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    • "This form of the disease is known to be more severe and difficult to treat than eosinophil-dominated asthma. Additionally, IL-17A has also been identified to be a main causative agent for the occurrence of airway hyperreactivity, one of the key hallmarks of allergic asthma161819. The suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS)-3 activation, inhibits several cytokine signaling in T helper cells as well as in dendritic cells thus regulating and having a significant impact on the development of the downstream immune responses20. "
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    ABSTRACT: In a murine model of allergic asthma, we found that Tyk-2((-/-)) asthmatic mice have induced peribronchial collagen deposition, mucosal type mast cells in the lung, IRF4 and hyperproliferative lung Th2 CD4(+) effector T cells over-expressing IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13. We also observed increased Th9 cells expressing IL-9 and IL-10 as well as T helper cells expressing IL-6, IL-10 and IL-21 with a defect in IL-17A and IL-17F production. This T helper phenotype was accompanied by increased SOCS3 in the lung of Tyk-2 deficient asthmatic mice. Finally, in vivo treatment with rIL-17A inhibited local CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells as well as Th2 cytokines without affecting IL-9 in the lung. These results suggest a role of Tyk-2 in different subsets of T helper cells mediated by SOCS3 regulation that is relevant for the treatment of asthma, cancer and autoimmune diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Scientific Reports
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    • "Increased levels of IL-17 in sputum were also seen in patients with allergic rhinitis after a nasal allergen challenge [31]. Interestingly, two recent reports showed the opposite results [32,33]. In the first study an increased expression of IL-17 in the bronchial epithelium was observed in severe asthma but not in mild or moderate asthma [32] whereas increased expression of IL-17 was reported in mild-moderate, but not severe asthma, in the second study [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways with the proven role of Th2 cells in its pathogenesis. The role and characteristic of different subsets of CD4+ cells is much less known. The aim of the study was to analyze the incidence of different subsets of CD4+ T cells, in particular different subsets of CD4+ cells with the co-expression of different cytokines. Twenty five stable asthmatic and twelve age-matched control subjects were recruited to the study. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were performed in all study subjects. CD4+ T cells were isolated from BAL fluid by positive magnetic selection. After stimulation simultaneous expression of TGF-β, FoxP3, CD25, IFN-γ, IL-4, TNF-α (set 1); IL-10, FoxP3, CD25, IFN-γ, IL-4, MIP-1β (set 2); IL-17A, IL-8, IFN-γ, IL-4, MIP-1β (set 3) were measured by flow cytometry. The percentage of CD4+ cells co-expressing Foxp3 and TGF-β (CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+ cells) was significantly lower (P = 0.03), whereas the percentage of CD4+IL-17+ cells (P = 0.008), CD4+IL-17+ IFN-γ+ cells (P = 0.047) and CD4+IL-4+ cells (P = 0.01) were significantly increased in asthmatics compared with that seen in healthy subjects. A significantly higher percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ cells from asthma patients expressed IFN-γ (P = 0.01), IL-4 (P = 0.004) and CD25 (P = 0.04), whereas the percentage of CD4+IL-10+ cells expressing Foxp3 was significantly decreased in asthmatics (P = 0.03). FEV1% predicted correlated negatively with the percentage of CD4+IL-17+ cells (r = -0.33; P = 0.046) and positively with CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+ cells (r = 0.43; P = 0.01). Our results suggest that in the airways of chronic asthma patients there is an imbalance between increased numbers of CD4+IL-17+ cells and Th2 cells and decreased number of CD4+Foxp3+TGF-β+.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Inflammation
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    • "Mild and moderate asthma may be related to eosinophilic inflammation, which involves Th2 cell immune responses. However, severe asthma is corticosteroid resistance associated with neutrophilic inflammation, which is related to Th17 cell immune responses [33]. Patients with asthma who consume corticosteroids for a long time can develop serious side effects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Serine protease inhibitors reportedly attenuated airway inflammation and had antioxidant in multiorgan. However, the effects of the serine protease inhibitors nafamostat mesilate (FUT), gabexate mesilate (FOY), and ulinastatin (UTI) on a long-term challenged mouse model of chronic asthma are unclear. BALB/c mice (6 mice/group) were intratracheally inoculated with five doses of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p; 50 μL, 1 mg/mL) at one-week intervals. Therapeutic doses of FUT (0.0625 mg/kg), FOY (20 mg/kg), or UTI (10,000 U/kg) were, respectively, injected intraperitoneally into these mice. Control mice received sterile PBS. At 3 days after the last challenge, mice were sacrificed to assess airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), remodeling, and inflammation; lung histological features; and cytokine expression profiles. Compared with untreated controls, mice treated with FUT, FOY, and UTI had decreased AHR and goblet cell hyperplasia, decreased eosinophil and neutrophil infiltration, decreased Der p-induced IL-4 levels in serum and IL-5, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and inhibited nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity in lung tissues. The serine protease inhibitors FUT, FOY, and UTI have potential therapeutic benefits for treating asthma by downregulating Th2 cytokines and Th17 cell function and inhibiting NF-κB activation in lung tissue.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Mediators of Inflammation
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