ArticlePDF Available

Assesing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali (Rajasthan) using AMES bioassay

Authors:

Abstract

In Rajasthan state particularly, textile mills represent an important economic sector. Pali district in Rajasthan has got largest number of textile industries in the State i.e.989 units, mostly engaged in cotton and synthetic textile printing and dyeing. These industries liberate a variety of chemicals, dyes, acids and alkalis besides other toxic compounds like heavy metals, which are known for their hazardous properties. However, excessive and indiscriminate use of dyestuffs has become increasingly a subject of environmental concern. These dyes can enter the environment through the industrial effluents of dye manufacturing plants and from textile dyeing and printing operations, as wastewater effluents. Assessment of genotoxicity of dyes is therefore of utmost importance. Short-term genetic bioassays have proved to be an important tool in such studies because of their simplicity, sensitivity to genetic damage, speed, low cost of experimentation and small amount of sample required. A total of 7 dyes were tested for their mutagenicity, by Ames assay, using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Only 1 dye, Violet showed absence of mutagenic activity. The remaining 6 dyes were all positively mutagenic.
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 111 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
ASSESSING MUTAGENICITY OF TEXTILE DYES FROM
PALI (RAJASTHAN) USING AMES BIOASSAY
N. MATHUR* P. BHATNAGAR P. BAKRE
*e-mail: nupurmathur123@rediffmail.com
Environmental Toxicology Unit, Department of Zoology,
University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004, India
*Corresponding author
(Received 6
th
June 2005 , accepted 4
th
August 2005)
Abstract. In Rajasthan state particularly, textile mills represent an important economic sector. Pali
district in Rajasthan has got largest number of textile industries in the State i.e.989 units, mostly engaged
in cotton and synthetic textile printing and dyeing. These industries liberate a variety of chemicals, dyes,
acids and alkalis besides other toxic compounds like heavy metals, which are known for their hazardous
properties. However, excessive and indiscriminate use of dyestuffs has become increasingly a subject of
environmental concern. These dyes can enter the environment through the industrial effluents of dye
manufacturing plants and from textile dyeing and printing operations, as wastewater effluents.
Assessment of genotoxicity of dyes is therefore of utmost importance. Short-term genetic bioassays have
proved to be an important tool in such studies because of their simplicity, sensitivity to genetic damage,
speed, low cost of experimentation and small amount of sample required. A total of 7 dyes were tested for
their mutagenicity, by Ames assay, using strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium. Only 1 dye, Violet
showed absence of mutagenic activity. The remaining 6 dyes were all positively mutagenic.
Keywords: Pali, textile industries, dyes, mutagenicity, Ames test
Introduction
India's dye industry produces every type of dyes and pigments. Production of
dyestuff and pigments in India is close to 80,000 tonnes. India is the second largest
exporter of dyestuffs and intermediates developing countries, after China. The textile
industry accounts for the largest consumption of dyestuffs, at nearly 80%.
The textile industries are to satisfy the ever-growing demands in terms of quality,
variety, fastness and other technical requirements. However, a recent study conducted
under the National Biodiversity strategy and Action Plan (BSAP) has revealed that
chemical colors have all but wiped out India’s wonderful vegetable dyes. The Indian
textile industries now predominantly use synthetic organic dyes like direct dyes,
processing dyes, reactive dyes, etc. The large variety of dyes and chemicals used in an
attempt to make more attractive popular shades of fabrics for a competitive market
render them very complex [16]. During the last decade, environmental issues associated
with dyestuff production and application have grown significantly and are indisputably
among the major driving forces affecting the textile dye industry today.
Pali is an important district of Rajasthan, having a population of 18,19, 201 people. It
is situated about 70 kms from Jodhpur. The district lies between 24
0
50’ and 26
0
75’
North Latitude and 72
0
48’ and 74
0
20’ East Longitude. It is situated on the banks of
river Bandi. The total area of this town is about 12,387 Sq. kms. There are around 989
dyeing and printing units, most of which discharge their untreated textile effluents,
directly into river Bandi.
Considerable amounts of dyes have been noticed in these textile wastewaters, due to
their incomplete use and washing operations. The dyes disposed off, can be found in
dissolved state or in suspension in the wastewater. These dyestuffs are highly structured
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 112 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
polymers and are very difficult to decompose biologically [13]. The most obvious
impact of the discharge of dye colored effluent is the persisting nature of the color. It is
stable and fast, difficult to degrade, toxic, rendering the water unfit for its intended use.
Further, the color removal is also not adequate by the conventional chemical and
biological treatment. Such dyestuffs can reach the aquatic environment, primarily
dissolved or suspended in water, since the conventional treatment of wastewaters from
textile mills and dyestuff factories are unable to remove most of the azo and other dyes
effectively. The resulting dye effluents may contain some components or moieties that
could be toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic to aquatic life [18]. Ecological and
toxicological problems due to the discharge of textile wastewaters, in natural water
bodies, have been one of the most important water pollution problems in the state of
Rajasthan and especially in Pali.
Since large quantities of dyes are used, such pollution due to dyes may occur on a
significant scale. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has
classified various dyes like Benzidine as being associated with cancer in humans [6].
Benzidine is known to be carcinogenic to a variety of mammalian species, including
humans. In tests on laboratory animals, two benzidine dyes, Direct Blue 6 and Direct
Black 38, have been reported to be such potent carcinogens that hepatocellular
carcinomas and neoplastic liver nodules occurred in rats after only 13 weeks of
exposure [17]. A number of dyes have been tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella
assay. Several of them have been found to be carcinogenic [4, 15, 19].
Because of the wide spread use and potential carcinogenicity of certain dyes, there
has been a growing interest in assessing the hazards associated with dyes available in
local markets. Most of such dyes, being openly sold in the markets have no information
regarding their chemical nature, purity, toxicity or possible mutagenicity. Unlimited and
uncontrolled use of such dyes can lead to grave consequences in terms of human health
and ecological balance Central Pollution Control Board has listed the dye and dye
intermediates industry as one of the heavily polluting industries. Assessment of
genotoxicity of dyes is therefore of utmost importance.
Various short-term screening methods have been developed to detect
mutagenic/carcinogenic substances. They have played important roles not only in
screening suspected chemicals but also in studying the mechanisms of mutagenesis and
carcinogenesis, and have provided useful information for assessing the genetic effects
of chemicals on humans.
Microorganisms have demonstrated several attributes that make them attractive for
use in quick screening of effluents and chemicals for toxicity. Testing of chemicals for
mutagenicity in Ames assay is based on the knowledge that a substance that is
mutagenic in the bacterium is likely to be a carcinogen in laboratory animals, and thus,
by extension, present a risk of cancer to humans. The Ames test has several advantages
over the use of mammals for testing compounds. Mutagenicity assays are relatively cost
effective, only a few days are required for testing a compound and the test is performed
with microgram quantities of the material. Such assays are performed on approximately
100 million organisms rather than on a limited number of animals.
The present study is thus aimed at studying the mutagenic potential of the locally
available and used textile dyes. Most of these dyes have not been characterized
regarding their chemical nature, purity, possible toxicity or their impact on health and
the environment. Assessment of genotoxicity of dyes is therefore of utmost importance.
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 113 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
Materials and methods
Collection of samples
Dyes (18) were obtained at random basis from local Pali market. They had no
information regarding chemical constituents, purity or hazardous nature. Dye solutions
were made by dissolving 1 g dry powder of dye in 100 ml of warm, sterile, distilled
water. All the dyes used were water-soluble. Five concentrations (2µl, 5µl, 10 µl, 50µl
and 100µl) of these dyes were tested.
Ames mutagenicity test
The Salmonella/microsome reversion assay was conducted using the plate
incorporation procedure described by Ames et al. [1] and revised by Maron and Ames
[8]. The dye samples were tested with TA 100 strain of S. typhimurium, which was
obtained from Microbial Type culture collection & Gene Bank (MTCC), Institute of
Microbial Technology (IMTech), Chandigarh (INDIA). Samples were tested on
duplicate plates in two independent experiments. Five dose levels of individual samples
were tested. Positive control used for TA 100 was Sodium azide (CAS Number: 26628-
22-8): 5 µg / plate: 2969 revertants. Sterile distilled water was used as negative control.
Fresh solutions of the reference mutagen were prepared immediately before the
beginning of each experiment. The revertant colonies were clearly visible in a uniform
background lawn of auxotrophic bacteria. All tester strains were maintained and stored
according to the standard methods [12]. The tester strain genotypes (Histidine
requirement, rfa mutation, uvr B and R-factor) were confirmed immediately after
receiving the cultures and every time a new set of frozen permanents were prepared or
used. All regents used were of analytical grade, supplied by Himedia Laboratories
Limited (India) and Sigma-Aldrich.
Data analysis
The most common method of evaluation of data from the Salmonella assay is the
“two fold rule” according to which doubling of spontaneous reversion rate at one or two
test chemical concentrations constitutes a positive response [12]. This rule specifies that
if a test compound doubles or more than doubles, the mean spontaneous mutation
frequency obtained on the day of testing, then the compound is considered significantly
mutagenic. Using this procedure the following criteria were used to interpret results:
Positive
A compound is considered a mutagen if it produces a reproducible, dose-related
increase in the number of revertant colonies in one or more strains of Salmonella
typhimurium. A compound is considered a weak mutagen if it produces a reproducible
dose-related increase in the number of revertant colonies in one or more strains but the
number of revertants is not double the background number of colonies.
Negative
A compound is considered a non-mutagen if no dose-related increase in the number
of revertant colonies is observed in at least two independent experiments.
Inconclusive
If a compound cannot be identified clearly as a mutagen or a non-mutagen, the
results are classified as inconclusive (e.g. if there is one elevated count).
For this analysis the dose related increases in the number of revertant colonies were
observed for the test compounds and mutagenicity ratios were calculated. Mutagenicity
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 114 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
ratio is the ratio of average induced revertants on test plates (spontaneous revertants
plus induced revertants) to average spontaneous revertants on negative control plates
(spontaneous revertants). Mutagenicity ratio of 2.0 or more is regarded as a significant
indication of mutagenicity
Results and Discussion
Pali has been identified as one of the most polluted cities in India [3]. The grave
pollution situation that exists in and around Pali due to the textile industries has been
extensively studied [5, 7, 9]. Further, increasing trend of requirement and productivity
of dyes and dye intermediates is associated with the anticipated generation of wastes,
both liquid and solid in future. The wastes thus produced will contain toxic and
hazardous substances, which are not acceptable to the recipient environment, if released
uncontrolled [9].
Many of the dyes used by textile industries are known carcinogens [6] and teratogens
[2]. Dyes are introduced into the environment through industrial effluents of these
industries. There are ample evidences of their harmful effects. Triple primary cancers
involving kidney, urinary bladder and liver in a dye worker have been reported [11].
Further, Pal and Brijmohan [14] reported that textile industry poses threat of various
types of occupational diseases.
A total of seven dyes were tested in the present study. Three of these were
Processing dyes or Cremazoles (Orange 3R, Brown GR and Blue S1) while remaining
four were Direct dyes (Violet, Congo red, Royal blue and Bordeaux). Amongst the four
direct dyes only one dye i.e. Violet had Mutagenicity ratio less than 2.0 at all
concentrations tested (Table 1). Further no dose related increase in number of revertant
colonies was observed.
The dose response curves of all the dyes are shown in Fig. 1. Both Congo red and
Royal blue dyes were positively mutagenic and can be classified as moderately
mutagenic (700-1200 induced revertants, per 100 µl of dye) (Fig. 1). Compared to the
previously mentioned dyes Bordeaux showed higher number of revertants and can be
classified as highly mutagenic or extremely mutagenic (12,000 induced revertants, per
100µl of dye) (Fig. 1). These observations are in accordance with several studies that
report mutagenicity of a number of dyes like Direct Black 38, Acid Red 26, etc. [4, 19].
Unlimited and uncontrolled use of such dyes can lead to grave consequences in terms of
human health and ecological balance.
Further all the three tested Processing dyes or Cremazoles dyes were so toxic that
they inhibited the growth of bacteria, at higher dose levels. Again although Orange 3R
and Brown GR were moderately mutagenic (1200-1400 induced revertants, per 100 µl
of dye) while Blue S1 turned out to be extremely mutagenic (15,000 induced revertants,
per 100µl of dye) (Fig. 1). Strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium, detects base pair
substitution mutations. Thus, it can be concluded that all of these six dyes cause genetic
damage through base pair substitution mutations.
Most of the dyes, used in textile industry are known only by their trade name, while
their chemical nature and biological hazards are not known. The aim of this study was,
thus, to assess the possible risk of mutagenic hazard due to these dyes and the effluents
containing these dyes, to health of textile dyeing workers and the environment. The
dyes were used in their crude form and no further purification was attempted, because
we wanted to test the potential danger that they represent in actual use. The results of
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 115 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
this study clearly indicate that most of the locally used dyes are highly mutagenic, and
therefore should be used with great caution.
Table 1. Absorbance maximum and mutagenicity ratio of dyes (1g/100ml) with strain TA 100 of
Salmonella typhimurium
Mutagenicity ratio
S. n. Dyes Peak
Absor-
bance
2µl 5µl 10µl 50µl 100µl
1 Orange 3R 490.0 0.7791 0.7 1.1 7.2 3.4 2.5
2 Brown GR 454.5 1.1201 1.7 2.1 9.2 4.4 3.5
3 Blue S1 594.5 2.1387 61.9 74.2 92.4 73.7 7.4
4 Violet 536.0 2.1106 - - - - -
5 Congo Red 485.5 0.9250 - 0.8 1.7 2.6 3.5
6 Royal Blue 581.5 0.9929 - 0.4 2.6 3.0 5.8
7 Bordeaux 512.5 1.0613 8.4 10.0 11.8 15.0 17.1
The dyes were identified with the help of their absorption spectrums and absorbance
peaks or maxima (Fig.2). The presence of impurities in the commercially available dyes
has been reported to contribute to the mutagenicity of these dyes [15]. As the dyes
under investigation were not purified, the impurities present in them could have also
been responsible for the high mutagenic activity of the dyes. Nevertheless, the fact still
remains that highly mutagenic compounds are being used in textile dyeing and printing
industries of Pali.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
0 100 200
Conc. of dye (ul)
No. of revertants
Violet
Congo red
Roy al blue
Bordeaux
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
0 50 100 150
Conc. of dyes (ul)
No. of revertants
Orange 3R
Brown GR
Blue S1
Figure 1. Dose response curve of dyes with strain TA 100 of Salmonella typhimurium
Since innumerable dyes are available in local markets, chemical analysis of each and
every dye is not possible because of the time and cost involved. As the bacterial
mutagenicity assays can be carried out in 48 hrs, they have been suggested as rapid pre-
screens for distinguishing between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals,
allowing many thousands of compounds in our environment, not previously tested, to be
screened for potential hazard. A good co-relation has been obtained by several groups,
for a number of carcinogenic aromatic amines in their ability to induce mutation in the
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 116 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
above strain and the ability to induce a response in animals. Thus Ames test can easily
and quickly assess mutagenic potential of these dyes.
Orange 3R Brown GR
Blue S1 Violet
Congo Red Royal Blue
Bordeaux
Besides, the dyes can be compared on the basis of their mutagenic potencies. This
bioassay can thus be used as an initial screening test to analyze various dyes and dye
containing effluents, which are causing major damage to the aquatic environment.
Figure 2. Absorption
spectrum of seven dyes
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 117 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
Further, excessive use of synthetic chemical dyes should be restricted. They should be
replaced by vegetable dyes, which are eco-friendly.
Acknowledgements. The authors are thankful to Dr. P. Ghosh, Director and Dr. Krishnamohan, Senior
scientist, Birla Institute of Scientific Research, Jaipur (India) for allowing the use of various facilities of
the Biotechnology division
REFERENCES
[1] Ames, B.N., McCann, J. and Yamasaki, E. (1975): Methods for detecting carcinogens
and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. – Mut.
Res.,3: 347-364.
[2] Beck, S.L. (1983): Assessment of adult skeletons to detect prenatal exposure to Trypan
Blue in mice. – Teratology, 28: 271-285.
[3] Chhoakar, P.K., Datta, S.P., Joshi, H.C. and Pathak, H. (2000): Impact of industrial
effluents on soil health and agriculture-Indian experience: Part-II tannery and textile
industrial effluents. – J. Scientific and Industrial research, 59: 446-454.
[4] Garner, R.C. and Nutman, C.A. (1977): Testing of some azo dyes and their reduction
products for mutagenicity using Salmonella typhimurium TA 1538. – Mut. Res., 44: 9-
19.
[5] Gupta, S.C. (1992): Industrialization and chemical hazards. Swasth Hindof ground waters
polluted due to textile hand processing industries in Pali. – Curr. Agric., 16 (1-2): 59-62.
[6] Anonym - International Agency for Research on Cancer, Suppl. 4 (1982): IARC
Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans,
chemicals, industrial processes and industries associated with cancer in humans, IARC,
Lyon.
[7] Khandelwal, S. (1996): Impact of dyeing industries, wastewater on vegetation of Luni
catchment area: A case study through remote sensing technique. – J. Environ. Poll., 3 (2):
77-78.
[8] Maron D.M. and Ames B.N. (1983): Revised methods for the Salmonella mutagenicity
test. – Mut. Res., 113: 173-215.
[9] Mohnot, S.M. and Dugar, S. (1987): Textile industry and water pollution problem of
Western Rajasthan. Environmental degradation of Western Rajasthan, – in: S.M. Mohnot
and M.M. Bhandari (Eds.): 63-71.
[10] Mohnot, S.M. and Durve, V.S. (1989): Evaluation of the Hazards of untreated and treated
textile dyeing and printing waste on mammals. – Technical report VIII=61.Man and
Biosphere Program. Govt. of India. New Delhi.
[11] Morikawa, Y.,K. Shiomi, Y.Ishihara and N. Matsuura(1997):Triple primary cancers
involving Kidney, Urinary Bladder and Liver in a dye workers. – Am. J. of Indus. Med.,
31, 44-49).
[12] Mortelmans, K. and Zeiger, E.(2000):The Ames Salmonella /microsome mutagenicity
assay. – Mut. Res., 455: 29-60.
[13] Neppolian, B., Sakthivel, S., Arbindo, B., Palanichamy, M. and Murugesan, V. (1999):
Degradation of textile dye by solar light using TiO
2
and ZnO photocatalyst. – J. Environ.
Sci. health, A 34 (9): 1829-1838.
[14] Pal, P.B. and Brijmohan (1980): Management of occupational environment in textile
industry. – Indian J. Environ. Prot., 10 (10): 767-772.
[15] Prival, M.J., S.J. Bell, V.D. Mitchell and V.L. Vaughan: Mutagenicity of benzidine and
benzidine congener dyes and selected monoazo dyes in a modified Salmonella assay. –
Mut. Res., 136: 33-47.
Mathur et al.: Assessing mutagenicity of textile dyes from Pali
- 118 -
APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 4(1): 111-118.
http://www.ecology.kee.hu ISSN 1589 1623
2005, Penkala Bt., Budapest, Hungary
[16] Rajagopalan, S. (1990): Water pollution problem in Textile Industry and Control, in:
Pollution Management in Industries R.K.Trivedy (Ed.), – Environmental Pollution,
Karad, India pp 21-45.
[17] Robens, J.F., Dill, G.S., Ward, J.M. Joiner, J.R., Griesemer R.A. and Douglas, J.F.
(1980): Thirteen-week subchronic toxicity studies of Direct Blue 6, Direct Black 38 and
Direct Brown 95 dyes. – Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 54 : 431-442.
[18] Suzuki, T., Timofei, S., Kurunczi, L., Dietze, U. and Schuurmann, G. (2001): Correlation
of aerobic biodegradability of sulfonated azo dyes with the chemical structure. –
Chemosphere,45:1-9.
[19] Venturini, S. and Tamaro, M. (1979): Mutagencity of anthraquinone and azo dyes in
Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. – Mut. Res., 68: 307-312.
... Such heavy metals can exist naturally in the structures of textiles or penetrate textile fibres during the show, the dyeing process, or through protective agents used during storage. These heavy metals, which have been transferred to the environment, are highly toxic and can bioaccumulate in the human body, aquatic life, and natural water bodies and possibly be trapped in the soil [8]. ...
... Polluted wastewater loaded with dyes has chemical stability, persistent colour and high Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and is intolerable for ecosystems (Wang et al. 2007). In India, the textile industry is the major sector that consumes huge amounts of dyes (Mathur et al. 2005). About 20% of the world's total water pollution is due to such industrial dyeing activities (Streith 2018;Rita 2012) with an estimated amount of 2.8 Lakh tons of dyes per annum being released to the environment (Jin et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, numerous investigations have explored the use of biochar for the removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in single component systems. Biochar is a carbonaceous material produced from waste biomass, mainly by thermochemical conversion methods. This material was used as a biosorbent in various removal processes of pollutants, and its efficiency was strongly influenced by the characteristics of the biomass feedstock. This review integrates the recent works of literature to understand the biosorption behaviour of dyes onto biochar-based biosorbents. The factors influencing the biosorption process and the mechanisms describing the biosorption behaviours of the biochar have been broadly reviewed. Furthermore, the biosorption models can be used to comprehend the competence of the biochar as biosorbent for dye removal techniques. Graphical Abstract
... Workers working in the textile industry were found to suffer from splenic sarcoma, hepatocarcinoma and cancer of the kidney [15]. [16] in 2005 on studying mutagenicity of dyes reported that textile industries use crude dyes without any tests and its effect on environment and observed that dyes which were widely used are harmful and mutagenic. In one of the case studies, farmers were bound to use toxic sludge for the irrigation because of the unavailability of canal water. ...
Article
Full-text available
The humongous load on the environment due to the expulsion of textile dye wastewater has always been a major issue. Significantly, the dye is present in the wastewater due to its complex chemical structure, making it a recalcitrant pollutant. Therefore, becoming highly noxious to flora and fauna of the aquatic ecosystems and crop plants. Due to the low biodegradability, dyes are carcinogenic and mutagenic to plants and human beings. Various physicochemical strategies to treat textile effluent have been used, but because of several drawbacks, they are not implemented by most industries. Microbial decolorization is more eco-compatible and economical as it does not produce any intermediate by-products. Also, it can mineralize the dyes completely and efficiently. Microbes like bacteria, fungi, and algae possess enzymes capable of degrading dyes. These organisms are now in trend with the utilization of mixed culture in comparison to the use of individual strain. Bioremediation of pollutants reduces the toxicity from the soil and water source so that water used for irrigation will no longer be harmful to the plants and eventually to us.
... Many aquatic organisms are poisoned by water containing these hazardous elements (Bhardwaj et al., 2014). Lead (Pb), chrome (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and nickel (Ni) are all commonly used in the manufacturing of textile dye color pigments (Bakre et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Due to high concentrations of numerous harmful and hazardous pollutants, particularly heavy metals, industrial wastewater has become a major problem. Heavy metal pollution and its implications for human health and the environment have increased research in developing low cost and sustainable remediation technology. Diverse conventional physicochemical and green biological methods are applied to remove heavy metals (HMs). This review article covers both the conventional and biotechnological approaches used for removal of HMs from wastewater and evaluate them based on their efficiency. Adsorption, coagulation, flocculation, chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ion exchange, flotation, and electrochemical technologies are examples of conventional methods. In some circumstances, these procedures produce quick results, although they are less efficient and cost more than biotechnological heavy metals removal (HMR). The current state and prospects of biosorption and bioaccumulation for environmental bioremediation are reviewed. Environmental considerations are evaluated, with a focus on the removal efficiency of biosorption and bioaccumulation. HMR efficiency and cost effectiveness of a range of biosorbents for the removal of pollutants are described. Furthermore, the equilibrium, kinetic, and thermodynamic behavior of the heavy metal biosorption process, based on kinetic and isotherm models, are presented. Overall, this study provides clear information of biological processes, which will help surmount technological limitations of bioseparation process application.
... Heavy metals such as lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) are used extensively in the manufacture of textile dyes [37,38]. Such heavy metals are highly toxic and can bio-accumulate when are released into water bodies [39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to decolorize reactive dyeing effluent by of solar based photo-Fenton process coupled with lime flocculation, with an objective of reducing reagent requirement of Fenton process and improve the pH of the treated effluent. Coupling with lime flocculation has reduced forty percent of H 2 O 2 reagent requirements of photo-Fenton process for 98% decolorization of simulated reactive dyeing wastewater after a reaction period of 60 minutes and improved effluent pH. It is clear from the literature survey that greater reagent dose of Fenton process is required to decolorize reactive dye effluents containing auxiliary chemicals compared to aqueous solution containing reactive dye alone, due to the inhibitive effect of excess chloride ion present in wastewater. Burnt clay bricks made from chemical sludge, produced during lime flocculation, by replacing 20% of brick earth have the same properties as a standard burnt clay brick and are acceptable from environmental point of view.
... Industries that utilize dye stuff including the textile and pharmaceutical industries are sources of contaminants prevalent in colored wastewater. These dyes, although in a trace amount, can pose preventable health risks and are toxic potential carcinogens [1,2]. Thus, it is essential to employ a wastewater treatment system in the water cycle to remove these pollutants. ...
Article
Full-text available
The potential of using thermally prepared Ni0.6Co0.4-oxide for the electrochemical degradation of organic contaminants was investigated using methylene blue (MB) in an aqueous solution, as a model pollutant. The results of UV spectroscopy obtained during galvanostatic electrolyses at the anode indicated the complete removal of the methylene blue dye. The high removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) suggested a high level of mineralization of its intermediates. It was found that the electrocatalytic performance of the electrode in the anodic degradation of the organic pollutant was significantly enhanced by the presence of chloride ions in the solution. The improvement in the degradation rate of MB was attributed to the in situ electrogeneration of chlorine active species. The results show that Ni0.6Co0.4-oxide anode can be employed as a stable energy-efficient electrocatalyst in the electrochemical purification of wastewater.
Chapter
Standing at a second place after agriculture, the textile industries are a source of income to almost 45 million Indian population. Indian textile industries contribute to around 2% of India’s GDP, 15% share in export earning, and 7% of industrial output. However, the alluring benefits delivered by the textile industries are intertwined with severe aquatic pollution, which if remains unchecked would soon prove to be catastrophic for humankind and aquatic life. Textile industries are one of the large consumers of harmful dyes, water, and chemicals. The industrial revolution that has first claimed to be a boon is now standing at the edge of turning into a bane for the marine ecosystem. The unchecked release of textile dyes into the water bodies has resulted in hazardous aftermath primarily for the vital human commodity (water). Synthetic dyes are broadly classified into azo, anthraquinone, and triphenylmethane dyes. The release of colored dyes and its harmful intermediates into the water streams blocks the sunlight, hampering its light penetration and causing disturbance to the ecosystem. Since safe drinking water is one of the most crucial commodities in the developing countries, the water pollution arising from tons of untreated-textile dye discharges needs a spearheaded, efficient, feasible, and eco-friendly approach. In recent decades, several chemical and biological mediated remediation strategies have been reported by several research groups that focused on evading textile dye menace by degrading the harmful chemical dyes into less-harmful forms. This objective has been attained by controlling the physical parameters of effluent such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) content, etc. This chapter discusses the current perspectives and future prospects of textile dyes remediation scenarios in India, and the associated challenges and reasons for its sustainable implementations for the revival of the existing parched marine environment.KeywordsBiodegradationDyeTextile wasteWastewater management
Chapter
Substances like dyes having substantial colouring capacity are used in textiles which releases the effluents into natural streams by evading waste water treatment. Pollution caused by such non-biodegradable dyes like making the water unfit for human activities, harming aquatic life, causing diseases in humans etc. has become the major concern. Advanced Oxidative Processes (AOPs) by photocatal- ysis are being employed to remove these dyes and bring a considerable reduction in the contamination. Various semiconductor nanoparticles are widely used for photo- catalysed degradation of dyes, out of which ZnO nanoparticle is one of the effective catalysts for this purpose. ZnO is considered above all other metal oxides due to its stability, low cost, high photosensitivity and optical properties. ZnO is combined with metal, metal oxides etc. in order to overcome the recombination of generated charge carriers and increase its photocatalytic and sonocatalytic efficiency. ZnO is produced by several methods like hydrothermal synthesis, solvothermal synthesis, one step flaming process etc. Characterization and confirmation of the synthesized nanopar- ticles are carried out by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Visible analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Raman Spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) technique, Field Emis- sion Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersal X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy Analysis, Energy Dispersal X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS) etc. Photocatalytic and sonocatalytic dye degradation depends on pH, size of the ZnO nanocomposite and calcination process. In this review different methods of ZnO synthesis, nanocomposite synthesis of ZnO with metals, characterization of the ZnO nanoparticles and dye degradation processes have been discussed.
Conference Paper
Gasoline commonly contains several additives to enhance fuel efficiency. Knocking is the property related to the fuels' abnormal combustion in the internal combustion (detonation) engines. Additives are commonly added to gasoline to prevent knocking in the combustion chamber. This work provides novel octane hyperboosting phenomenon in isoolefinic hydrocarbons/ gasoline blends. Octane hyperboosting is characterized by the motor octane number (MON) of the mixtures, including isoolefinic hydrocarbons into motor gasoline. exceeding the MON of the individual components in that mixture. This finding counters the widely held assumption that interpolation between the MON values of a pure compound and the base fuel provides the bounds for the MON performance of the blend. This is clearly distinct from the more commonly observed synergistic blending of gasoline additives with gasoline, where the MON never exceeds the performance of the highest performing component. The results demonstrated that there was a nonlinear MON change phenomenon where a maximum MON of 50% isoolefinic hydrocarbons was greater than that of pure isoolefinic components. This phenomenon can be called “octane hyperboosting” Finally, this phenomenon also increases the potential candidate list of gasoline additives, as compounds hitherto discounted due to their lower pure component MON may exhibit hyperboosting behavior, and thereby enhanced performance, in blend.
Conference Paper
Fuel properties and engine efficiency represent the prime parameters developed by the transport technology, combustion science, and refining industry focused, all of them, to reduce local and global emissions from vehicles. To assist in making an initial down-selection of promising fuel blendstock candidates, it is useful to use a fuel “merit function.” This work proposes novel strategy technique to upgrade the fuel properties using merit function. Moreover, this function provided a simple tool to evaluate the potential thermal efficiency benefits of various fuels when multiple fuel properties or performance metrics are changing simultaneously. Merit function is a mathematical equation that link fuel properties to efficiency gains. Additionally, it includes research octane number (RON), octane sensitivity (S), heat of vaporization (HoV), laminar flame speed (SL), particulate matter index (PMI), catalyst light-off temperature (Tc,90). The merit function demonstrated that increasing RON and S provided the most straightforward pathway to increased efficiency. On average, the largest contributors to merit function score were RON, S, and HoV. The RON and S relate the potential efficiency improvements of the engine to the fuel’s resistance to autoignition for engine operating with high compression ratio.
Article
Full-text available
We have evaluated the mutagenic activity of a series of diazo compounds derived from benzidine and its congeners o-tolidine, o-dianisidine and 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine as well as several monoazo compounds. The test system used was a modification of the standard Ames Salmonella assay in which FMN, hamster liver S9 and a preincubation step are used to facilitate azo reduction and detection of the resulting mutagenic aromatic amines. All of the benzidine and o-tolidine dyes tested were clearly mutagenic. The o-dianisidine dyes except for Direct Blue 218 were also mutagenic. Direct Blue 218 is a copper complex of the mutagenic o-dianisidine dye Direct Blue 15. Pigment Yellow 12, which is derived from 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, could not be detected as mutagenic, presumably because of its lack of solubility in the test reaction mixture. Of the monoazo dyes tested, methyl orange was clearly mutagenic, while C.I. Acid Red 26 and Acid Dye (C.I. 16155; often referred to as Ponceau 3R) had marginal to weak mutagenic activity. Several commercial dye samples had greater mutagenic activity with the modified test protocol than did equimolar quantities of their mutagenic aromatic amine reduction products. Investigation of this phenomenon for Direct Black 38 and trypan blue showed that it was due to the presence of mutagenic impurities in these samples. The modified method used appears to be suitable for testing the mutagenicity of azo dyes, and it may also be useful for monitoring the presence of mutagenic or potentially carcinogenic impurities in otherwise nonmutagenic azo dyes.
Article
The chemical characteristics of waste waters produced from the wet processing of cotton and of synthetic fibre fabrics are tabulated. Pollution loads from important dyeing and finishing processes are shown. Removal efficiencies and costs of selected treatment processes are analysed. A brief description of the activated sludge process and of tertiary processes is given. For part I see abstract 1983/1976; for part III see abstract 1983/4603.
Article
A huge amount of effluents generated from tanning and textile industries is being discharged on land or into water courses. These effluents are characterized by high BOD, COD, Na and total dissolved solids. These effluents also contain several major primary and secondary plant nutrients (N, P, K, S, Mg, Ca, etc.) as well as micronutrients and heavy metals. Addition of tannery effluents is reported to cause deflocculation of soil particles and increase in the N, P and K levels of soils. Similarly, deleterious effects, such as increase in pH, sodicity and EC in soils due to the use of textile effluents are reported. However, it is pointed out that the adverse effects of these effluents get progressively reduced with dilution of effluents. But database is not adequate to indicate the effect of long-term use of these effluents on soil health. The impact of the use of these effluents on various crops, trees and shrubs as well as water bodies is discussed. Salinisation and alkalisation of ground water due to application of these effluents are also reported. The physicochemical characteristics of these effluents do not permit its disposal directly into inland water or on land for irrigation, hence, several methods of treating these effluents for safe disposal are discussed.
Article
The Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay (Salmonella test; Ames test) is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances that can produce genetic damage that leads to gene mutations. The test employs several histidine dependent Salmonella strains each carrying different mutations in various genes in the histidine operon. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When the Salmonella tester strains are grown on a minimal media agar plate containing a trace of histidine, only those bacteria that revert to histidine independence (his+) are able to form colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.The Ames test is used world-wide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs. The test is also used for submission of data to regulatory agencies for registration or acceptance of many chemicals, including drugs and biocides. International guidelines have been developed for use by corporations and testing laboratories to ensure uniformity of testing procedures.This review provides historical aspects of how the Ames was developed and detailed procedures for performing the test, including the design and interpretation of results.
Article
A series of ten azo dyes as well as various single ring aromatic amines substituted on the benzene ring were tested for bacterial mutagenicity with Salmonella typhimurium TA 1538 using a soft-agar overlay method. Two dyes, sudan 2 and chrysoidin induced mutation but only in the presence of a rat liver preparation. Chrysoidin was the more active. Testing of its reduction products, aniline and 1,2,4-triaminobenzene showed a liver metabolite of the latter compound could be responsible for the mutagenic effect, having a comparable mutagenicity with 1,2-diamino-4-nitro-benzene, one of the mutagenic constituents of hair dyes. Structure-activity studies on a series of ring-substituted anilines indicated that mutagenic activity required at least two positions to be substituted with either amino or nitro groups, or one of each. The bacteria as well as the liver enzyme preparation may partake in the activation of these chemicals. The correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity for this group of compounds is discussed.
Article
23 dyes belonging to different chemical classes--anthraquinones, mono- and bis-azo compounds--were tested for their mutagenic activity on Ames strains of Salmonella typhimurium. 5 dyes induced frameshift mutations.
Article
A Skeletal Variant Assay System (SVAS) consisting of a group of 88 spontaneously occurring qualitative variations of the adult mouse skeleton was studied in CD-1 mice which had been exposed in utero by way of three daily ip injections of their dams on days 7–9 of gestation with trypan blue. Treatment groups received daily doses of 0.25 cc of 0, .037, .075, .15, or .30% trypan blue dissolved in 0.9% NaCl. Two separate series of experiments were performed, and skeletons were examined at 62 ± 2 days postnatal.
Article
Thirteen-week subchronic toxicity studies of Direct Blue 6, Direct Black 38, and Direct Brown 95 dyes were conducted by administering the test chemicals in feed to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 10 rats and 10 mice of each sex were administered one of the three dyes at one of five concentrations for 13 weeks. The concentrations used for the rats ranged from 190 to 3000 ppm and those for the mice from 375 to 12,500 ppm. Matched controls were untreated. Deaths occurred among rats but not among mice during the test period. Benzidine and monoacetyl benzidine were detected in the urine of male and female rats and mice administered the test dyes, although no free benzidine was found in the dyes themselves (detection limit, 0.004%). In rats, neoplastic lesions of the liver, hepatocellular carcinomas, and neoplastic nodules, occurred only in the treated groups. The combined incidences were statistically significant for male rats given 1500 ppm Direct Blue 6 dye, for females administered 3000 ppm Direct Blue 6 dye, for males and females given 1500 ppm Direct Black 38 dye, and for females given 1500 ppm Direct Brown 95 dye. Male rats given Direct Brown 95 dye developed neither hepatocellular carcinomas nor neoplastic nodules, but had significant incidences of preneoplastic hepatic lesions. Males in groups given the largest dose died early from toxicity. In mice, no neoplastic lesions occurred in the liver or other tissues of groups administered the different dyes.