes salt from water [10] to produce desalinized water, is increasingly considered a source of water for agriculture [4]. Even though soil salinity has been affecting agriculture for thousands of years, significant research has been conducted only in the past 100 years [11]. ...
... Desalination is a water saving alternative to brackish water irrigation even though its diffusion as a viable method of water treatment has been limited by high costs and concern about the lack of plant nutrients in desalinated water [17]. In Ref. [4], it was also confirmed that desalination not only separates the undesirable salts from the water but also removes ions that are essential to plant growth. Although, a recent report concludes that the costs of desalination remain prohibitively expensive for full use by irrigated agriculture [18], for high value cash crops like green-house vegetables and flowers, its use may be economically feasible [4]. ...
... Desalinated water has recently become a legitimate source for irrigation (Yermiyahu et al. 2007;Martinez-Alvarez et al. 2016). With an estimated 67% of global water withdrawals and 87% of consumed water going to irrigation (Foley et al. 2011), freshwater resources may become insufficient to meet agricultural demands. ...
... While the costs of desalination may still be excessive for use by most irrigated agriculture, the use of desalinated water has been validated at present prices with high-value cash crops, such as greenhouse vegetables and flowers (Beltran et al. 2006). However, Yermiyahu et al. (2007) reported that, when desalinated water was supplied to agriculture, magnesium (Mg) deficiency symptoms appeared on crops including tomatoes, basil and flowers, and that fertilization with Mg was necessary to alleviate the deficiency. Yermiyahu et al. (2007) further warned that irrigation with desalinated water may also lead to deficiencies of other essential elements, especially calcium (Ca) and sulfur. ...
... However, Yermiyahu et al. (2007) reported that, when desalinated water was supplied to agriculture, magnesium (Mg) deficiency symptoms appeared on crops including tomatoes, basil and flowers, and that fertilization with Mg was necessary to alleviate the deficiency. Yermiyahu et al. (2007) further warned that irrigation with desalinated water may also lead to deficiencies of other essential elements, especially calcium (Ca) and sulfur. ...
Article
Desalinated water has become a legitimate alternative water resource for the irrigation of intensive crops in semiarid regions. The concentrations of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in water (CCa and CMg, respectively) supplied from desalinated plants are much lower than the values typically found in irrigation water resources in semiarid regions. blossom-end rot (BER), a physiological disorder at the blossom-end part of the fruit resulting in tissue disintegration and dehydration, is considered a Ca-related disorder and therefore the optimization of CCa has to consider not only total fruit production but also the occurrence of BER. There is a lack of information regarding the optimal CCa and CMg and Ca/Mg ratio in low-salinity water under Mediterranean conditions for high-quality yield of tomato fruits. The main objective of the research was to optimize CCa and CMg for the production of high tomato fruit yield with minimal occurrence of BER. A secondary objective was to determine critical levels of Ca, Mg and Ca/Mg ratio in leaves in relation to yield and the occurrence of BER. Tomato plants were grown in an inert media and fed with a wide range of CCa and CMg. Fruit yield was shown to decrease significantly when CCa was at or below 0.40 mmol l⁻¹. In moderate CMg (1.4 mmol l⁻¹) treatment, BER was negatively correlated to Ca level up to and including 1.4 mmol l⁻¹ and was not manifested above that level under the prevailing conditions. Elevating CMg above 0.25 mmol l⁻¹ enhanced BER occurrence. Concentrations of Ca and Mg in tomato organs increased with the respective mineral concentration in irrigation solution, whereas each element was reduced in organs as a function of the increased solution concentration of the other. The Ca concentration in diagnostic leaves (the diagnostic leaf is the fully developed youngest leaf) for optimal fruit yield with minimum BER was found to be 1.6%. The optimum CCa for high fruit yield with minimal BER occurrence was found to be in the range of 1.5–2.5 mmol l⁻¹ combined with CMg at 0.25 mmol l⁻¹.
... The lack of Mg 2+ in post-treated desalinated seawater (PTDES) has drawn concern from both the public-health community and farmers in Israel, as this water is used for drinking and irrigation (Avni et al., 2013;Yermiyahu et al., 2007). In the last decade, useful knowledge has been accumulated on the fundamental chemical aspects of different post-treatments of desalinated water (e.g. ...
... The lack of Mg 2+ in PTDES in the water supply system is of concern for both human consumption and crops when this water is used for irrigation (Avni et al., 2013;Yermiyahu et al., 2007). The column experiment performed here showed that the CaCO 3 -containing sediments act as ion-exchangers, enriching the water with Mg 2+ . ...
Article
Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) events are occasionally carried out with surplus desalinated seawater that has been post-treated with CaCO3 in infiltration ponds overlying the northern part of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. This water's chemical characteristics differ from those of any other water recharged to the aquifer and of the natural groundwater. As the MAR events are short (hours to weeks), the sediment under the infiltration ponds will intermittently host desalinated and natural groundwater. As part of comprehensive research on the influence of those events, column experiments were designed to simulate the alternation of the two water types: post-treated desalinated seawater (PTDES) and natural groundwater (GW). Each experiment included three stages: (i) saturation with GW; (ii) inflow of PTDES; (iii) inflow of GW. Three runs were conducted, each with different sediments extracted from the field and representing a different layer below the infiltration pond: (i) sand (< 1% CaCO3), (ii) sand containing 7% CaCO3, and (iii) crushed calcareous sandstone (35% CaCO3). The results from all columns showed enrichment of K⁺ and Mg2 + (up to 0.4 meq/L for 20 pore volumes) when PTDES replaced GW, whereas an opposite trend of Ca2 + depletion (up to 0.5 meq/L) was observed only in the columns that contained a high percentage of CaCO3. When GW replaced PTDES, depletion of Mg2 + and K⁺ was noted. The results indicated that adsorption/desorption of cations are the main processes causing the observed enrichment/depletion. It was concluded that the high concentration of Ca2 + (relative to the total concentration of cations) and the low concentration of Mg2 + in the PTDES relative to natural GW are the factors controlling the main sediment–water interaction. The enrichment of PTDES with Mg2 + may be viewed as an additional post-treatment.
... In an expansive degree, treated sewage can be reviewed as a dependable wellspring of supplementary water that is accessible all year around. Its accessibility and supplementary constituents are essential elements that make it a profitable asset, especially in parched and semi-dry zones (Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Lahav et al., 2009;Jiménez et al., 2010;Winpenny et al., 2010). Sewage, in its untreated form, is generally used for agriculture and aquaculture and has been the norm for a considerable length of time in countries such as China, India and Mexico. ...
... These will not just jeopardize harvests; saline waste will also accumulate (Letey et al., 2011;Avni et al., 2013;Elgallal et al., 2016;Eman et al., 2017;Ibekwe et al., 2017). Thus, the idea of desalination is a vital process for treating natural saline contamination (Ayers and Westcot, 1985;Einav et al., 2002;Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Lattemann and Höpner, 2008;Birnhack et al., 2011;Norton et al., 2013;Fuentes-Bargues, 2014;Burn et al., 2015;Arturo et al., 2017). In any case, wastewater is an intricate asset, and keeping in mind that it might have numerous advantages, the worry about the dangers to human health and the ecological effect of microbes are an extreme deterrent against sewage reuse in agriculture. ...
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en This paper has endeavoured to produce a technical note on the hazards that humans and the environment face with the burden of wastewater irrigation on crops and the soil. Reports based on past and present issues related to wastewater used in irrigation of crops and the health implications when it is applied in the arable field for irrigating crops have been considered broadly. It is conclusive that wastewater has polluted and contaminated crops and soil when not properly treated before being applied for irrigation purposes. The crop effects and advantages of wastewater reuse in agriculture are of extensive application because of a lack of water in numerous parts of the world. Besides, the impacts of wastewater systems should be assessed not only from the perspective of social, monetary and natural viewpoints, but in addition from the sustainable improvement point of view; thus this paper surveyed the sustainability, benefits, impediments, developments and innovations of using the wastewater in water systems for agriculture. Wastewater treatment must be further advanced to address developing concerns such as amount and quality. More effective decentralized wastewater administration frameworks must be set up to provide the approach to abridge the cost of wastewater treatment. Finally, we require suitable strategies to catch and convey water, secure soil, reuse wastewater and streamline its administration. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Résumé fr Ce document s'est efforcé de rédiger une note technique sur les dangers que représentent pour l'homme et l'environnement l'irrigation par les eaux usées pour les cultures et le sol. Des rapports basés sur des problèmes passés et présents liés aux eaux usées utilisées pour l'irrigation des cultures et à leurs implications pour la santé lorsqu'elles sont appliquées dans les champs arables, pour l'irrigation des cultures, ont été largement examinés. En conclusion, les eaux usées ont pollué et contaminé la culture et le sol si elles ne sont pas correctement traitées avant d'être appliquées à des fins d'irrigation. Les effets sur les cultures et les avantages de la réutilisation des eaux usées dans l'agriculture sont largement utilisés en raison d'un manque d'eau dans de nombreuses régions du monde. En outre, les impacts du système de traitement des eaux usées devraient être évalués non seulement du point de vue social, monétaire et naturel, mais également du point de vue de l'amélioration durable. Ce document examine donc la durabilité, les avantages, les obstacles, les développements et les innovations liés à l'utilisation des eaux usées dans les systèmes d'irrigation en eau pour l'agriculture. Les avancées en matière de traitement des eaux usées doivent encore progresser afin de répondre aux préoccupations croissantes telles que la quantité et la qualité. Des cadres plus décentralisés d'administration des eaux usées doivent être mis en place et fournir l'approche permettant de réduire les coûts de traitement des eaux usées. Enfin, nous avons besoin de stratégies appropriées pour capturer et acheminer l'eau, sécuriser les sols, réutiliser les eaux usées et en rationaliser l'administration. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... NF + RO permeate is based on the mixture of NF brine with RO permeate. The mixing process helps to stabilize calcium, magnesium and alkalinity concentration and to meet water desalination quality and agriculture needs (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). This is the reason that Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ and SO 4 2− concentrations are higher in the NF + RO treatment than the NF permeate. ...
... It is important to note that the use of membranes reduced the electrical conductivity (EC) level in the irrigation water, both for NF and for NF + RO systems; however, in both systems, the relevant ion levels, such as magnesium, were still high. On the other hand, tap water, with the lowest EC level of all, showed magnesium concentration below the least required for irrigation (Yermiyahu et al., 2007), indicating that part of the water in the Israeli system is already desalinated seawater using RO membranes. Pepper has been considered to be a salt sensitive species; however, salt tolerance of pepper has been observed, with higher yield (kg of fruits per m 2 ) in some cases (Chartzoulakis and Klapki, 2000). ...
... On the positive side, the low salinity of DSW boosts the quality and quantity of crop yields (since it is often used to replace marginal low-quality resources) while preventing salt leaching and preserving soils and groundwater (Martinez-Alvarez et al., 2017). On the negative side, the main drawbacks are: (i) the high energy consumption for production and distribution, which results in considerably higher unit costs than for conventional water and thus jeopardizes crop profitability (March et al., 2014;Martinez-Alvarez et al., 2019;(ii) its singular chemical composition, substantially different from conventional resources, implies agronomic risks such as crop toxicity and soil alkalinization as well as higher fertilization requirements (Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Ben-Gal et al., 2009); and (iii) the exacerbation of the water-energy nexus caused by DSW production means higher greenhouse gas emissions unless clean energy is used (Martinez-Alvarez et al., 2017). ...
... In contrast, greenhouse crops, especially in soilless production systems, usually receive additional Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ fertilization. Therefore, when switching from conventional waters to DSW, the chemical composition of the new irrigation water must be taken into account to avoid plant physiological disorders or growth limitations such as those reported for several crops in Israel (Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Avni et al., 2013;Bar-Tal et al., 2017;Hakkwan, et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Desalinated sea water (DSW) provides a steady agricultural water supply that overcomes climatological and hydrological constraints, fostering food security and socio-economic stability in water-stressed regions. In the last decade, seawater desalination for irrigation has been massively implemented in south-eastern (SE) Spain amid rising pressure and competition for water resources. However, farmers seem reluctant to replace conventional water sources with DSW due to its higher price and the need for additional fertilization. This article assesses how fertigation cost increases can affect farming profitability when integrating DSW for irrigation. The increases in water and fertilizer costs of totally (100 %) and partially (50 %) replacing conventional water with DSW were calculated for the most representative crops of the Segura basin in SE Spain. The results show that the total replacement of conventional resources implies a fertigation cost increase equivalent to 3.2–35.5% of the crop production costs. However, replacing only 50 % of the conventional resources reduces these figures by more than half (1.5–15.7%). This supra-linear decrease comes from the fact that although water blending halves the water cost increase, the fertilizer cost increase is reduced by more than half. Looking at the fertigation cost increase relative to crop profit, remarkable profitability losses were observed for all crops in the total replacement scenario (21.6–129.1%), which only fell to more acceptable levels in the partial replacement scenario (10.3–57.1%). In the scenario with 100 % DSW, the estimated revenue increase required to compensate for the increase in the fertigation cost seems unrealistic for traditional crops (>15 % for melon and >25 % for lemon) whereas substantially more moderate increases are demanded from all crops (<10 %) when only 50 % DSW is used. Overall, this study stresses the need to properly evaluate water blending options to maintain agricultural profitability.
... Recent increase in demand for agricultural products, combined with scarcity of fresh water has provided incentive for utilization of non-conventional water sources for irrigation (Yeo, 1999). Irrigation managers can alternatively utilize water containing high concentrations of salts (Beltrán, 1999) or desalinated water devoid of dissolved minerals (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). Both extremes are most likely to occur in water-scarce arid and semi-arid regions and both require specific management. ...
... Irrigation with water high in salts requires an increase in the irrigation volume in order to reduce the salt concentration from the active root zone (Ben-Gal et al., 2009). Desalinated water, whether used directly or incidentally, requires consideration of return of minerals that may otherwise not have needed to be fertilized (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). ...
Article
Recent increase in demand for agricultural products combined with scarcity of fresh water has motivated increased use of non-conventional water sources for irrigation. Application of water varying in quality dictates adjustment of nitrogen (N) management. The response of bell pepper to a range of different concentrations of N and salinity (NaCl) was evaluated in soilless and field experiments under greenhouse conditions. Pepper plant biomass and yield increased with N and decreased with salinity. Chloride accumulated mainly in the stems and the fraction of Cl in leaves increased as a function of increased exposure to salinity. Increasing N application resulted in reduced Cl uptake and accumulation in pepper organs, including leaves and petioles. Although N significantly reduced Cl content and concentration in leaves and petioles it did not compensate for the negative effects of increasing salinity. This indicates that salinity itself and not Cl − N competition was the limiting factor affecting growth and yield.
... In addition, BGW RO operates at a lower water recovery of approximately 80% [7] compared to other brackish water desalination technologies. 30 An alternative to RO is monovalent selective electrodialysis reversal (MSED-R), a variant of electrodialysis (ED) that shows more promise to align with the needs of the greenhouse industry. Key advantages offered by MSED-R include the following: ...
... Water quality recommendations for agriculture[30,31]. ...
Article
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Reverse osmosis (RO) is the most widely used desalination technology for treating brackish water prior to irrigation. RO, however, removes both monovalent ions (Na+,Cl−) detrimental to crops and divalent ions (Ca2+,Mg2+,SO42−) that are beneficial. These beneficial ions must then be reintroduced to the desalinated water by adding fertilizer or mixing with nutrient-rich brackish water that typically contains excess levels of monovalent ions. Unlike RO, monovalent selective electrodialysis reversal (MSED-R) removes monovalent ions, while retaining divalent ions. This paper evaluates whether Neosepta ion exchange membranes, originally manufactured to concentrate seawater for salt production, show sufficient monovalent selectivity in the brackish salinity range to be suitable for use in greenhouse agriculture. Using an MSED-R experimental set-up, 16 brackish groundwater compositions are tested to determine membrane parameters, including limiting current, membrane resistance, membrane permeability, and membrane selectivity. Across compositions, the Neosepta membranes show monovalent selectivity for sodium relative to calcium and magnesium and for chloride relative to sulfate. The membrane selectivities are used to calculate MSED-R fertilizer savings relative to RO for brackish groundwaters across the U.S. Regions in which brackish groundwaters contain greater than the target nutrient concentrations for crop growth, or show potential for MSED-R adoption, are also identified.
... As such, application for crop irrigation, the quality parameters might have slight differences but still referring to the standard of the desalination plant. Desalination for agriculture purpose can be considered as an expensive method [57] but it is widely being used in Spain [58], [59] and Israel [60], [61]. Besides that, DSW for agricultural irrigation is also emerging to Florida [62]. ...
... There are 10 quality parameters that can be used for agricultural and municipal DSW standard which are pH, electrical conductivity, concentration ranges for a number of ions (Cl−, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO4 2−), concentration ranges for boron, alkalinity, and Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Potential (CCPP) [57]. Table 6 shows the standard for desalinated water for domestic and agricultural usage in Israel [60] and crop irrigation standard [66]. Meanwhile, Table 7 and Table 8 shows the risk in the reuse water application. ...
Article
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The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) has already commencing on 8 September 2017 after ratified by 51 States represent 35% of the global gross tonnage in September 2016. However, there is no value recovered for the treated ballast water as it simply discharged during de-ballasting. In order to evaluate value creation of treated ballast water, three seawater applications which are seawater toilet flushing, cooling tower and desalination was studied and compared with treated ballast seawater. An exploratory study was conducted in Singapore as a case study as this country is facing water scarcity issues and a busy port in the world which received more than 28 billion m ³ of ballast water in 2015. Surprisingly the treatment technology between seawater toilet flushing and ballast water management has similarity. As both applications used screening and disinfection process and quality standard and analysis between treated ballast water with seawater applications found that seawater toilet flushing have the same quality parameter with treated ballast water. Thus, the treated ballast water can replace the raw seawater for seawater desalination. As such, with reduction of cost for screen unit, desalination water can exceed water production by NEWater in Singapore as the cost can recover the energy needed for desalination. It can conclude that treated ballast water has high recovery value and can be reused in seawater application.
... Using desalinated water to irrigate high value cash crops such as potato may lead to significant saving of irrigation water currently used for leaching salts out of the root zone while simultaneously increasing yield and reducing groundwater pollution (Silber et al., 2015). Desalinated water is already used by farmers in Israel, Spain and Australia (Yermiyahu et al., 2007) and its utilization as a source of irrigation in agriculture is on the rise (Ben-Gal et al., 2009) as the desalination of saline ground water costs less than desalination of sea water (Zhou and Tol, 2005). ...
... A perusal of the data pooled over the years (Fig. 4) revealed that total tuber yield achieved with DSW + 100% NPK and DSW + 80% NPK was statistically (P ≤ 0.05) at par with CW + 80% NPK and CW + 60% NPK, respectively. This could be due to the reason that although the desalination process reduced undesirable salts in brackish water, beneficial ions including essential nutrients like calcium, magnesium and sulphate are also removed (Table 2) (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). The resultant reduction in plant growth and yield with DSW should be compensated for by increasing the NPK-fertigation dose. ...
Article
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Management of saline water through desalination or blending with low salinity canal water may be a viable strategy for potato irrigation in semi-arid regions having saline ground water and scarce canal water. A 4-year study was conducted to investigate the effects of four water qualities [canal water (CW), desalinated water (DSW), saline ground water (GW) and mixed water (MW) (CW + GW)], three N-P-K-fertigation levels [F100 = 100% NPK (190, 28.4 and 53.9 kg ha⁻¹ of N, P and K, respectively), F80 = 80% NPK and F60 = 60% NPK] and their interaction on the performance of two potato varieties grown in a sandy loam alluvial soil of semi-arid region. The electrical conductivity (EC) of CW, DSW, GW and MW ranged from 0.3 to 0.4, 0.2–0.3, 3.2–4.2 and 1.8–2.2 dS m⁻¹, respectively. Drip irrigation with GW resulted in 21–44% reduction in total tuber yield compared with CW, however, the maximum reduction (54%) was observed in grade-A tuber yield that was accompanied by a considerable increase in grade-C tuber yield. Irrigation with MW increased total tuber yield by 9–37% compared with GW. Irrigation with DSW manifested a 41% and 14% increase in total tuber yield as compared with GW and MW, respectively. The tuber yield obtained with MW was comparable with DSW up to soil EC1:2 of 0.65 dS m⁻¹, and beyond that level, DSW was observed to be superior. The variety ‘Kufri Surya’ had slight yield advantage over ‘Kufri Pukhraj’ when CW, DSW and MW were used, however, yields of both varieties were statistically at par under GW irrigation. The variety ‘Kufri Jyoti’ exhibited a 13–22% yield advantage over ‘Kufri Surya’ for all irrigation water qualities. Plant growth and yield attributing parameters were the highest at F100 which declined progressively with a decrease in fertigation level for all water qualities. However, these differences were narrow between GW and MW and moderate between CW and DSW. Therefore, in drip fertigated potatoes using saline or mixed water in a sandy loam soil, it is advocated to use 80% of recommended NPK without any loss in tuber yield and to reduce cost of cultivation & environmental pollution.
... Water scarcity is an increasing problem around the world, particularly in developing countries affected by arid and semiarid climates (Rijsberman 2006), thereby limiting essential activities for reducing poverty and increasing quality of life for the poor, e.g., agriculture and livestock breeding (Thornton et al. 2009;Yermiyahu et al. 2007;Mukheibir 2010). Thus, many strategies have been used to alleviate agricultural water shortages, such as the construction of dams and wells (Pereira et al. 2006;Costa et al. 2012), seawater desalinization (Yermiyahu et al. 2007), and the use of water accumulated in mining areas (Idowu et al. 2008;US EPA 2017). ...
... Water scarcity is an increasing problem around the world, particularly in developing countries affected by arid and semiarid climates (Rijsberman 2006), thereby limiting essential activities for reducing poverty and increasing quality of life for the poor, e.g., agriculture and livestock breeding (Thornton et al. 2009;Yermiyahu et al. 2007;Mukheibir 2010). Thus, many strategies have been used to alleviate agricultural water shortages, such as the construction of dams and wells (Pereira et al. 2006;Costa et al. 2012), seawater desalinization (Yermiyahu et al. 2007), and the use of water accumulated in mining areas (Idowu et al. 2008;US EPA 2017). ...
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This study aimed to evaluate mine water reuse, elucidating the potential problems related to trace metal biogeochemistry focusing on Cu dynamics in water, soil, and plants. Water samples were collected from a Cu mine and a reservoir used to store mine water. Additional samples were taken from soils from an uncultivated area and a banana orchard (irrigated with mine water for at least 10 years) and plant from the irrigated area. The following parameters were analyzed: pH, redox potential, dissolved ions in water samples (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cu2+, SO42-, and Cl−), bioavailable Cu and Cu solid-phase fractionation (in soils and reservoir sediments samples), as well as Cu content in banana plants. Mine water presents high dissolved Cu concentration (mean 2.3 ± 0.0 mg L−1), limiting its use for irrigation. Water storage at the reservoir increased water quality, reducing dissolved Cu concentration (mean 0.2 ± 0.0 mg L−1), due to adsorption/precipitation as carbonates (mean 131.8 ± 24.6 mg kg−1), organic matter (mean 1526.2 ± 4.7 mg kg−1) and sulfides (mean 158.4 ± 56.9 mg kg−1). Despite higher water quality at the reservoir, the use of mine water increased the amount of bioavailable Cu in soils, which was primarily associated with organic matter. Increased bioavailable Cu in the soil did not increase the Cu content of banana leaves but resulted in high Cu content of roots and fruit, increasing the risk of toxicity for the population.
... Irrigation with desalinated water resulted into increase in fruit yield (Ben-Gal and Yermiyahu, 2009) compared to saline water. In addition, desalinated water irrigation may prove beneficial with additional fertilization of certain nutrients (calcium and magnesium) due to their absence in desalination water to make it comparable to canal water (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). It was observed that pair row planting was not feasible with saline water irrigation applied through drip in the present experiment. ...
... The RSC of WQ 2 and WQ 4 both was lower as compared to saline water so the accumulation of sodium in soil decreased. Due to removal of (Table 2), so the SAR and ESP recorded to be low under WQ 2 at the last fertigation, similar to that suggested by Yermiyahu et al. (2007). The SAR and ESP values were lower under mixed quality irrigation water WQ 4 in comparison to WQ 3 due to its dilution with good quality water. ...
Article
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Constant use of poor-quality irrigation water restricts plant growth due to salinity and sodicity build up in soil. Inadequate and erratic supply of good quality water in southwestern region of Punjab coerces the need to utilize poor-quality water for irrigation to crops. As a consequence , the soil electrical conductivity , sodium adsorption ratio and exchangeable sodium percentage increases resulting to buildup of root zone salinity. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of desalinated water on changes in the soil salinity buildup as well as SAR , ESP and fruit yield of moderately salt-sensitive bell pepper crop in comparison with different qualities of irrigation water applied. Four different qualities of irrigation water viz., canal (WQ1), desalinated (WQ2), saline (WQ3) and blended CW: SW (WQ4,1:1) water and three fertigation levels [100% (F1), 80% (F2) and 60% (F3) of recommended NPK dose] were applied to bell pepper crop under un-mulched (M0) and mulched (M1; silver black polyethylene mulch 25µ) conditions. Continuous irrigation with saline water under drip significantly increased electrical conductivity , SAR and ESP of soil in comparison with canal water, while this change was comparable in plots irrigated with WQ2 and WQ1, the buildup being modest in WQ 4. Fruit yield also increased significantly at lower concentrations of salts in irrigation water (WQ 1 and WQ 2), irrespective of mulch and fertigation. Application of silver black polyethylene mulch (25 µ) and increasing levels of fertigation proved to be another option used in harmonizing the fruit yield of bell pepper and improving soil chemical properties under different irrigation water qualities. Although, the yield loss and soil degradation caused by continuous use poor-quality water (WQ3) cannot be amended completely, yet it could be partially compensated by way of using either in blending mode with good quality or through the process of desalination water with tolerable yield loss. In nutshell, these strategies would lend long-term sustainability to the crop and soil productivity.
... Irrigation with such water is eco-nomically feasible only for high value agricultural crops (Beltran and Koo-Oshima, 2006). Moreover, even if desalinized water of this type is considered high quality water by farmers, initial experiences with desalinated water have not proven totally positive (Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Ben-Gal et al., 2009). In addition, desalination processes generate considerable amounts of brine which can negatively impact the quality of surface and groundwater sources and marine biological communities that develop naturally under saline conditions (Riera et al., 2012). ...
... Sin embargo, desde el punto de vista agronómico, el AMD también se caracteriza por su escasa mineralización y el desequilibrio en su composición, ya que tiene alta concentración de Na + y Cly baja concentración en Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ y SO 4 2-. Esta singularidad, si no es considerada en el manejo del riego y la fertirrigación, puede llevar a pérdidas significativas en producción y calidad, como ponen de manifiesto varios estudios en cultivos regados únicamente con aguas desalinizadas en Israel (Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Ben-Gal et al., 2009;Bar-Tal et al., 2017). En estas experiencias se han detectado problemas agronómicos que pueden afectar a la productividad de los cultivos, a los costes de fertirrigación y a la conservación de los suelos agrícolas, aspectos del riego con AMD que deben investigarse y analizarse para garantizar su viabilidad económica en el corto plazo y su sostenibilidad ambiental en el medio-largo plazo. ...
... The shift from natural freshwater to desalinated seawater has promoted research on different downstream effects of this change, including public health (e.g., lack of magnesium in drinking water, [7][8][9]); isotope characteristics of reclaimed wastewater [10]; use of desalinated seawater for managed aquifer recharge [11]; and, the most concerning, its use for irrigation. Unease has emerged due to the lack of the major nutrients, namely, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, in desalinated seawater [12]. Half of the irrigation water in Israel is treated wastewater. ...
Article
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Pollution of groundwater by nitrate originating from irrigated fields was considered for this study. We hypothesized that under cropped conditions, low-salinity irrigation water (e.g., desalinated water) could reduce nitrate leaching below the root zone, due to two possible mechanisms: (i) decreased vertical water fluxes and (ii) increased nitrogen uptake by plant roots due to chloride–nitrate competition. The main goal of this study was to investigate this hypothesis. Considering a citrus grove, the investigation relied on three-dimensional (3-D) simulations of flow and transport in a variably saturated and spatially heterogeneous flow domain performed for three successive years. Results of the analyses suggest that the main mechanism responsible for the reduction in the nitrate leached below the root zone under irrigation with low-salinity water is the effect of the latter on the spatial distribution of the rate of water uptake by the roots. The latter, in turn, significantly reduces water content, hydraulic conductivity, and vertical velocity, and, consequently, solute mass fluxes along the soil profile. On the other hand, chloride–nitrate interaction has only a relatively small effect on the nitrate mass fluxes at relatively deep soil depths, far below the root zone, particularly when the irrigation water salinity decreases.
... However, the water quality required for different applications is not the same. For example, boron in Mediterranean SW after reverse osmosis (RO) reaches 2 mg L -1 , which does not constitute a threat to human health but is toxic for all but the most tolerant crops [2]. On the other hand, desalination removes ions that are essential to plant growth. ...
Article
In this work, response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural networks were applied for modeling the removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ from seawater by immobilized biomass in polyvinyl alcohol- alginate spheres of the ureolytic bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain LN8B. RSM was developed by considering a three-level factorial design with three input variables, that is, concentration of urea, number of cells in the immobilization matrix, and seawater to spheres ratio (SW:S). At the same time, a radial basis function networks (RBFNs) were used for a better representation of the removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ and compared with RSM. It was found that all variables considered have important effects on both of Ca2+ and Mg2+ removal from seawater. Based on an analysis of variance of a three-level factorial design it was determined that urea concentration, number of cells, and SW:S were highly significant in the removal of calcium. In addition, the quadratic term of urea concentration, interaction urea concentration with number of cells, and interaction number of cells with SW:S ratio were significant in calcium removal. For magnesium removal, the number of cells was the only highly significant variable, whereas the urea concentration, SW:S, and quadratic term of number of cells were significant. The results demonstrated that RBFNs gave better modeling capability than RSM.
... Growing populations and higher standards of living increase demand on dwindling water resources and contribute to vulnerability to drought. The increasing need for potable water in conjunction with technological advances has transformed desalination into a fast growing industry (FAO, 2012;WWAP, 2012) with the global production capacity of desalinated water increasing from 17.3 to 68 million m 3 day −1 (Mm 3 d −1 ) between 1994 to 2009, and is projected to reach 130 Mm³ d −1 by 2016 (Water-world 22nd-GWI/IDA; Yermiyahu et al. 2007). The desalination market comprises different source waters: wastewater was used to produce ca. ...
... The energy consumption projections of SWRO plants are based on Caldera et al. (2018b). The cost for remineralisation of the desalinated water with Magnesium has been considered as discussed by Yermiyahu et al. (2007). Water storage is located at the site of the desalination plant and allows the SWRO plants to store excess water that may be utilised during times of low electricity production. ...
Article
By 2050, it is estimated that the annual cereal production would need to increase by about 140% and total global food production increase by 70%. Meanwhile, total water withdrawals for irrigation is projected to increase by 11%. In contrast, poor management of existing water resources, pollution and climate change has resulted in limited freshwater resources. The aim of this paper is to assess how improved irrigation efficiency and renewable energy based desalination maybe used to secure future water supplies for the growth of rice, wheat and maize. The efficiencies of the existing irrigation sites were obtained and improved based on a logistic curve. The growth was projected such that by 2050, all existing irrigation sites would have an efficiency of 90%. The new irrigation efficiencies were used to obtain the reduced irrigation demand for the years 2030 and 2050. The desalination demand was estimated and an energy system model used to optimise the corresponding renewable energy based power system. It was found that improving the average irrigation efficiency to 60% by 2030, led to a 64% reduction in total desalination demand. Similarly, an improvement towards 90% irrigation efficiency, by 2050, translates to an 80% reduction in global desalination demand. In 2030, the total water cost is mostly within 0.7 €/m3 – 2 €/m3 including water transportation costs. Literature reports that farmers may be willing to pay up to 0.63 €/m3 for their irrigation water. The global range in 2050 is estimated to be 0.45 €/m3 – 1.7 €/m3 reflecting the lower system costs in 2050. The above results indicate that as conventional water prices increase, renewable energy based seawater reverse osmosis desalination, offers a cost effective water supply for the irrigation sector. Adoption of high efficiency irrigation systems alleviate water stress and can eliminate need for additional water supply.
... Sin embargo, desde el punto de vista agronómico, el AMD también se caracteriza por su escasa mineralización y el desequilibrio en su composición, ya que tiene alta concentración de Na + y Cly baja concentración en Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ y SO4 2-. Esta singularidad, si no es considerada en el manejo del riego y la fertirrigación, puede llevar a pérdidas significativas en producción y calidad, como ponen de manifiesto varios estudios en cultivos regados únicamente con aguas desalinizadas en Israel [2,3,4]. En estas experiencias se han detectado problemas agronómicos que pueden afectar a la productividad de los cultivos, a los costes de fertirrigación y a la conservación de los suelos agrícolas, aspectos del riego con AMD que deben investigarse y analizarse para garantizar su viabilidad económica en el corto plazo y su sostenibilidad ambiental en el medio-largo plazo. ...
... Reuse of wastewater is currently a much studied option that requires multidisciplinary analyses considering its low acceptation by farmers (Choukr-Allah, 2012). Desalination is another option, despite its costs, but it needs revised treatment standards for providing irrigation water that is not ion depleted (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). It is also very much energy intensive. ...
Article
Full-text available
Potential for, and limits to, adaptation to environmental changes are critical for resilience and risk mitigation. The Mediterranean basin is a mosaic of biodiversity-rich ecosystems long affected by human influence, whose resilience is now questioned by climate change. After reviewing the different components of biological adaptation, we present the main characteristics of marine and terrestrial biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin and of the pressures they face. Taking climatic trends into consideration, we discuss the adap-tive potential of a range of ecosystems dominated by species without active dispersal. We argue that the high heterogeneity of Mediterranean landscapes and seascapes constitutes a laboratory for the study of adaptation when environmental conditions change rapidly and may provide opportunities for adaptation and adaptability of species and ecosystems. Adaptive management in the Mediterranean can and should harness the nature-based solutions offered
... In order to alleviate water stress and enhance water security in the future, alternative water sources have to be considered for water supply. In recent years, brackish groundwater (BGW) is gaining increasing importance as a supplement or even replacement for freshwater resource in many countries including the United States, Spain, the Netherlands, Australia and in Middle Eastern Countries [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Considering the total dissolved solids (TDS) limit of 600 mg/L for palatability purposes in the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water quality guideline, BGW can be regarded as groundwater having TDS ranging from 600 to 30,000 mg/L [8]. ...
Article
Investigations on a solar-powered vacuum membrane distillation (SVMD) system were conducted for removal of fluoride, iron and manganese from brackish groundwater. A commercial capillary membrane module with effective surface area of 0.1 m2 was used in the SVMD system. Results showed that over 99% salt rejection rate and over 97% removal efficiency of fluoride, iron and manganese were achieved. Total dissolved solids of the permeate water were in the range of 1–10 mg/L while all contaminants concentrations were well below the World Health Organization drinking water guidelines. Condensation efficiency was found to have significant influence on the performance of the SVMD system. During Phase I of the study, the permeate pressure increased almost linearly with the membrane feed temperature due to insufficient condensation, which negatively affected the permeate flux. The highest permeate flux observed was 5.02 L/m2 h on September 19th, 2016. The corresponding daily production and gain output ratio (GORso) were 2.17 L and 0.26, respectively. In Phase II, a new condenser was installed to enhance the condensation efficiency. Significant improvement of the permeate flux was obtained with the highest permeate flux being 8.84 L/m2 h on November 5th, 2016. Consequently, much higher daily production (5.00 L) and GORso (0.40) were achieved.
... Notable differences between the FW and DSW were observed throughout the experiment. Reverse osmosis membranes do not only separate the undesirable salts from the water, but also remove minerals that are essential nutrients for plant growth [29]; especially divalent ions such as Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and SO 4 2− with higher molecular mass. In this sense, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , and SO 4 2− in the DSW were only 37.3%, 20.4%, and 8.0% of those measured in the FW from Oct-2017 to Sept-2018 and 50.9%, 33.7%, and 21.6% of those measured in the FW from Oct-2018 to June-2019. ...
Article
Full-text available
Water deficit and increasing pressure on water resources in semi-arid regions has led to the spread of irrigation with non-conventional water resources, such as desalinated seawater (DSW). The few existent studies to date, mainly carried out in Israel and Spain, have shown that suitable management of irrigation with DSW must be performed to avoid agronomic problems and reductions in crop productivity and fruit quality in the mid-long term. To the best of our knowledge, in the case of citrus, fruit production, and quality, information on the effects of DSW irrigation is not available. In this study, we evaluated the short-term agronomic and economic effects of irrigating a mandarin orchard during two crop cycles (2017-2019) with (i) fresh water (FW), (ii) desalinated seawater (DSW), and (iii) a mix of water composed of 50% FW and 50% DSW. Stem water potential (Ψ s < −1 MPa) and gas exchange parameters (net photosynthesis; A > 6.5 µmol/m 2 /s and stomatal conductance; g s > 65 mmol/m 2 /s) indicated that trees were well irrigated throughout the experiment. The concentration of Na + and B 3+ in the DSW always exceeded the maximum thresholds for irrigation water proposed in the literature for citrus, and the concentration of Na + in the leaves exceeded the maximum threshold in summer 2018. Nonetheless, symptoms of toxicity were not observed. Significant differences among treatments were not observed for Ψ stem , A, g s , Na + , Cl − , and B 3+ in leaves (except in the summer months), yield components, fruit quality, or the economic assessment. The lack of such differences was explained by the large standard deviations caused by the youth of the trees, with figures that on occasion could represent more than 100% of the mean value. These results may justify the agronomic and economic viability of the irrigation of young trees with DSW in the short-term, but further research, considering the effects on adult trees in the long term is still needed.
... When searching for fresh water alternatives, the most free water source in the world is represented by seawater. This resource is increasing in the agricultural sector as a viable alternative to desalinated or blended with other water sources (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). In general, some amount of freshwater may be an interesting option in soilless growing systems where there is no risk of salinization or aggravation of soils in the soils that have been replaced by seawater. ...
... Water shortage has become more acute and is expected to continue to expand due to population rise and associated increased water demand [13]. A warming climate has further increased the need for productive and rational use of traditionally marginal water and land resources [14]. ET partition studies help improve estimating crop yield and local groundwater storage [15,16]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the effects of land use change on evapotranspiration (ET) and its partitioning to transpiration and evaporation is important for accurately evaluating the likely environmental impacts on watershed water supply, climate moderation, and other ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration and biodiversity). This study used a distributed hydrologic model, MIKE SHE, to partition evapotranspiration into soil evaporation, transpiration, ponded water evaporation, and interception, and examined how the ET partitions affected the water balance in the Qinhuai River Basin from 2000 to 2013. Simulated daily ET was compared to measurements at an eddy flux research site during 2016–2017 (R2 = 0.72). Degradation in rice-wheat rotation fields and expansion of impervious surfaces impacted not only total watershed evapotranspiration, which showed a significant downward trend (p < 0.05), but also its partitioning. A significant (p < 0.01) decrease in transpiration was detected. Ponded water evaporation was the only ET partition that exhibited a significant positive trend (p < 0.05). We concluded that the reduced transpiration as a result of land use and land cover change was the primary factor driving the variation of watershed scale evapotranspiration. In addition, there was an increase in annual water yield (23%) as a response to significant reduction in ET (7%) due to a 175% expansion of urban area in the study watershed. Our study provided insights to the mechanisms of land surface–water cycle interaction and better understanding of the effects of land use change on urban micro-climate such as “urban dry island” and “urban heat island” effects.
... Global warming is making these available freshwater fluctuate temporarily and spatially, making it difficult to satisfy the demands [2,3]. Seawater desalination is an emerging water resource [4][5][6]. With the advantage of being un-exhaustible and climate independent, countries with water shortage problems, such as Australia, Japan, Spain, China, and the USA, have already developed this new water resource [7]. ...
... The pollution of the majority of the world's water sources and the consequent looming drinking water scarcity is one of the current concerns faced by the world [ 1 , 2 ]. The various contaminants from different sources, both industrial and domestic, that pollute water resources, not only make them unviable but cause a serious threat to humans and other species and the ecosystem itself [3] . Amongst the contaminants, the heavy metal ions are highly toxic and are capable of causing life-threatening diseases to humans [ 4 -7 ]. ...
Article
In this paper, a nano Molybdenum disulphide with an open cavity at the centre (hollow) and a rose flower-shaped structure (MoS2HNR) has been synthesized using a novel, micelle assisted hydrothermal method and has been successfully demonstrated the ability of the nano MoS2 for the simultaneous removal of the toxic metal ions: Hg (II), Pb (II) and Ag (I) from water. A single treatment of contaminated real water samples with MoS2HNR can rapidly (in ∼5- 30 min) decrease the concentration of Hg (II), Pb (II) and Ag (I) simultaneously from 10,000 ppb to 0.49, 20.5, and 11.62 ppb respectively, the levels less than the safe limits suggested by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with an efficiency of ≥ 99% at a V/m ratio of 10,000, in real water samples. The adsorption capacities for Hg (II), Ag (I) and Pb (II) are ∼1991, 1350 and 1267 mg/g, respectively at pH 7.0 and exhibited high distribution coefficients (Kd) values of ∼10⁸ mL/g. The rose-like morphology and the open cavity of the material attributed to the excellent removal property as the structure offers a large number of active S²⁻ sites for adsorption. A possible mechanism for the high-efficiency removal and the order of adsorption Hg (II) >Ag (I) >Pb (II) is explained based on the affinity between S²⁻ and metal ions and the electrochemistry factor. The MoS2HNR retains its morphology even after six trails of reuse.
... The pollution of the majority of the world's water sources and the consequent looming drinking water scarcity is one of the current concerns faced by the world [ 1 , 2 ]. The various contaminants from different sources, both industrial and domestic, that pollute water resources, not only make them unviable but cause a serious threat to humans and other species and the ecosystem itself [3] . Amongst the contaminants, the heavy metal ions are highly toxic and are capable of causing life-threatening diseases to humans [ 4 -7 ]. ...
Article
In this paper, a nano Molybdenum disulphide with an open cavity at the centre (hollow) and a rose flower-shaped structure (MoS2HNR) has been synthesized using a novel, micelle assisted hydrothermal method and has been successfully demonstrated the ability of the nano MoS2 for the simultaneous removal of the toxic metal ions: Hg (II), Pb (II) and Ag (I) from water. A single treatment of contaminated real water samples with MoS2HNR can rapidly (in ∼5- 30 min) decrease the concentration of Hg (II), Pb (II) and Ag (I) simultaneously from 10,000 ppb to 0.49, 20.5, and 11.62 ppb respectively, the levels less than the safe limits suggested by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with an efficiency of ≥ 99% at a V/m ratio of 10,000, in real water samples. The adsorption capacities for Hg (II), Ag (I) and Pb (II) are ∼1991, 1350 and 1267 mg/g, respectively at pH 7.0 and exhibited high distribution coefficients (Kd) values of ∼108 mL/g. The rose-like morphology and the open cavity of the material attributed to the excellent removal property as the structure offers a large number of active S2− sites for adsorption. A possible mechanism for the high-efficiency removal and the order of adsorption Hg (II) >Ag (I) >Pb (II) is explained based on the affinity between S2− and metal ions and the electrochemistry factor. The MoS2HNR retains its morphology even after six trails of reuse.
... Boron can be found in wastewaters in places where B laden detergents are used or where the original water source contains B. Some groundwater is high in B and reverse osmosis desalination of seawater retains B at relatively high levels (Yermiyahu et al., 2007). Since B becomes toxic to plants at relatively low levels, in Israel, where all wastewater is treated and used for irrigation, the use of B in detergents has been prohibited through legislation, and desalination plants providing municipal water are required to use post-treatment methodologies to remove the B. Boron supplied with irrigation water absorbs strongly onto soil clay and organic component surfaces and is difficult to leach. ...
Article
Olive trees are iconic to the Mediterranean landscape and in recent times, have expanded to other regions across the globe that share similar climatic conditions. Olive oil production benefits from irrigation, but with a changing climate and uncertainty in precipitation patterns, wastewaters will likely play a larger role supplementing irrigation water requirements. However, due to their relatively poor quality, wastewaters present challenges for sustained long-term use in olive production. Wastewaters include all effluents from municipalities, agricultural drainage, animal production facilities, agricultural processing and industrial processes. This review focuses on potential opportunities and limitations of sustaining olive oil production in the Mediterranean region using wastewater of various sources. The primary challenges for using such wastewaters include concerns related to salinity, sodicity, metals and trace elements, nutrients, organics, and pathogens. Organics and plant nutrients in the effluents are typically beneficial but depend on dosages. Many studies have shown that saline wastewaters have been successfully used to irrigate olives in Greece, Israel, Italy, Jordan and Tunisia. Still, olive varieties and rootstocks have different tolerances to salinity and could respond differently and oil quality may improve or be compromised. Salts and trace elements need to be monitored in plants and soil to make sure accumulation does not continue from year to year and that soil physical conditions are not affected. Some food industries generate effluents with suitable characteristics for irrigation but one must balance the benefits (e.g. addition of nutrients), detriments (e.g. addition of salts or other limiting chemicals) and costs when determining the feasibility and practicality of reuse. Long-term accumulation of trace elements and metals will likely limit the feasibility of using industrial-originating effluents without treatment processes that would remove the toxic constituents prior to reuse. Therefore, untreated wastewaters from the many industries have limited long-term potential for reuse at this time. Application of olive mill wastewater may be agronomically and economically beneficial, particularly as a local disposal solution, but there are concerns associated with high-concentrations of polyphenols that may be phytotoxic and toxic to soil microbial populations. With regards to human safety, risk of contamination of table olives and olive oil is very low because irrigation methods deliver water below the canopy, fruits are not picked from the ground, processing itself eliminates pathogens and the irrigation season typically ends days or weeks before the harvest (depending on the climate condition). Finally, considering physiological, nutritional and intrinsic characteristics of this species, it is clear that olive trees are appropriate candidates for the reuse of recycled water as an irrigation source.
... Seawater is the most available source of water in the world. Thus, there are growing interested to use it in the agricultural sector to irrigate the plants 8,9 . The major constituent of seawater is sodium chloride (NaCl) 10 . ...
... The project aims at advancing high-technology farming practices by developing and testing a new generation of solar-powered, low-pressure membrane desalination plants. The plants are fitted with nanofiltration (NF) membranes that operate at lower pressure than RO membranes, improving the affordability of desalination in agriculture and compensating for the drawbacks of irrigation with RO desalinated water, such as high energy consumption and lack of elements that are essential to the crops like magnesium (Mg 2+ ) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) [1,13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture is a major source of livelihood for rural communities in the Middle East. Lacking freshwater resources, brackish aquifers are often exploited as sources of irrigation water, but the practice is unsustainable. The " Solar-powered desalination of brackish water with nanofiltration membranes for intensive agricultural use in Jordan, the Palestinian Authority and Israel " (AGRISOL) project aims at developing and testing a solar-powered, nanofiltration desalination system for the production of irrigation water and high-value crops in arid environments. Such solution has the potential to reduce groundwater abstraction rates, increase agricultural yields, and enhance farmers' well-being by enlarging their portfolio of crops. Two pilot plants are designed and installed in Israel (Hatzeva) and Jordan (Karama). Agronomic experiments are conducted to determine the technical and economic viability of the new technology. The potential market penetration of desalinated water irrigation is explored through surveys, aimed at eliciting farmers' perceptions and their potential concerns in switching to desalinated water irrigation. This paper presents selected results from the project and highlights additional expected major outcomes. We find that a market potential for the proposed innovation exists both in Israel and Jordan. This is largely determined by the perceived importance by farmers in both countries for sustainable solutions to their irrigation needs, particularly as a result of the observed rising salinity levels in the irrigation water. Moreover, experiments conducted in Hatzeva on strawberry demonstrate the technology's potential to enable the cultivation of salt-sensitive cash crops in the region. We conclude that desalination may be a valuable strategy towards more sustainable water management in the regional arid land agriculture.
... Through desalination, the total amount of water available in Israel has risen for the first time since the mid-1960s. Yet, the use of desalinated seawater for irrigation has proved problematic due to the high concentration of Boron, which is toxic to many crops, and the lack of ions that are essential for plant growth (Yermiyahu et al. 2007). Additionally, desalination is associated with several external costs, such as significant energy consumption leading to air pollution and GHG emissions, damage to marine life and resources through the discharge of residual salt to the sea, and the utilization of land along coastal areas. ...
Book
Mediterranean irrigation is diverse due to, among other factors, the relative importance of water in the economy of each country, varied levels of aridity, heterogeneous levels economic, social and technological levels of development, and differences in political and social organization. However, most of the Mediterranean countries face similar problems to meet their water demands because of the scarcity and variability of renewable resources, growing water requirements from non-agricultural sectors, increasing environmental concerns related to water quality and environmental degradation, a social demand for larger public participation, and important technological changes. The time has come to reconsider the “not one drop lost to the sea” philosophy of yesteryears largely and to 'live within limits'. This book focuses on eight selected countries (Tunisia, Morocco, Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Israel and Egypt) and provides a comparative perspective that both thoroughly explores their specificities and identifies the common challenges faced by the irrigation sector in these countries. The book has been written at a critical moment, when the continued application of a supply-side water management model is revealing its unsustainable nature in numerous places; when significant technological changes are taking place in the irrigation sector; when new forms of management and governance are widely held as badly needed; and finally, when climate change is compounding many of the difficulties that have characterized irrigation policies and practices in the past decades. This complicated future context makes Mediterranean irrigation face various political dilemmas on water management, raising social tensions, triggering territorial and land conflicts, and stimulating new technological developments. This book provides a timely analysis of the particular trajectory of eight Mediterranean countries in these uncertain transformations, and attempts to identify the best strategies to avert or overcome future risks.
... A better effluent quality with lower concentrations of DOM, TSS and salts, in particular sodium, would counteract the deterioration of soil physical parameters like SWR, HC and SAS, as outlined in Chapters III and IV of this work, and would decrease potential contamination of soil and groundwater. Nevertheless, attention needs still to be given to the effective quality of TWW used for agricultural irrigation even when its original source derives from seawater desalination to avoid soil deterioration caused by high SAR and elevated B loads (Yermiyahu et al. 2007). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Freshwater is a valuable resource and population growth as well as global climate changes are expected to lead to a decreased availability and increased utilization of it in the Mediterranean region and Middle East. As a consequence, alternatives such as irrigation with treated wastewater gain in importance. Due to the enrichment of freshwater with impurities in the wake of use, treated wastewater carries higher loads of potential nutrients but also of potential harmful substances for the soil and crops when used in irrigation. In addition to the general description of the treated wastewater irrigation context with focus on Israel, this thesis deals with (1) the description on a spatial assessment, its methodology and results of soil suitability for treated wastewater irrigation, (2) the effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on specific soil properties like water repellency as well as (3) hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability. Link: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn/resolver.pl?urn:nbn:de:hbz:294-47003
... Through desalination, the total amount of water available in Israel has risen for the first time since the mid-1960s. Yet, the use of desalinated seawater for irrigation has proved problematic due to the high concentration of Boron, which is toxic to many crops, and the lack of ions that are essential for plant growth (Yermiyahu et al. 2007). Additionally, desalination is associated with several external costs, such as significant energy consumption leading to air pollution and GHG emissions, damage to marine life and resources through the discharge of residual salt to the sea, and the utilization of land along coastal areas. ...
Book
Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region summarizes and collates scientific developments around water resources in the mediterranean socio-economic environment through a multidisciplinary framework synthesizing hydrology, hydrogeology, climate, bioclimatology, economics, and geography. As such, it provides essential information for any reader looking to learn more about the Mediterranean which is experiencing the impact of climate change and concurrent complex issues of anthropogenic effects, especially in agriculture and other resource uses. Water Resources in the Mediterranean Region covers different challenges in the issue of the evolution of water resources in the Mediterranean. It is intended for PhD students, research scientists, and managers interested in new solutions and approaches for water management and in the forecast of future water dynamics. (Résumé d'auteur)
... Wastewater treated by coagulation-flocculation process is defined by the following chemical characteristics based on Israel National Carrier feed: electrical conductivity 1.0dS/m, Na +1 60-100mg/l, Ca +2 45-50mg/l, Mg +2 20-25mg/l, Cl -1 200-220mg/l, SO 4 -2 17-20mg/l, HCO 3 -1 250-300mg/l (Yermiyahu, Tal, Ben-Gal, Bar-Tal, Tarchitzky and Lahav, 2007). ...
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Jar-test is a useful tool for chemicals selection for physical–chemical wastewater treatment. The results show the treatment efficiency in terms of suspended matter and organic matter removal. However , in spite of having all these results, coagulant selection is not an easy task because one coagu-lant can remove efficiently the suspended solids but at the same time increase the conductivity. In this paper, the use of Partial Order Scaling Analysis (POSA) is proposed to help on the selection of the coagulant and its concentration in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). An evaluation of two commonly used coagulation-flocculation aids was conducted and based on jar tests and POSA model, Ferric Chloride (100 ppm) was the best choice.
... Most of the conventional crops are not tolerant to elevated salinity stress, despite this, several are growing in up to 1-30% seawater concentrations [15]. Seawater may be the greatest alternative water source for irrigation as it is available on a large scale [16] and also a rich source of most of the nutrients [17] that are equally beneficial for plants and human. Thus, an integrated approach in the form of blending seawater with fresh water will be imperative for the sustainable advancement of the agricultural sector [15]. ...
Article
Freshwater alternatives to irrigate crops are in dire need of time because of changing climate and scarcity of freshwater. Therefore, seawater can be the best feasible option as it is abundantly available on Earth. Sole application of seawater for agricultural crops is impossible, but the blend with freshwater may not be aggravating the salinization problems in soils. The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the possibility of growing the short period summer vegetables i.e., eggplants, tomato, and pepper with fresh and seawater blends viz. 5%, 10% and 20%, termed as A, B and C treatments, respectively. During the experiment, we considered: (i) crop growth, bio-mass yield, water consumption, water use efficiency (WUE) and water productivity (WP); (ii) pho-tosynthetic pigments and gas exchange parameters; (iii) concentration of mineral contents and quality traits; (iv) lipid peroxidation, proline contents and ascorbic acid. Tomato productivity was markedly decreased by application of B and C treatments, whereas the growth of eggplant and pepper were not much influenced at the same concentrations. Water consumption dropped, whereas WUE significantly increased in all tested crops upon increasing seawater concentrations. Leaf Na + concentration and other mineral elements increased. These results assumed that certain concentrations of seawater-freshwater blends revealed that there were no significant effects on the quality characteristics , mineral elements concentration and productivity of eggplant and pepper plants; however, tomato plants indicated sensitivity at the three seawater concentrations (A, B and C SFW treatments). Moreover, low concentrations of salinity stress (5% and 10% SFW) seemed to be necessary to attain better crop nutrition and organoleptic values. Accordingly, the results of present will be helpful to coastline farmers in cultivating vegetables and produce nutritive food for their family.
... The daily capacity of desalinated water has risen from 27,252 cubic meters in 1969 to 97.2 million cubic meters in 2020, and research on desalination technology and engineering has progressed considerably [15]. Therefore, it is an important solution to combat water scarcity [16][17][18][19]. To supply sufficient backup water under extreme climatic events, desalination plants were proposed in six coastal areas in Taiwan to increase the stability of water supply and mitigate the impact of water scarcity [20]. ...
Article
Owing to the extreme climate and growing water demand, water shortage problem has become a new norm. Desalination fills the gap in the water supply, and the daily capacity of desalinated water is increasing. However, desalination projects may be delayed due to the conflicts from stakeholders and the public. Therefore, it is crucial to explore social acceptability to understand social risks in desalination development. This study employed semi-structured interviews and grounded theory to summarize the qualitative factors and conceptual framework of stakeholders' perceptions on desalination. Additionally, quantitative questionnaires were conducted to survey the general trend in public perception. The interview results clarify five emerging themes regarding stakeholders' opinions on desalination. A conceptual framework of interplay among the five themes is also established to elaborate on the stakeholders' perceptions. According to the questionnaire results, 66.7% of the respondents believed problems of water scarcity in the future, 63.4% supported the implementation of desalination, 75.1% considered that the location and time of public hearings should accommodate the residents' needs. Most respondents (81.8%) agreed that desalination plants use green energy to reduce environmental impacts. Furthermore, it was found that the public's occupation is correlated with the acceptance of the desalination plant project.
... Irrigation with such water is eco-nomically feasible only for high value agricultural crops (Beltran and Koo-Oshima, 2006). Moreover, even if desalinized water of this type is considered high quality water by farmers, initial experiences with desalinated water have not proven totally positive (Yermiyahu et al., 2007;Ben-Gal et al., 2009). In addition, desalination processes generate considerable amounts of brine which can negatively impact the quality of surface and groundwater sources and marine biological communities that develop naturally under saline conditions (Riera et al., 2012). ...
Article
The gradual increase in the amount of land and water resources affected by salt in arid and semi-arid regions requires strategies to optimize the use of these marginal-quality resources. Recent field and greenhouse experiments have demonstrated the potential of growing certain ‘pre-selected’ varieties of alfalfa in highly saline conditions. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the impact of irrigation with saline groundwater on alfalfa growth and production in saline-sodic soils. The sustainability of the system in terms of forage yield and quality was also evaluated. The study included three varieties of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, vars. SW8421S, PGI908S and WL656HQ) planted in pots filled with saline-sodic soil (Calcic Haplosalids) collected on the island of Lanzarote (Spain) and irrigated for 18 months with increasingly saline water. Although the yield of the alfalfa varieties was reduced by an average of 7, 20, 31 and 46% as the salinity of the irrigation water increased from 0.4 dS m⁻¹ to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 dS m⁻¹, respectively, their relative salt tolerance, based on the average electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), was much higher than those established in the literature. Based on their nutritional quality, all alfalfa varieties are categorized as ‘supreme’ quality, with metabolizable energy (ME) values in excess of 10 MJ kg⁻¹. Moreover, no detriment to quality was observed at the higher levels of irrigation water salinity. Mineral composition analysis revealed S, K and B levels near or above the established maximum tolerable levels (MTLs) suggesting that this forage could only be safely consumed by ruminants over the long term if combined with other forages with lower mineral content.
The growing scarcity of fresh water has motivated the use of non-conventional and re-used water resources for agriculture by applying some efficient technologies. The desalination technologies for agricultural irrigation play a major role in satisfying growing water demands in water scarce regions. Due to stringent ionic concentration standards for agricultural irrigation water, desalination for agriculture is more energy demanding and additional post-treatment is requisite. Reverse osmosis (RO) has emerged as an efficient technology, but the burning of fossil fuels to fulfil the energy requirements is becoming expensive and emission of greenhouse gases is recognized as harmful to the environment. Thus, efforts should be directed towards cost reduction by integrating renewable energy resources into the process. Many of the bench and pilot scale trials like integrated RO with low energy such as forward osmosis (FO), nanofiltration (NF), microfiltration (MF) and solar energy revealed significant improvements in cost savings. However, all these modern technologies have their own problems which can be overcome by further research and development. This paper aims to review the main benefits and constraints associated with desalination technologies for agriculture. The available water resources, the desired qualities of water for agriculture and the challenges and future of desalination in agriculture are discussed.
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Appropriate agricultural water management (AWM) is crucial not only for alleviating water scarcity but also for food and nutrition security and healthy ecosystems. The multi‐dimensional nature of AWM and inherently complex feedbacks between its components necessitate a systems approach. This paper proposes six dimensions of AWM and illustrates the importance of a systems approach using six separate, but linked, classical AWM topics. By emphasizing the whole picture of AWM and interactions among its sub‐systems at multiple levels, a systems approach offers the opportunity to holistically scrutinize the pros and cons of proposed AWM interventions beyond their direct effects at the locus that a single dimensional approach foretells.
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סוציו-אקולוגיה היא דיסציפלינה המתמקדת ביחסי הגומלין שבין האדם והטבע המשפיעים על בריאות המערכת האקולוגית ועל רווחת המין האנושי, מתוך מטרה נורמטיבית להבטיח את הישרדותה ורווחתה של האנושות על כדור הארץ לטווח ארוך. מתוך עשרות שנות מחקר וידע שנאסף בתחומים קשורים, כגון לימודי החוסן וחקר הקיימות, עולות מספר תכונות בבסיסן של חברות בנות-קיימא, שמסוגלות, בין השאר, להתמודד עם זעזוע סביבתי, כלכלי וחברתי כגון זה של מגפת הקורונה של ימינו (COVID-19); התכונות האלה כוללות צדק והגינות, שקיפות, מדע בר-סמכא וניטור אמין של תהליכים, שיתוף בקבלת החלטות, שמירה על שלמות המערכת האקולוגית ועוד. במאמר דעה זה אבחן כמה מהתכונות העיקריות הנוגעות לניהול בר-קיימא של מערכות סוציו-אקולוגיות בהקשר של התמודדות מדינת ישראל עם התפרצות מגפת הקורונה ושל התנהלותה העתידית במציאות הקשה שתבוא אחריה. מטרת הבחינה היא לזהות את נקודות החוזק העיקריות בתגובה הישראלית (ובמדינות אחרות) עד כה, ולהדגיש צעדים חיוניים שישראל תוכל לנקוט בתקופה שלאחר המגפה כדי לחזק את חוסנה בפני זעזועים עתידיים דומים, כאלה הקשורים למגפת הקורונה הנוכחית ואחרים. הלקחים שניתן ללמוד מהתגובה למגפת הקורונה, בטווח הקצר ובטווח הארוך, יכולים להיות רלוונטיים גם לאִפחוּת האתגרים הסביבתיים הגדולים של המאה ה-21 או במוכנות להם.
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חקר קדם היתכנות על נתיבים של מובל מים לים המלח
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A pre-feasibility study on water conveyance routes to the Dead Sea
Article
Reverse osmosis is the most widely used desalination technology for treating irrigation water. Reverse osmosis removes both monovalent ions detrimental to crops (Na+,Cl−) and divalent ions beneficial for crops (Ca2+,Mg2+,SO42−). Fertilizer must then be added to the desalinated water to reintroduce these nutrients. Unlike reverse osmosis, monovalent selective electrodialysis selectively removes monovalent ions while retaining divalent ions in the desalinated water. This paper investigates the monovalent selectivity and cost effectiveness of the widely-used Neosepta and new Fujifilm monovalent selective electrodialysis membranes in treating seawater for irrigation. Membrane selectivity, limiting current, and resistance are experimentally characterized. These system parameters are inputs to the developed cost model, which determines fertilizer and water savings, as well as operating and capital costs, relative to reverse osmosis; the primary operating cost difference stems from reverse osmosis’s significantly lower energy consumption. Given prices of commercially available membranes, monovalent selective electrodialysis costs an average of 30% more than reverse osmosis. At the projected sales price of Fujifilm membranes, which are still under development, monovalent selective electrodialysis costs an average of 10% more than reverse osmosis; if electricity costs are less than 0.08 $/kWh, monovalent selective electrodialysis is on par with reverse osmosis. Regardless of membrane price and electricity cost, solar-powered desalination is only economical if photovoltaic capital costs are significantly reduced to 0.10–0.20 $/kWh. When monovalent selective electrodialysis exceeds reverse osmosis cost, the financial requirements for competitive monovalent selective electrodialysis (e.g., energy consumption, electricity cost, energy source, membrane cost) are evaluated.
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Water and fertilizer integration technology can effectively improve nutrient utilization efficiency. However, the existing water and fertilizer machines have some shortcomings, such as huge cost, single fertilizer injection, need for cleaning water and so on, which hinder the development of water and fertilizer integration technology. Aiming at the problems of precise and low-cost compounding of compound fertilizer at the local farm, the water and fertilizer integrated intelligent irrigation and fertilization system were taken as the research object. In this research, new concept of an intelligent sensing system was proposed, and accurate proportioning system of water and fertilizer concentration was constructed and implemented. Firstly, a fast on-line method of intelligent sensing model of water and fertilizer was established based on a series of concentration gradient compound fertilizer solutions. The conductivity values of these formulated solutions were tested by contactless conductivity detection electrodes. Subsequently, the data analysis algorithms were discussed and compared to fit regression model. Based on the intelligent sensing model of water and fertilizer , the framework structure of in-situ intelligent sensing and accurate proportioning system of water and fertilizer concentration was designed, and the working principle of the system was also explained. The system proposed includs a first-level water and fertilizer concentration intelligent perception model building subsystem and a second-level water and fertilizer accurate proportioning subsystem. The first-level subsystem was designed as a portable device, which mainly included a precise pump for quantitative dosing, a large-range online conductivity sensor, a plastic bucket and supporting control and model building software. The second-level subsystem was designed as a dynamic and precise fertilizer distribution device. The effectiveness of the system was verified by three types of water intelligent fertilizer application so as to guide the in-situ water and fertilizer concentration ratio. The testing results showed that the second-order polynomial fitting curve under regularization conditions was the best model to express the relationship between the conductivity and the concentration of water and fertilizer, and the correlation coefficients R2 was higher than 0.999. Combined with the proportion of each index of compound fertilizer, the concentration of each index of compound fertilizer that the user cares about can be obtained according to this model. The results of three types of water intelligent fertilizer application showed that the conductivity of natural water had an effect on the water and fertilizer system, and the relative deviation was more than 0.1. The online water and fertilizer perception and ratio system proposed in this research realized the elimination of the interference of the local water conductivity on the accuracy of the ratio of water and fertilizer, and the accurate calculation of compound fertilizer was achieved through model calculation. This system has a simple structure and accurate ratio, low cost, and can be easily combined with the existing water and fertilizer integrated machine or artificial fertilizer system. The system could be widely used in facility agriculture, orchard cultivation and field cash crop cultivation, et al.
Article
As the world's population continues to increase, and fresh water decreases, the need for desalination of sea water is increasing. Therefore, the Desalination Process has become a new challenge as the earth's resources must find sustainable solutions, through renewable energies. Condensation irrigation (CI) combines desalination and irrigation, which can produce required energy by solar power. This study was the subject of a field experiment at an Ahvaz university to feasibility study. The air flow was saturated by passing over the saline water surface in the solar still. Then the saturated airflow was driven into buried drainage pipes (25 m), where the humid airflow cools gradually, and the humidity condenses along the inner pipe surface. This condense water penetrates the soil via drainage pipe perforations, and irrigates the surrounding soil. During the field test, changes in the daily production of condensation water were observed due to the surrounding environment influenced on the input temperature but the average daily fresh water production was 6 lit/day. In addition, a laboratory model was built to identify the effective two entrance temperatures on the performance of condensation irrigation. The result showed that changing the flow temperature has a great impact on the performance of condensation irrigation.
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We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas – if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world – could capture 17–25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels at least for several decades. In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42–63 EUR per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS). In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface–atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level. In such areas, plant growth and CO2 storage could continue until permanent woodland or forest had been established. In other areas, salinization of the soil may limit plant growth to 2–3 decades whereupon irrigation could be ceased and the captured carbon stored as woody biomass.
Article
In 2010 desalinated water is expected to provide approximately 25% of Israel’s fresh water supply. Since desalination is cost-effective only if operated constantly, areas adjacent to the desalination plants may receive unblended desalinated water for prolonged times while other sources are added only at peak demand. Notwithstanding that desalinated water is of superior quality, it is widely accepted that soft waters may be corrosive to water distribution systems, and that soft waters mingling with other sources can cause a variety of adverse effects, namely metal corrosion and red water events. Despite this, no unambiguous quantitative criteria have been proposed to-date to address the required quality of desalinated water, following the post treatment stage. In this paper the water quality criteria are considered from various angles (chemical stability, bio-stability, effect on wastewater treatment, water palatability, health and economic effects, and post-treatment engineering considerations) and the following set of quality criteria for desalinated water is suggested: Alkalinity > 80, 80< [Ca2+]
Article
Boron is essential to growth at low concentrations and limits growth and yield when in excess. Little is known regarding plant response to excess boron (B) and salinity occurring simultaneously. The influences of B and salinity on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Cv `5656') were investigated in lysimeters. Salinity levels were 1, 3, 6 and 9 dSm–1 and B levels were 0.028, 0.185, 0.37, 0.74, 1.11, 1.48 mol m–3. Excess boron was found to decrease yield and transpiration of tomatoes. This effect was inhibited when plants were exposed to simultaneous B and salinity stresses. Both irrigation water salinity and boron concentration influenced water use of the plants in the same manner as they influenced yield. While yield was found to decrease with increased boron concentration in leaf tissue, increased salinity led to decreased boron accumulation. Yield response was found to correlate better to B concentration in irrigation water and soil solution than to plant tissue B content. A dominant-stress-factor model was assumed and validated. The model applies the principle that when a plant is submitted to conditions of stress caused by B in conjunction with salinity, the more severe stress determines yield. The results of this study have significance in modeling and management of high salinity high boron conditions. Under saline conditions, differences in crop yield and in water use may not be experienced over a significant range of boron concentrations.
Article
Prepared by: Peter H. Gleick Incluye bibliografía e índice
Article
A novel post-treatment approach for desalinated water, aimed at supplying a balanced concentration of alkalinity, Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and SO(4)(2-), is introduced. The process is based on replacing excess Ca(2+) ions generated in the common H(2)SO(4)-based calcite dissolution post-treatment process with Mg(2+) ions originating from seawater. In the first step, Mg(2+) ions are separated from seawater by means of a specific ion exchange resin that has high affinity toward divalent cations (Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) and an extremely low affinity toward monovalent cations (namely Na(+) and K(+)). In the second step, the Mg(2+)-loaded resin is contacted with the effluent of the calcite dissolution reactor and Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) are exchanged. Consequently, the excess Ca(2+) concentration in the water decreases while the Mg(2+) concentration increases. The process is stopped at a predetermined Ca(2+) to Mg(2+) ratio. All water streams used in the process are internal and form a part of the desalination plant sequence, regardless of the additional ion exchange component. The proposed process allows for the supply of cheap Mg(2+) ions, while at the same time enables the application of the cheap H(2)SO(4)-based calcite dissolution process, thus resulting in higher quality water at a cost-effective price. A case study is presented in which additional cost of supplying a Mg(2+) concentration of 12mg/L using the process is estimated at $0.004/m(3) product water.
Article
Damage to crops after irrigation with extremely pure water from the world's largest reverse-osmosis desalination plant reveals a need for revised treatment standards.
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