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Histone deacetylase inhibitors promote neurosteroid-mediated cell differentiation and enhance serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression in rat C6 glioma cells

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Abstract

Progesterone treatment has previously been reported to promote the differentiation of glial cells probably through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids, resulting in the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, which is considered to contribute to the survival, regeneration, and plasticity of neuronal cells in the brain and hence has been suggested to improve mood disorders and other symptoms in depressive patients. Based on these previous observations, the effects on glial cells of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are known as agents promoting cell differentiation, were examined using rat C6 glioma cells as a model for in vitro studies. Consequently, trichostatin A (TSA), sodium butyrate (NaB), and valproic acid (VPA) stimulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression, and their stimulatory effects on GFAP gene expression were inhibited by treatment of these cells with finasteride, an inhibitor of the enzyme producing 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids. In addition, HDAC inhibitors enhanced serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression, the enhancement of which could be abolished by the inhibition of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroid production in the glioma cells. These results suggest that HDAC inhibitors may be able to promote the differentiation of rat C6 glioma cells through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids, resulting in the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression as a consequence of promoting their differentiation, indicating the possibility that differentiated glial cells may be implicated in preserving the integrity of neural networks as well as improving the function of neuronal cells in the brain.

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... These findings indicate that polyamines modulate neuronal cell function by acting directly on glial cells in the brain, but little is known about the biological or the physiological actions of polyamines on the glial cell functions and metabolism. Neuroactive 5a-reduced steroids may enhance the ability of C6 glioma cells to produce brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through the promotion of their differentiation, thereby protecting and reviving the functions of neuronal cells as well as maintaining the integrity of neural network in the brain (Morita et al., 2009;Morita and Her, 2008). Neurosteroid-mediated differentiation of the glioma cells may also enhance glutamate transporter GLT-1 gene expression, and therefore reduce excitotoxic damage to neuronal cells by facilitating the removal of glutamate from brain tissue (Itoh et al., 2013). ...
... We previously proposed that steroid metabolites, particularly neuroactive 5a-reduced metabolites, enhances the ability of glial cells to produce BDNF by promoting their differentiation (Morita et al., 2009;Morita and Her, 2008). To investigate a possible relationship, the effect of polyamines on 5a-R mRNA levels in C6 glioma cells was examined. ...
... Little is known about the effects of polyamines on the metabolism of neuronal and glial cells in the brain, and therefore we do not know the extent to which practically they contribute to the preservation and/or modulation of brain function. We postulated that neuroactive 5a-reduced steroids may be involved in the maintenance and restoration of neural network system, as well as the protection and recovery of neuronal cell functions via stimulation of glial cells (Morita and Her, 2008;Morita et al., 2009;Itoh et al., 2013). Therefore, we presumed that polyamines interact with the DNA through their positive charge in a similar way to histones, and therefore help regulate gene transcription. ...
Article
Polyamines are widely distributed in living organisms, and considered to play a potential role in various cellular processes. The effects of polyamines on gene expression as well as cell proliferation have been suggested to be closely associated with the physiological and pathological functions. However, it seems necessary to investigate their potential roles in the regulation of cellular metabolism and functions. Previously, glial cells have been suggested to be involved in the protection and preservation of neuronal functions, probably through the production of neurotrophic factors in the brain. On the other hand, neuroactive 5α-reduced steroids promote glial cell differentiation, resulting in enhancement of their ability to produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Based on these findings, polyamines are assumed to stimulate the expression of the gene encoding steroid 5α-reductase (5α-R), which can induce the production of neuroactive 5α-reduced steroids in glial cells. The effects of polyamines on 5α-R mRNA levels in C6 glioma cells were examined as a model experiment. In consequence, spermine (SPM) and spermidine (SPD), but not putrescine (PUT), have been shown to elevate 5α-R mRNA levels without activating the 5α-R promoter. Furthermore, SPM increased 5α-R mRNA levels under the conditions in which the mRNA biosynthesis was inhibited. Therefore, it can be speculated that polyamines increase 5α-R mRNA levels as a consequence of suppressing the degradation of mRNA.
... Previous studies, on the other hand, have suggested that the differentiation of glial cells may induce the enhancement of their abilities to produce BDNF in response to serotonin stimulation, thus proposing the possibility that the promotion of glial cell differentiation may contribute to the protection and recovery of neural function through the stimulation of BDNF production in the brain (Morita et al. 2009;Morita and Her 2008). Therefore, it seemed conceivable that these previous findings might provide evidence for suggesting a possible role, as it were an active role, of glial cell differentiation in recovering the integrity of neural function, while the present study was considered to propose the possibility that glial cell differentiation might protect neuronal cells against the excitotoxic cell damage, thus playing a possible role, as it was a passive role, in preserving the intactness of neural system in the brain. ...
... In a series of our previous studies, the enhancement of 5α-R expression, thereby elevating the production of 5αreduced neurosteroids, has been suggested to be a prerequisite for promoting the differentiation of C6 glioma cells in culture (Morita et al. 2006(Morita et al. , 2009Morita and Her 2008). Fig. 4 Effect of TSA on GLT-1 and GFAP gene transcription in C6 glioma cells preloaded with sp1-antisense oligonucleotide. ...
... In the present study, the glioma cells were treated with TSA and other HDAC inhibitors, by which the differentiation of these cells was induced as reported previously (Morita et al. 2009), and GLT-1 mRNA levels in these cells were then determined to elucidate a possible implication of the glial cell differentiation in the regulation of EAAT gene expression. Consequently, HDAC inhibitors were shown to induce the enhancement of GLT-1 gene expression accompanied by the GFAP gene expression. ...
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The neurotoxic effects of excitatory amino acids (EAAs) are suggested to be connected with the chronic loss of neuronal cells, thereby being responsible for the age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, it seems conceivable that the excitatory amino acid transporters may contribute to the protection of neuronal cells against the excitotoxic damage by facilitating the removal of EAAs from the brain tissue. On the other hand, previous studies have suggested that glial cell differentiation may be involved in the protection and recovery of neural function probably through the elevation of BDNF gene expression in the brain. Based on these findings, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are assumed to induce glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) gene expression probably through the promotion of glial cell differentiation. Then, we examined the effects of HDAC inhibitors on GLT-1 mRNA levels in rat C6 glioma cells and found that trichostatin A can induce GLT-1 gene transcription following steroid 5α-reductase and GFAP gene expression. Therefore, it seems conceivable that glial cell differentiation may play a potential role in the removal of EAAs probably through the expression of GLT-1, thereby being involved in the protection of neuronal cells against the chronic excitotoxic insults in the brain.
... Previous studies, on the other hand, have suggested that the differentiation of glial cells may induce the enhancement of their abilities to produce BDNF in response to serotonin stimulation, thus proposing the possibility that the promotion of glial cell differentiation may contribute to the protection and recovery of neural function through the stimulation of BDNF production in the brain (Morita et al., 2009;Morita and Her, 2008). Therefore, it seemed conceivable that these previous findings may provide evidence for suggesting a possible role, as it were an active role, of glial cell differentiation in recovering the integrity of neural function, while the present study was considered to propose the possibility that glial cell differentiation might protect neuronal cells against the excitotoxic cell damage, thus playing a possible role, as it were a passive role, in preserving the intactness of neural system in the brain. ...
... In a series of our previous studies, the enhancement of 5-R expression, thereby elevating the production of 5-reduced neurosteroids, has been suggested to be prerequisite for promoting the differentiation of C6 glioma cells in culture (Morita et al., 2006;Morita et al., 2009;Morita and Her, 2008). Therefore, it seems reasonable to consider that the inhibition of either 5-R gene expression or 5-R enzyme activity, thus reducing the production of 5-reduced neurosteroids, may be able to prevent the differentiation of the glioma cells induced by various stimulants including HDAC inhibitors. ...
... In the present study, the glioma cells were treated with TSA and other HDAC inhibitors, which have been shown to induce the differentiation of these cells as reported previously (Morita et al., 2009), and GLT-1 mRNA levels in these differentiated cells were determined to elucidate a possible implication of the glial cell differentiation in the regulation of EAAT gene expression. ...
Article
The immunoreactivity and protein expression of olfactory marker protein (OMP) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the main olfactory bulb (MOB) of the dog during normal ageing was investigated. OMP immunolabelling was observed only in nerve bundles of the olfactory nerve (ONL) and glomerular layers (GL) and there was no OMP expression within cell bodies of any layer. TH immunolabelling was detected in all layers of the MOB except for the ONL. Most of the neurons expressing TH were distributed in the juxtaglomerular region and had a morphological appearance consistent with periglomerular, external tufted or superficial short axon cells. Dendrites of TH-immunoreactive neurons were closely apposed to OMP-immunoreactive nerve bundles within the glomeruli. There was no significant age-related loss of OMP and TH immunoreactivity and protein concentrations of these molecules were consistent in dogs of different ages. These results suggest that olfactory signal transduction to the GL via axons of olfactory receptor neurons remains unchanged during ageing in the dog.
... The antidepressant effects of butyrate administration seem to involve the same mutual regulation between BDNF expression and 5-HT neurotransmission. Hence, several HDAC inhibitors (including butyrate) were shown to promote cell differentiation via the potentiation of 5-HT-induced BDNF gene expression [204], and butyrate administration was shown to counteract CUS-induced anhedonic symptoms via the increase of 5-HT brain levels and reversal of CUS-induced decrease of BDNF expression [205]. The fact that SCFAs are involved in neuroplasticity, neurogenesis, consolidation of long-term memory, and in maintenance of BBB integrity [197,198,206,207], provides further mechanistic support to the idea that butyrate and bacterial-producing SCFAs may be promising dietary-derived neuroprotective and antidepressant agents. ...
... Antibiotic treatment or GF mice show altered BDNF expression in several brain regions involved in SCZ, including hippocampus and cingulate cortex [17,248]. As observed for the role of SCFAs in depression, butyrate can normalize BDNF expression and depression-like behaviors in animals [200], through mechanisms involving BDNF-5HT synergistic modulation as well as HDAC inhibition and potentiation of 5HT transmission [204]. Not only butyrate administration can promote the recovery of BDNF expression and memory impairment [249], but its activity as HDAC inhibitor provides a mechanistic evidence for the ability to suppress several LPS-induced pro-inflammatory factors [250], which are recognized components of SCZ pathogenesis [251]. ...
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The gut-brain axis is a multimodal communication system along which immune, metabolic, autonomic, endocrine and enteric nervous signals can shape host physiology and determine liability, development and progression of a vast number of human diseases. Here, we broadly discussed the current knowledge about the either beneficial or deleterious impact of dietary fatty acids on microbiota-brain communication (MBC), and the multiple mechanisms by which different types of lipids can modify gut microbial ecosystem and contribute to the pathophysiology of major neuropsychiatric diseases (NPDs), such as schizophrenia (SCZ), depression and autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
... Because of the dependence on phenotypic expression of protein markers, the roles of HDIs are likely to be cell-type dependent. In neuronal systems, HDI treatments enhance neuronal plasticity and survival [25][26][27][28] via various molecular mechanisms [11]. It is now increasingly clear that the homeostatic equilibrium in chromatin acetylation is greatly disrupted after TBI [29][30][31][32][33]. Indeed, a loss in histone acetylation has been observed after TBI, and it is attributed to the upstream excitotoxic and stress cascades associated with this injury [11]. ...
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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of motor and cognitive deficits in young adults for which there is no effective therapy. The present study characterizes the protective effect of a new histone deacetylase inhibitor, Scriptaid (Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, St. Louis, MO), against injury from controlled cortical impact (CCI). Scriptaid elicited a dose-dependent decrease in lesion size at 1.5 to 5.5 mg/kg and a concomitant attenuation in motor and cognitive deficits when delivered 30 minutes postinjury in a model of moderate TBI. Comparable protection was achieved even when treatment was delayed to 12 h postinjury. Furthermore, the protection of motor and cognitive functions was long lasting, as similar improvements were detected 35 days postinjury. The efficacy of Scriptaid (Sigma-Aldrich Corporation) was manifested as an increase in surviving neurons, as well as the number/length of their processes within the CA3 region of the hippocampus and the pericontusional cortex. Consistent with other histone deacetylase inhibitors, Scriptaid treatment prevented the decrease in phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN) induced by TBI in cortical and CA3 hippocampal neurons. Notably, the p-AKT inhibitor LY294002 attenuated the impact of Scriptaid, providing mechanistic evidence that Scriptaid functions partly by modulating the prosurvival AKT signaling pathway. As Scriptaid offers long-lasting neuronal and behavioral protection, even when delivered 12 h after controlled cortical impact, it is an excellent new candidate for the effective clinical treatment of TBI.
... Higher concentrations (1.5 --2 mM) of VPA have been shown to enhance the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and to promote the adoption of a glial phenotype in rat C6 glioma cells while reducing their proliferation and migration [106,107]. At yet higher concentrations and after several days of culture, VPA decreased GFAP expression and other glial marker proteins (e.g., GDNF). ...
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INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Valproate has been used as an anti-epileptic drug and mood stabilizer for decades. Recently, it was found to inhibit the proliferation of various cancers including glioblastoma multiforme. AREAS COVERED: We provide a comprehensive review of the mechanisms of action of valproate in gliomas, of its potential side effects and of the published clinical results obtained with this drug in glioblastomas. Valproate inhibits a subset of histone deacetylases and cellular kinases, and affects gene transcription through histone hyperacetylation, DNA hypomethylation and the modulation of several transcription factors. As a result, VPA induces differentiation of glioma cells, can prevent their invasion in surrounding tissues and may inhibit tumor angiogenesis. VPA can also inhibit DNA repair, thereby potentiating cytotoxic treatments such as chemotherapies or radiation therapy. Based on these mechanisms and case reports of glioblastoma remissions following VPA treatment, several clinical studies currently assess the therapeutic potential of VPA in glioma therapy. EXPERT OPINION: The combination of VPA treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in glioblastoma appears a rational option that deserves well-designed prospective clinical trials that assess the efficacy and the molecular characteristics of the responding tumors in these patients.
... Wu et al. (2008) have demonstrated that the HDAC inhibitors SB and trichostatin A upregulate GDNF and BDNF expression in astrocytes and protect DA neurons. In a previous study, the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A, SB, and VPA enhanced serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression in the glioma cells (Morita et al., 2009). Glial cell differentiation was suggested to be closely associated with the protection of neuronal cells, which may be because of the enhancement of their abilities to produce BDNF in response to serotonin stimulation (Morita and Her, 2008). ...
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Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder with high morbidity and mortality. Despite adequate treatment, patients continue to have recurrent mood episodes, residual symptoms, and functional impairment. Some preclinical studies have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act on depressive-like and manic-like behaviors. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on behavioral changes in animal models of depression and mania. The animals were submitted to protocols of chronic mild stress or maternal deprivation for induction of depressive-like behaviors and subjected to amphetamine, or ouabain administration for induction of manic-like behaviors. SB reversed the depressive-like and manic-like behaviors evaluated in the animal models. From these results we can suggest that SB may be a potential mood stabilizer.
... They predicted valproic acid for the treatment of brain tumor and esophagus, lung, and colon cancers. Our model predicted its potential use for tumor and metastases, which has also been supported by an earlier study [44]. Side effects and indications provide a view to the mechanism of a drug, and by using LDA we might be able to use this information to better understand the hidden relationship between a drug, its therapeutic uses, and the side effects it causes. ...
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The phenome represents a distinct set of information in the human population. It has been explored particularly in its relationship with the genome to identify correlations for diseases. The phenome has been also explored for drug repositioning with efforts focusing on the search space for the most similar candidate drugs. For a comprehensive analysis of the phenome, we assumed that all phenotypes (indications and side effects) were inter-connected with a probabilistic distribution and this characteristic may offer an opportunity to identify new therapeutic indications for a given drug. Correspondingly, we employed Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), which introduces latent variables (topics) to govern the phenome distribution. We developed our model on the phenome information in Side Effect Resource (SIDER). We first developed a LDA model optimized based on its recovery potential through perturbing the drug-phenotype matrix for each of the drug-indication pairs where each drug-indication relationship was switched to “unknown” one at the time and then recovered based on the remaining drug-phenotype pairs. Of the probabilistically significant pairs, 70% was successfully recovered. Next, we applied the model on the whole phenome to narrow down repositioning candidates and suggest alternative indications. We were able to retrieve approved indications of 6 drugs whose indications were not listed in SIDER. For 908 drugs that were present with their indication information, our model suggested alternative treatment options for further investigations. Several of the suggested new uses can be supported with information from the scientific literature. The results demonstrated that the phenome can be further analyzed by a generative model, which can discover probabilistic associations between drugs and therapeutic uses. In this regard, LDA serves as an enrichment tool to explore new uses of existing drugs by narrowing down the search space.
... Bredy et al. (2007) show a relationship between histone modification, epigenetic regulation of BDNF gene expression, and extinction learning. In cellular and animal models, histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) treatment increases BDNF expression in neuron–glia cultures (Wu et al., 2008), glioma cells (Morita et al., 2009), and when given in vivo in various brain regions (Kim et al., 2009). The implication is that HDACis may be more specifically effective as treatments for PTSD and TBI through the enhancement of synaptic plasticity. ...
Article
As US military service members return from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan with elevated rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention has been increasingly focused on TBI/PTSD comorbidity, its neurobiological mechanisms, and novel and effective treatment approaches. TBI and PTSD, and their comorbid conditions, present with a spectrum of common clinical features such as sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, irritability, difficulty in concentrating, fatigue, suicidality, chronic pain, and alterations in arousal. These TBI and PTSD disorders are also thought to be characterized by overlapping neural mechanisms. Both conditions are associated with changes in hippocampal, prefrontal cortical, and limbic region function because of alterations in synaptogenesis, dendritic remodeling, and neurogenesis. Neural changes in TBI and PTSD result from pathophysiological disturbances in metabolic, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and apoptic processes, amongst other mechanisms. Neurotrophins have well-established actions in regulating cell growth and survival, differentiation, apoptosis, and cytoskeleton restructuring. A body of research indicates that dysregulation of neural brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is found in conditions of TBI and PTSD. Induction of BDNF and activation of its intracellular receptors can produce neural regeneration, reconnection, and dendritic sprouting, and can improve synaptic efficacy. In this review, we consider treatment approaches that enhance BDNF-related signaling and have the potential to restore neural connectivity. Such treatment approaches could facilitate neuroplastic changes that lead to adaptive neural repair and reverse cognitive and emotional deficits in both TBI and PTSD.
... Protein expression and purification were performed as described previously [7]. Expression levels in cell lysates and purified proteins were characterized by SDS–PAGE and Western blotting, as described previously [11]. ...
Article
Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are short amino acid sequences that promote their own translocation across the cell plasma membrane and have been studied for possible use in drug delivery and gene therapy. However, no direct method to quantify transduction is available. Here, using a new luciferase-tagged human PTD, we show that cellular uptake levels can be determined in a reliable manner. Furthermore, we show that enhanced in vivo tracking by human PTD can be quantified in a mouse model. This is the first report on the direct quantification of PTD transduction in vitro and in vivo, which will be necessary for studying its possible therapeutic application in drug delivery and gene therapy.
... BDNF gene expression stimulation by neuro steroids has been known to associate with regeneration and plasticity of neuronal cells. Trichostatin-A, sodium butyrate and valproic acid were found to stimulate Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) in rat C6 glioma cells in vitro which is reversed with the inhibition of neurosteroid synthesis [120]. ...
Article
Epigenetic regulation of neuronal signalling through histone acetylation dictates transcription programs that govern neuronal memory, plasticity and learning paradigms. Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) are antagonistic enzymes that regulate gene expression through acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins around which DNA is wrapped inside a eukaryotic cell nucleus. The epigenetic control of HDACs and the cellular imbalance between HATs and HDACs dictate disease states and have been implicated in muscular dystrophy, loss of memory, neurodegeneration and autistic disorders. Altering gene expression profiles through inhibition of HDACs is now emerging as a powerful technique in therapy. This review presents evolving applications of HDAC inhibitors as potential drugs in neurological research and therapy. Mechanisms that govern their expression profiles in neuronal signalling, plasticity and learning will be covered. Promising and exciting possibilities of HDAC inhibitors in memory formation, fear conditioning, ischemic stroke and neural regeneration have been detailed.
... When VPA is administered to rat cortical neurons, mRNA levels and protein levels of exon 1-9-containing BDNF are elevated, and in astrocytes glial-derived neurotrophic factor is increased [2][3][4]. In a study in rat glioma cells, VPA failed to induce any change in levels of BDNF mRNA per se, but it enhanced the stimulatory effect of serotonin on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression [5]. VPA also affects expression of glutamic acid decarboxylases (GADs), which are responsible for GABA synthesis. ...
Chapter
Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are influenced by many pharmaceutical compounds including psychotropic drugs. In this chapter, the current state of knowledge on how several traditional psychotropic drugs alter the epigenome is reviewed. Sodium valproate is the most obvious example because of the fact that it is a known HDAC inhibitor. Antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, citalopram), as well as tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptiline) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, influence the epigenome. Antipsychotics (clozapine, haloperidol) and to a lesser extent lithium influence the epigenome, and for these compounds there is evidence that part of the epigenetic effects are mediated via microRNAs. The effects of currently used psychotropic drugs on epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression and how these effects may contribute to the therapeutic benefits of these drugs are discussed. The role of epigenetics in psychopharmacological treatment response is just starting to become clear, but what we do know suggests that there is vast potential for further development of epigenetic drugs.
... In addition to its effect on EGC proliferation, butyrate could influence EGC maturation because an increase in GFAP expression was described in butyrate-treated C6 rat glioma cells by Morita and coauthors (25). However, here we show that chronic treatment of rat pups with 2.5 mM butyrate or acute treatment with doses up to 40 mM has no effect on expression of GFAP or S100␤. ...
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The postnatal period is crucial for the development of gastrointestinal (GI) functions. The enteric nervous system is a key regulator of GI functions and increasing evidences indicate that 1) postnatal maturation of enteric neurons has an impact on the development of GI functions, and 2) microbiota-derived short-chain fatty acid can be involved in this maturation. Although enteric glial cells (EGC) are central regulators of GI functions, the postnatal evolution of their phenotype remains poorly defined. So, we characterized the postnatal evolution of EGC phenotype in the colon of rat pups and studied the impact of short-chain fatty acids on their maturation. We showed an increased expression of the glial markers, GFAP and S100β, during the first postnatal weeks. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, structured myenteric glial network was only observed at 36 days in the colon of rats. Butyrate inhibited EGC proliferation in vivo and in vitro but had no impact on glial marker expression. These results indicate that the EGC myenteric network continues to develop after birth, and luminal factors endogenously produced in the colon like butyrate may affect this development.
... Moreover, in C6 cell, it has been shown that fl uoxetine treatment regulates neuronal plasticity and neurite outgrowth by phosphorylating and activating CREB via the NCAM140 homophilic interaction-induced activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway . Another study showed that HDAC inhibitors promoted the differentiation of rat C6 glioma cells through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids, resulting in the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression as a consequence of promoting their differentiation (Morita et al. 2009 ). It is possible that differentiated glial cells may be implicated in preserving the integrity of neural networks as well as improving the function of neuronal cells in the brain. ...
Chapter
From several years, cellular models have been used solely or in combination with animal studies to investigate the mechanisms of depression and antidepressant drug action. Moreover, such models based on known mechanism could be used as a first screening platform for searching new agents with putative antidepressant activity. For those purposes, primary neuronal cell models (cortical or hippocampal neurons), neuronal cell lines (rat clonal pheochromocytoma PC12, human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y, mouse hippocampal HT-22), primary glial cell cultures (astrocytes, microglia), and glial cell lines (rat glioma C6, microglial BV2) could be engaged. In this book chapter an overview on the used cellular models in experimental studies of depression will be presented. There will be an attempt to standardize all available protocols for particular cell systems with the emphasis on advantages and limitations of each model.
... Deficits in BDNF functioning could lead to the cognitive dysfunction present in schizophrenia [3]. Additionally, BDNF levels are modified through epigenetic mechanisms, including histone acetylation [4,5], methylation [6], and DNA methylation [7,8]. ...
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... These observations are considered to propose the possibility that polyamines may be able to cause the modulation of neuronal cell function as a consequence of acting on glial cells in the brain, but little is known about the biological or the physiological actions of polyamines on the functions and metabolism of glial cells. On the other hand, we have investigated the direct effects of various neurotransmitters and neuroactivators on glial cell functions and metabolism in vitro, and suggested that these agents may be able to stimulate the biosynthesis of neuroactive 5 -reduced steroids in the glioma cells, resulting in the enhancement of their ability to produce brain-derived neurotrophic factor probably through the promotion of glial cell differentiation, thus suggesting a possible role of glial cells in protecting and reviving the functions of neuronal cells as well as maintaining the integrity of neural network in the brain [14,15]. Furthermore, the neurosteroid-mediated differentiation of the glioma cells has also been suggested to induce the enhancement of glutamate transporter-1 gene expression, and therefore speculated to reduce the excitotoxic damage to neuronal cells as a consequence of facilitating the removal of glutamate from the space of brain tissue [16]. ...
Article
Quiescent and tumor cells share the ability to evade irreversible cell fates. Recent studies have shown that the transcriptional regulator Hairy and Enhancer of Split 1 (HES1) protects quiescent fibroblasts from differentiation or senescence. HES1 is highly expressed in rhabdomyosarcomas, and the inhibition of HES1 restores differentiation in these cells. Pathways that lead to elevated HES1 levels, such as the Notch and Hedgehog pathways, are frequently upregulated in tumors. Compounds that inhibit these pathways induce differentiation and apoptosis in cancer cells and several are in clinical trials. HES1 might repress gene expression in part by recruiting histone deacetylases (HDACs). HDACs inhibit differentiation, whereas histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) induce differentiation or apoptosis in tumors and are also showing promise as therapeutics. Small molecules that directly target HES1 itself were recently identified. Here, we discuss the importance of HES1 function in quiescent and tumor cells. Elucidating the pathways that control quiescence could provide valuable information not only for treating cancer but also other diseases.
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The early neonatal period is critical for the development of the rodent brain. Neurosteroid levels in the brain decline from the late gestation to the neonatal period. Previous studies indicate effects of neurosteroid treatment during the neonatal period on the development of the dopaminergic system. In this study, we investigated the sex-specific effects of neonatal treatment with the neurosteroid progesterone on monoamine metabolism. Separately, we examined the contribution of pre-pubertal castration on the effect of neonatal treatment of pregnenolone (a neurosteroid precursor). Progesterone (Experiment 1) or pregnenolone (Experiment 2) treatments in Sprague-Dawley rats were performed from postnatal days 3 through 7. Castration in experiment 2 was performed in male rats at postnatal day 21. We measured the brain tissue contents of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites in rats at age 10 weeks. Results showed that neonatal progesterone treatment altered striatal 5-hydroxy-3-indolacetic acid/5-HT ratios in males and females in opposite directions, in addition to dopaminergic effects. The treatment also influenced dopamine and 5-HT metabolism without sex-specificity in the frontal cortex. In addition, there was no significant difference in striatal monoamine metabolism between sham-operated, castrated and castrated pregnenolone-treated group. The present result indicates a sex-specific influence of progesterone during the early neonatal period on the development of the serotonergic system, depending on brain region in addition to of the dopaminergic system.
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The application of established drug compounds to new therapeutic indications, known as drug repositioning, offers several advantages over traditional drug development, including reduced development costs and shorter paths to approval. Recent approaches to drug repositioning use high-throughput experimental approaches to assess a compound's potential therapeutic qualities. Here, we present a systematic computational approach to predict novel therapeutic indications on the basis of comprehensive testing of molecular signatures in drug-disease pairs. We integrated gene expression measurements from 100 diseases and gene expression measurements on 164 drug compounds, yielding predicted therapeutic potentials for these drugs. We recovered many known drug and disease relationships using computationally derived therapeutic potentials and also predict many new indications for these 164 drugs. We experimentally validated a prediction for the antiulcer drug cimetidine as a candidate therapeutic in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate its efficacy both in vitro and in vivo using mouse xenograft models. This computational method provides a systematic approach for repositioning established drugs to treat a wide range of human diseases.
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Mounting evidence suggest that epigenetic regulation of brain functions is important in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone acetylation, are influenced by many pharmaceutical compounds including psychiatric drugs. It is therefore of interest to investigate how psychiatric drugs are of influence and what the potential is of new epigenetic drugs for psychiatric disorders. With this targeted review we summarize the current state of knowledge in order to provide insight in this developing field. Several traditional psychiatric drugs have been found to alter the epigenome and in a variety of animal studies, experimental compounds with epigenetic targets have been investigated as potential psychiatric drugs. After discussion of the most relevant epigenetic mechanisms we present the evidence for epigenetic effects for the most relevant classes of drugs.
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Cell replacement is a promising approach for neurodegenerative disease treatment. Somatic cells such as fibroblasts can be induced to differentiate into neurons by specific transcription factors; however, the potential of viral vectors used for reprogramming to integrate into the genome raises concerns about the potential clinical applications of this approach. Here, we directly reprogrammed rat embryonic skin fibroblasts into induced neurons (iNs) via six small-molecule compounds (SMs) (VPA, CHIR99021, forskolin, Y-27632, Repsox, and P7C3-A20). iNs exhibit typical neuronal morphology, and immunofluorescence showed that more than 96% of the iNs expressed the early neuronal marker class III beta-tubulin (TUJ1) and that more than 91% of iNs expressed the mature neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) after 10 days of reprogramming. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction also showed that most iNs expressed the dopaminergic neuron marker tyrosine hydroxylase, the neural marker Nur correlation factor 1, the (γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA) GABAergic neuronal marker GABA, and the cholinergic neuron marker choline acetyltransferase. In addition, we found that cell proliferation decreased during reprogramming and that protein synthesis increased initially and then decreased. SMs were mixed with hydrogels, and the hydrogels were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of rats. After 7 days, the TUJ1 and NSE proteins were expressed in surrounding tissues, indicating that SMs caused reprogramming in vivo. In summary, rat skin fibroblasts can be efficiently reprogrammed into iNs by SMs in vitro and in vivo.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have been described as multifunctional anticancer agents. The failure of conventional therapy for glioblastoma (GBM) renders this tumor an attractive target for immunotherapy. Innate immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, play a crucial role in antitumor immune responses. Here, we describe how the HDACi trichostatin A (TSA) promotes apoptosis of tumor cells, as well as augments anti-GBM innate immune responses. In vitro treatment of GBM cells with TSA results in an up-regulation of the natural killer group-2 member-D (NKG2D) ligands major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain (MIC)-A and UL16 binding protein (ULBP)-2 at both mRNA and protein levels, rendering them susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. In vivo, TSA delays tumor growth of GBM xenografts. Both the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effect of TSA was significantly reduced by blocking NK cell activity. Our data suggest that HDACi, especially in combination with other clinical immunotherapeutical approaches, may be considered in a combined therapeutic approach for GBM.
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Glioma is still one of the most aggressive forms of brain tumors. Understanding of the biological and pathophysiological mechanisms of survival can help the researchers to develop new management modalities. Industrial toxins could be one of the most important causes for brain tumors, such as dioxin and other aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands. Toxicity of these compounds includes a series of cellular events starting from binding with AhR and ending with the increased expression of a group of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) such as the cytochrome P450 (CYPs), CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Therefore, identification of the localizations and expressions of the AhR and its regulated CYPs in the central nervous system (CNS) and neuronal cells is of major importance in understanding their physiological and pathological roles. Generally, low but significant level of CYPs expression is demonstrated in the brain in a tissue- and species-specific manner. Moreover, most, but not all, AhR-regulated CYPs are expressed differently in most of the neuronal and glial cells. Although the exact mechanisms of AhR-mediated glioma and neurotoxicity are not fully understood, the present review proposes several mechanisms which include generating reactive oxygen species, activating glutamate receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, histone acetylation, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3.
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Serotonin (5-HT) and brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) are known to modulate behavioral responses to stress and to mediate the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant agents through neuroplastic and epigenetic mechanisms. While the two systems interact at several levels, this scenario is complicated by a number of variants including brain region specificity, 5-HT receptor selectivity and timing. Based on recent insights obtained using 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) knockout rats we here set-out and discuss the crucial role of neurodevelopmental mechanisms and the contribution of transcription factors and epigenetic modifications to this interaction and its variants. 5-HTT knockout in rats, as well as the low activity short allelic variant of the serotonin transporter human polymorphism, consistently show reduced BDNF mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex. This starts during the second postnatal week, is preceded by DNA hypermethylation during the first postnatal week, and it is developmentally paralleled by reduced expression of key transcription factors. The reduced BDNF levels, in turn, affect 5-HT1A receptor-mediated intracellular signaling and thereby the serotonergic phenotype of the neurons. We propose that such a negative spiral of modifications may affect brain development and reduce its resiliency to environmental challenges during critical time windows, which may lead to phenotypic alterations that persist for the entire life. The characterization of 5-HT-BDNF interactions will eventually increase the understanding of mental illness etiology and, possibly, lead to the identification of novel molecular targets for drug development.
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Physical activity has been considered an important non-medication intervention to preserve mnemonic processes during aging. However, how resistance exercise promotes such benefits remains unclear. A possible hypothesis is that brain-metabolic changes of regions responsible for memory consolidation is affected by muscular training. Therefore, we analyzed the memory, axiety and the metabolomic of aged male Wistar rats (19-20 months old in the 1st day of experiment) submitted to a 12-week resistance exercise protocol (EX, n = 11) or which remained without physical exercise (CTL, n = 13). Barnes maze, elevated plus maze and inhibitory avoidance tests were used to assess the animals' behaviour. The metabolomic profile was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. EX group had better performance in the tests of learning and spatial memory in Barnes maze, and an increase of short and long-term aversive memories formation in inhibitory avoidance. In addition, the exercised animals showed a greater amount of metabolites, such as 4-aminobutyrate, acetate, butyrate, choline, fumarate, glycerol, glycine, histidine, hypoxanthine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, niacinamide, phenylalanine, succinate, tyrosine, valine and a reduction of ascorbate and aspartate compared to the control animals. These data indicate that the improvement in learning and memory of aged rats submitted to resistance exercise program is associated by changes in the hippocampal metabolomic profile.
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SUMMARY Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) have fascinated researchers in almost all fields of oncology for many years owing to their pleiotropic effects on nearly every aspect of cancer biology. Since the approval of the first HDACi vorinostat for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell leukemia in 2006, more than a hundred clinical trials have been initiated with a HDACi as a single agent or in combination therapy. Although a number of epigenetic and nonepigenetic molecular mechanisms of action have been proposed, biomarkers for response prediction and patient selection are still lacking. One of the inherent problems in the field of HDACis is their 'reverse' history of drug development: these compounds reached clinical application at an early stage, before the biology of their targets, HDAC1-11, was sufficiently understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the human family of HDACs as drug targets in pediatric and adult brain tumors, the efficacy and molecular action of HDACis in preclinical models, as well as the current status of the clinical development of these compounds in the field of neuro-oncology.
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Bipolar Disorder (BD) is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders. Despite adequate treatment, patients continue to have recurrent mood episodes, residual symptoms, and functional impairment. Some preclinical studies have shown that histone deacetylase inhibitors may act on manic-like behaviors. Neurotrophins have been considered important mediators in the pathophysiology of BD. The present study aims to investigate the effects of lithium (Li), valproate (VPA), and sodium butyrate (SB), a HDAC inhibitor, on BDNF, NGF and GDNF in the brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by ouabain. Wistar rats received a single ICV injection of ouabain or artificial cerebrospinal fluid. From the day following ICV injection, the rats were treated for 6 days with intraperitoneal injections of saline, Li, VPA or SB twice a day. In the 7th day after ouabain injection, locomotor activity was measured using the open-field test. The BDNF, NGF and GDNF levels were measured in the hippocampus and frontal cortex by sandwich-ELISA. Li, VPA or SB treatments reversed ouabain-related manic-like behavior. Ouabain decreased BDNF, NGF and GDNF levels in hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. The treatment with Li, VPA or SB reversed these impairment induced by ouabain. In addition, Li, VPA and SB per se increased NGF and GDNF levels in hippocampus of rats. Our data support the notion that neurotrophic factors play a role in BD and in the mechanisms of the action of Li, VPA and SB.
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The nervous system has a highly complex organization, including many cell types with multiple functions, with an intricate anatomy and unique structural and functional characteristics. The study of its (dys)functionality following exposure to xenobiotics, neurotoxicology, constitutes an important issue in neurosciences. Despite the extensive use of in vivo models to reveal the neurotoxicological phenomena, the existence of difficulties related to the increasing cost and time required for neurotoxicity studies with experimental animals, as well as the animal ethical concerns, have limited their use. Consequently, in vitro alternatives, providing an understanding of the mechanistic basis, at the molecular and cellular level, have earned a notable consideration in the field of neurotoxicological research. In this field, the selection of the most appropriate in vitro neuronal system relies on specific endpoints that are of particular relevance for the neurotoxicological phenomena that will be studied. Furthermore, application of specific endpoints to various neuronal cellular models should be done in a careful way to build reliable and feasible testing strategies. This review addresses the use of in vitro models for neurotoxicity research, aiming to contribute to a better understanding and guidance of in vitro neurotoxicological studies. As such, subcellular systems, namely isolated mitochondria and synaptosomes, and cellular models, including immortalized cell lines, primary cultures, co-cultures, organotypic cultures, neural stem cells and blood–brain barrier models, as well as their inherent advantages and limitations, are discussed.
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Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited neuroprotective activity. This study aimed to explore that NaB exerts beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression-like behaviors and its possible mechanisms. The behavioral tests including sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were to evaluate the antidepressant effects of NaB. Then changes of Nissl's body in the hippocampus, brain serotonin (5-HT) concentration, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tight junctions (TJs) proteins level were assessed to explore the antidepressant mechanisms. Our results showed that CUMS caused significant depression-like behaviors, neuropathological changes, and decreased brain 5-HT concentration, TJs protein levels and BDNF expression in the hippocampus. However, NaB treatment significantly ameliorated behavioral deficits of the CUMS-induced mice, increased 5-HT concentration, increased BDNF expression, and up-regulated Occludin and zonula occludens-1(ZO-1) protein levels in the hippocampus, which demonstrated that NaB could partially restore CUMS-induced blood–brain barrier (BBB) impairments. Besides, the pathologic changes were alleviated. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that NaB significantly improved depression-like behaviors in CUMS-induced mice and its antidepressant actions might be related with, at least in part, the increasing brain 5-HT concentration and BDNF expression and restoring BBB impairments.
Chapter
Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms are influenced by many pharmaceutical compounds including psychotropic drugs. In this chapter, the current state of knowledge on how several traditional psychotropic drugs alter the epigenome is reviewed. Sodium valproate is the most obvious example, because it is a known HDAC inhibitor. Antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine, citalopram), as well as tricyclic antidepressants (imipramine, amitriptiline) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, influence the epigenome. Antipsychotics (clozapine, haloperidol) and to a lesser extent lithium influence the epigenome, and for these compounds there is evidence that part of the epigenetic effects are mediated via microRNAs. The effects of currently used psychotropic drugs on epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression and how these effects may contribute to the therapeutic benefits of these drugs are discussed. The role of epigenetics in psychopharmacological treatment response is just starting to become clear, but what we do know suggests that there is vast potential for further development of epigenetic drugs.
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The adrenergic and serotonergic stimulations of rat C6 glioma cells have previously been shown to induce the activation of steroid 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) gene expression, resulting in their differentiation through the production of neuroactive 5alpha-reduced steroid metabolites. In addition, progesterone and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have also been reported to promote the glial cell differentiation with the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene transcription through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids, thus suggesting that glial cell differentiation is probably implicated in the protection and survival of neuronal cells in the brain. Therefore, the expression of 5alpha-R gene in glial cells seems physiologically important in maintaining the neural function in the brain, but little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of 5alpha-R gene transcription. In the present study, the effect of a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on 5alpha-R gene transcription in the glioma cells was examined, and TSA was shown to induce the elevation of 5alpha-R mRNA levels through the activation of the 5alpha-R promoter via a mechanism involving Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Thus, both Sp1 and Sp3 are considered to play a physiological role in the regulation of 5alpha-R gene expression, and hence the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids in glial cells.
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A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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Posttranslational modifications of histones in chromatin are emerging as an important mechanism in the regulation of gene expression. Changes in histone acetylation levels occur during many nuclear processes such as replication, transcriptional silencing, and activation. Histone acetylation levels represent the result of a dynamic equilibrium between competing histone deacetylase(s) and histone acetylase(s). We have used two new specific inhibitors of histone deacetylase, trichostatin A (TSA) and trapoxin (TPX), to probe the effect of histone hyperacetylation on gene expression. We confirm that both drugs block histone deacetylase activity and have no detectable effects on histone acetylation rates in human lymphoid cell lines. Treatment with either TSA or TPX results in the transcriptional activation of HIV-1 gene expression in latently infected cell lines. In contrast, TSA and TPX cause a rapid decrease in c-myc gene expression and no change in the expression of the gene for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Using differential display to compare the differences in gene expression between untreated cells and cells treated with TSA, we found that the expression of approximately 2% of cellular genes (8 genes out of approximately 340 examined) changes in response to TSA treatment. These results demonstrate that the transcriptional regulation of a restricted set of cellular genes is uniquely sensitive to the degree of histone acetylation in chromatin.
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Estrogen replacement therapy is associated with improvement of cognitive deficits and reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease. To compare the impact of therapeutically relevant progestins on estrogen-induced neuroprotection, we treated primary hippocampal neuron cultures with 17beta-E2 and progestin, alone and in combination, 48 h before glutamate insult. Estrogen, progesterone, and 19-norprogesterone, alone or in combination, protected against glutamate toxicity. In contrast, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) failed to protect against glutamate toxicity. Not only was MPA an ineffective neuroprotectant but it attenuated the estrogen- induced neuroprotection when coadministered. We addressed the role of MAPK activation in neuroprotection by ovarian steroids. Estrogen and all three progestins tested, alone or in combination, activated MAPK, indicating another mechanism of protection. Bcl-2 expression has been shown to prevent cell death and is up-regulated by 17beta-E2. Progesterone and 19-norprogesterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, increased Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, MPA blocked estrogen-induced Bcl-2 expression when coadministered. These results may have important implications for the effective use of hormone replacement therapy in the maintenance of neuronal function during menopause and aging and for protection against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
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The impact of progestins on estrogen-inducible mechanisms of neuroprotection was investigated. Previously, we showed that estrogen and progesterone are neuroprotective against excitotoxicity, whereas the synthetic progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Provera) is not. Here, we demonstrate that 17beta-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) treatment of hippocampal neurons attenuated the excitotoxic glutamate-induced rise in intracellular calcium concentration. Although MPA had no effect alone, MPA completely antagonized E2-induced attenuation of intracellular calcium concentration. Activation of extracellular receptor kinase (ERK) is required for estrogen-induced neuroprotection and calcium regulation. Paradoxically, E2, P4, and MPA all elicited similar rapid and transient activation of ERK, presenting a contradiction between the dependence on ERK for gonadal hormone-induced neuroprotection and the lack of neuroprotection induced by MPA. Subcellular analysis of ERK demonstrated that the phospho-ERK signal is transduced to the nucleus only by E2 and P4, not by MPA. These results indicate that the profile of nuclear translocation of ERK is consistent with the neuroprotective profile. Further, the E2-induced nuclear translocation of ERK was blocked by coadministration of MPA. Results of this study reveal that nuclear ERK induction by ovarian steroids is predictive of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen and progestin treatments, revealing a hitherto unrecognized divergence of progestin signaling through the src/MAPK pathway. These results have much broader implications encompassing the impact of progestins on estrogen-mediated effects in multiple tissues. The recent results from the Women's Health Initiative trial, which used MPA as the progestinal agent, indicate that differences between progestin formulations are crucial to health outcomes in women.
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Chromatin remodeling, including changes in histone acetylation, might play a role in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. We investigated whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB) administered as single drug or in combination with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine exerts antidepressant-like effects in mice. Mice (C57BL/6J) received injections of SB, fluoxetine, or a combination of both drugs either acutely or chronically for a period of 28 days and were subjected to a battery of tests to measure anxiety and behavioral despair. Histone acetylation and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were monitored in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Co-treatment with SB and fluoxetine resulted in a significant 20%-40% decrease in immobility scores in the tail suspension test (TST), a measure for behavioral despair, both acutely and chronically. In contrast, decreased immobility after single drug regimens was limited either to the acute (fluoxetine) or chronic (SB) paradigm. Systemic injection of SB induced short-lasting histone hyperacetylation in hippocampus and frontal cortex. Among the four treatment paradigms that resulted in improved immobility scores in the TST, three were associated with a transient, at least 50% increase in BDNF transcript in frontal cortex, whereas changes in hippocampus were less consistent. The histone deacetylase inhibitor SB exerts antidepressant-like effects in the mouse. The therapeutic benefits and molecular actions of histone modifying drugs, including co-treatment with SSRIs and other newer generation antidepressant medications, warrant further exploration in experimental models.
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Tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are considered in theory to induce the outflow of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine, and serotonin from the synapses as a consequence of inhibiting their reuptake into the nerve terminals, resulting in the stimulation of glial cells surrounding the synapses in the brain. Then, we have investigated the direct actions of neurotransmitters on glial cell metabolism and function using rat C6 glioma cells as an in vitro model system and suggested that these neurotransmitters induce their differentiation probably through the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids. On the other hand, the stimulation of the glioma cells with serotonin has been reported to enhance brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression, which may be closely related to the beneficial effects of antidepressant drugs. In the present study, to evaluate BDNF expression in differentiated glial cells, the glioma cells were pretreated with progesterone, and the effect of serotonin on BDNF messenger RNA levels in these cells was examined. Progesterone pretreatment enhanced the stimulatory action of serotonin on BDNF gene expression, and the enhancement of serotonin action observed in the cells pretreated with progesterone was almost completely abolished by finasteride, an inhibitor of the enzyme involved in the production of 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids. These findings propose the possibility that neurosteroid-mediated glial cell differentiation may result in the enhancement of serotonin-stimulated BDNF gene expression, which is considered to contribute to the survival, regeneration, and plasticity of neuronal cells in the brain, and hence, leading to the improvement of mood disorders and other symptoms in depressive patients.
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A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
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Estrogen replacement therapy is associated with improvement of cognitive deficits and reduced incidence of Alzheimer's disease. To compare the impact of therapeutically relevant progestins on estrogen-induced neuroprotection, we treated primary hippocampal neuron cultures with 17beta-E2 and progestin, alone and in combination, 48 h before glutamate insult. Estrogen, progesterone, and 19-norprogesterone, alone or in combination, protected against glutamate toxicity. In contrast, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) failed to protect against glutamate toxicity. Not only was MPA an ineffective neuroprotectant but it attenuated the estrogen. induced neuroprotection when coadministered. We addressed the role of MAPK activation in neuroprotection by ovarian steroids. Estrogen and all three progestins tested, alone or in combination, activated MAPK, indicating another mechanism of protection. Bcl-2 expression has been shown to prevent cell death and is up-regulated by 17beta-E2. Progesterone and 19-norprogesterone, alone or in combination with estrogen, increased Bcl-2 expression. In contrast, MPA blocked estrogen-induced Bcl-2 expression when coadministered. These results may have important implications for the effective use of hormone replacement therapy in the maintenance of neuronal function during menopause and aging and for protection against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
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The gonadal hormone, progesterone, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in injured nervous system, including the severity of postinjury cerebral edema. Progesterone’s attenuation of edema is accompanied by a sparing of neurons from secondary neuronal death and with improvements in cognitive outcome. In addition, we recently reported that postinjury blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, as measured by albumin immunostaining, was significantly lower in progesteronetreated than in nontreated rats, supporting a possible protective action of progesterone on the BBB. Because lipid membrane peroxidation is a major contributor to BBB breakdown, we hypothesized that progesterone limits this free radical-induced damage. An antioxidant action, neuroprotective in itself, would also account for progesterone’s effects on the BBB, edema, and cell survival after traumatic brain injury. To test progesterone’s possible antiperoxidation ef-fect, we compared brain levels of 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoPGF2α), a marker of lipid peroxidation, 24, 48, and 72 h after cortical contusion in male rats treated with either progesterone or the oil vehicle. The brains of progesteronetreated rats contained approximately one-third of the 8-isoPGF2α found in oil-treated rats. These data suggest progesterone has antioxidant effects and support its potential as a treatment for brain injury.
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The ability of progesterone to reduce the cerebral edema associated with traumatic brain damage first became apparent when we observed that males had significantly more edema than females after cortical contusion. In addition, edema was almost absent in pseudopregnant female rats, a condition in which progesterone levels are high relative to estrogen. Progesterone injections given after injury also reduced edema and were equally effective in both males and females. The present experiment was done to determine if the progesterone-induced reduction in edema could also prevent secondary neuronal degeneration and reduce the behavioral impairments that accompany contusion of the medial frontal cortex. Progesterone-treated rats were less impaired on a Morris water maze spatial navigation task than rats treated with the oil vehicle. Progesterone-treated rats also showed less neuronal degeneration 21 days after injury in the medial dorsal thalamic nucleus, a structure that has reciprocal connections with the contused area.
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A protein determination method which involves the binding of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 to protein is described. The binding of the dye to protein causes a shift in the absorption maximum of the dye from 465 to 595 nm, and it is the increase in absorption at 595 nm which is monitored. This assay is very reproducible and rapid with the dye binding process virtually complete in approximately 2 min with good color stability for 1 hr. There is little or no interference from cations such as sodium or potassium nor from carbohydrates such as sucrose. A small amount of color is developed in the presence of strongly alkaline buffering agents, but the assay may be run accurately by the use of proper buffer controls. The only components found to give excessive interfering color in the assay are relatively large amounts of detergents such as sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, and commercial glassware detergents. Interference by small amounts of detergent may be eliminated by the use of proper controls.
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The gonadal hormone, progesterone, has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in injured nervous system, including the severity of postinjury cerebral edema. Progesterone's attenuation of edema is accompanied by a sparing of neurons from secondary neuronal death and with improvements in cognitive outcome. In addition, we recently reported that postinjury blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, as measured by albumin immunostaining, was significantly lower in progesterone treated than in nontreated rats, supporting a possible protective action of progesterone on the BBB. Because lipid membrane peroxidation is a major contributor to BBB breakdown, we hypothesized that progesterone limits this free radical-induced damage. An antioxidant action, neuroprotective in itself, would also account for progesterone's effects on the BBB, edema, and cell survival after traumatic brain injury. To test progesterone's possible antiperoxidation effect, we compared brain levels of 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha (8-isoPGF2 alpha), a marker of lipid peroxidation, 24, 48, and 72 h after cortical contusion in male rats treated with either progesterone or the oil vehicle. The brains of progesterone treated rats contained approximately one-third of the 8-isoPGF2 alpha found in oil-treated rats. These data suggest progesterone has antioxidant effects and support its potential as a treatment for brain injury.
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1. The present study describes the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect weakly expressed neurotransmitter receptor mRNA in tissue micropunched from the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and other discrete areas of the medulla oblongata of the rat. 2. Micropunches were made from 240 fJim transverse medullary sections. Punched regions included the RVLM, hypoglossal nucleus (XIIn), ventrolateral subnucleus of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into cDNA, which was probed for the presence of seven genes: glyceralde-hyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT), glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MCR) and the adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunit P2X2-1. Each transcript was detected using a semi-nested PCR protocol, which used three primers. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase was detected in the RVLM and NTS and PNMT was also detected in the RVLM, which agrees with the distribution of catecholamine neurons in the medulla. Expression of GCR mRNA was detected in the RVLM and the XIIn but not in the NTS (it was not probed for in the STN punches). The P2X2-1 receptor message was detected in all areas. Expression of MCR mRNA was detected in the RVLM only. 4. This method offers a simple way to detect the presence of low-abundance receptor mRNA in discrete brain regions.
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In this study, we investigated whether in basal conditions the different functional states occurring during a 24-h cycle are reflected by the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, trkB, in rat cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Using semiquantitative RT-PCR assay, the levels of both BDNF and trkB mRNAs were found to undergo significant variation in a 24-h period. The strongest variation was detected in the hippocampus, where the ratio between maximum and minimum levels was about 3.5 and 17.5 for BDNF and trkB, respectively. These findings provide the first evidence that, in the absence of any experimental manipulation, the expression of a neurotrophin and its receptor undergoes diurnal oscillation, possibly related to the physiological variations of the activity level.
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Following a cortical injury, neurons in areas near and connected to the site of injury begin to degenerate. The observed neuronal death may contribute to the severity of the observed behavioral impairments. The purpose of the present study was to examine if progesterone, a hormone known for its effectiveness at reducing cerebral edema, could protect against secondary neuronal death and facilitate the acquisition of an avoidance learning task in an ablation model of cortical injury. Rats served as sham controls or received bilateral ablation of the medial prefrontal cortex followed by a 10-day regimen of progesterone (4 mg/kg) or oil vehicle (1 ml/kg) beginning 1 h after cortical lesions. Progesterone-treated lesion rats showed a significant facilitation of avoidance learning compared to oil-treated lesion controls. In addition, progesterone-treated lesion animals did not differ from either progesterone- or oil-treated sham controls in avoidance learning. Anatomical analysis revealed that progesterone treatment decreased the amount of neuronal death seen in the striatum and the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus. The findings are consistent with the notion that progesterone is an effective neuroprotective agent and suggest that the hormone can reduce the behavioral impairments associated with frontal cortical ablation injury.
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Immunocytochemical studies previously showed that serum deprivation resulted in the appearance of steroid 5alpha-reductase (5alpha-R) in the cytoplasm of rat C6 glioma cells. To determine whether this increase in cytoplasmic 5alpha-R was due to changes in 5alpha-R gene expression, the effect of serum deprivation on 5alpha-R mRNA expression was examined. No significant change in the mRNA levels was observed in cells grown in serum-free culture medium. Therefore, the appearance of 5alpha-R immunoreactivity in the cell cytoplasm observed under serum-free conditions is probably not due to changes in 5alpha-R gene expression.
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Trichostatin A (TSA), a specific histone deacetylase inhibitor, induces histone hyperacetylation and modulates the expression of some genes. We examined the effects of TSA on MG63 cells. TSA induced growth arrest and expression of the p21/WAF1/Cip1 protein. A close correlation between the level of histone acetylation and induction of the p21/WAF1/Cip1 protein was detected. Using several mutant p21/WAF1/Cip1 promoter fragments, mutation of either of two Sp1 sites at -82 or -69 of the p21/WAF1/Cip1 promoter reduced the responsiveness to TSA. This finding indicates that TSA activates the p21/WAF1/Cip1 promoter through the Sp1 sites in a p53-independent manner.
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We have established a new line of immortalized rat astrocytes through transfection of plasmid pSV3-neo encoding the large T antigen of simian virus 40 into normal astrocytes. One of these immortalized astrocytes (ACT-57) with a flat and polygonal cell shape, exhibited stable growth in a chemically defined medium (modified N-2 medium) as well as in medium containing ordinary serum. ACT-57, retained a detectable level of expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its mRNA, and exhibited a stronger expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA than that of normal rat astrocytes or C6 glioma cells. NGF mRNA was significantly up-regulated by phorbol ester (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, TPA) and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) but not by hydrocortisone. None of stimulants (TPA, dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP), hydrocortisone, L-glutamate, carbacol, GABA, dopamine, or isoproterenol) changed the expression level of either brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). There was a discrete difference between ACT-57 and normal astrocytes in the response to GABA and isoproterenol. These findings imply that normal cortical astrocytes possess a functional heterogeneity whereas the clonal astrocyte, ACT-57, does not, indicating that ACT-57 cells may be useful for in vitro studies of neuron-astrocyte interactions involving the induction of neurotrophic factors such as NGF.
Article
Trichostatin A (TSA), an antifungal antibiotic with cytostatic and differentiating properties in mammalian cell culture, is a potent and specific inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and HDAC inhibitory activity of TSA in vitro in human breast cancer cell lines and to assess its antitumor efficacy and toxicity in vivo in a carcinogen-induced rat mammary cancer model. TSA inhibited proliferation of eight breast carcinoma cell lines with mean +/- SD IC(50) of 124.4 +/- 120.4 nM (range, 26.4-308.1 nM). HDAC inhibitory activity of TSA was similar in all cell lines with mean +/- SD IC(50) of 2.4 +/- 0.5 nM (range, 1.5-2.9 nM), and TSA treatment resulted in pronounced histone H4 hyperacetylation. In randomized controlled efficacy studies using the N-methyl-N-nitrosourea carcinogen-induced rat mammary carcinoma model, TSA had pronounced antitumor activity in vivo when administered to 16 animals at a dose of 500 microg/kg by s.c. injection daily for 4 weeks compared with 14 control animals. Furthermore, TSA did not cause any measurable toxicity in doses of up to 5 mg/kg by s.c. injection. Forty-one tumors from 26 animals were examined by histology. Six tumors from 3 rats treated with TSA and 14 tumors from 9 control animals were adenocarcinomas. In contrast, 19 tumors from 12 TSA-treated rats had a benign phenotype, either fibroadenoma or tubular adenoma, suggesting that the antitumor activity of TSA may be attributable to induction of differentiation. Two control rats each had tumors with benign histology. The present studies confirm the potent dose-dependent antitumor activity of TSA against breast cancer in vitro and in vivo, strongly supporting HDAC as a molecular target for anticancer therapy in breast cancer.
Article
Previous work from our laboratory showed prevention of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced dopamine depletion in striatum of C57Bl/6 mice by 17beta-estradiol, progesterone, and raloxifene, whereas 17alpha-estradiol had no effect. The present study investigated the mechanism by which these compounds exert their neuroprotective activity. The hormonal effect on the dopamine transporter (DAT) was examined to probe the integrity of dopamine neurons and glutamate receptors in order to find a possible excitotoxic mechanism. Drugs were injected daily for 5 days before MPTP (four injections, 15 mg/kg ip at 2-h intervals) and drug treatment continued for 5 more days. MPTP induced a decrease of striatal DAT-specific binding (50% of control) and DAT mRNA in the substantia nigra (20% of control), suggesting that loss of neuronal nerve terminals was more extensive than cell bodies. This MPTP-induced decrease of striatal [(125)I]RTI-121 specific binding was prevented by 17beta-estradiol (2 microg/day), progesterone (2 microg/day), or raloxifene (5 mg/kg/day) but not by 17alpha-estradiol (2 microg/day) or raloxifene (1 mg/kg/day). No treatment completely reversed the decreased levels of DAT mRNA in the substantia nigra. Striatal [(125)I]RTI-121 specific binding was positively correlated with dopamine concentrations in intact, saline, or hormone-treated MPTP mice. Striatal NMDA-sensitive [(3)H]glutamate or [(3)H]AMPA specific binding remained unchanged in intact, saline, or hormone-treated MPTP mice, suggesting the unlikely implication of changes of glutamate receptors in an excitotoxic mechanism. These results show a stereospecific neuroprotection by 17beta-estradiol of MPTP neurotoxicity, which is also observed with progesterone or raloxifene treatment. The present paradigm modeled early DA nerve cell damage and was responsive to hormones.
Article
The histone deacetylase inhibitors are a new class of cytostatic agents that inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in culture and in vivo by inducing cell cycle arrest, differentiation and/or apoptosis. Histone acetylation and deacetylation play important roles in the modulation of chromatin topology and the regulation of gene transcription. Histone deacetylase inhibition induces the accumulation of hyperacetyl-ated nucleosome core histones in most regions of chromatin but affects the expression of only a small subset of genes, leading to transcriptional activation of some genes, but repression of an equal or larger number of other genes. Non-histone proteins such as transcription factors are also targets for acetylation with varying functional effects. Ace-tylation enhances the activity of some transcription factors such as the tumor suppressor p53 and the erythroid differentiation factor GATA-1 but may repress transcriptional activity of others including T cell factor and the co-activator ACTR. Recent studies in our laboratory and others have shown that the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) can be hyperacetylated in response to histone deacetylase inhibition, suppressing ligand sensitivity and regulating transcriptional activation by histone deacetylase inhibitors. Conservation of the acetylated ERalpha motif in other nuclear receptors suggests that acetylation may play an important regulatory role in diverse nuclear receptor signaling functions. A number of structurally diverse histone deacetylase inhibitors have shown potent antitumor efficacy with little toxicity in vivo in animal models. Several compounds are currently in early phase clinical development as potential treatments for solid and hematological cancers both as monotherapy and in combination with cytotoxics and differentiation agents. This report reviews the biology and clinical development of histone deacetylase inhibitors for cancer therapy.
Article
To better understand the molecular mechanisms of depression and antidepressant action, we administered chronic social defeat stress followed by chronic imipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant) to mice and studied adaptations at the levels of gene expression and chromatin remodeling of five brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) splice variant mRNAs (I-V) and their unique promoters in the hippocampus. Defeat stress induced lasting downregulation of Bdnf transcripts III and IV and robustly increased repressive histone methylation at their corresponding promoters. Chronic imipramine reversed this downregulation and increased histone acetylation at these promoters. This hyperacetylation by chronic imipramine was associated with a selective downregulation of histone deacetylase (Hdac) 5. Furthermore, viral-mediated HDAC5 overexpression in the hippocampus blocked imipramine's ability to reverse depression-like behavior. These experiments underscore an important role for histone remodeling in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and highlight the therapeutic potential for histone methylation and deacetylation inhibitors in depression.
Article
Influence of adrenergic and serotonergic stimulation on glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression in rat C6 glioma cells was first examined as an in vitro model experiment for investigating the neuronal regulation of glial cell differentiation. Stimulation of these cells with isoproterenol and serotonin elevated GFAP mRNA levels followed by an increase in its protein contents, thus suggesting that both adrenergic and serotonergic stimulation might induce the differentiation of the glioma cells. In addition, progesterone and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite dihydroprogesterone also elevated GFAP mRNA levels in rat C6 glioma cells, consistent with their stimulatory actions on GFAP gene expression observed in rat astrocytes. Further studies showed that the elevation of GFAP mRNA levels induced by isoproterenol and serotonin as well as progesterone was abolished by pretreatment of the glioma cells with finasteride, an inhibitor of 5alpha-reduced steroid production. Moreover, the stimulatory actions of isoproterenol and serotonin on GFAP gene expression were inhibited by pretreatment with a GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline and a progesterone receptor antagonist RU486. These findings suggest that both adrenergic and serotonergic stimulation may indirectly activate GFAP gene expression probably through the production of 5alpha-reduced steroid metabolites in rat C6 glioma cells, proposing the possibility that 5alpha-reduced neurosteroids may play a potential role in the neuronal regulation of glial cell differentiation.
Article
The higher prevalence and risk for Alzheimer's disease in women relative to men has been partially attributed to the precipitous decline in gonadal hormone levels that occurs in women following the menopause. Although considerable attention has been focused on the consequence of estrogen loss, and thus estrogen's neuroprotective potential, it is important to recognize that the menopause results in a precipitous decline in progesterone levels as well. In fact, progesterone is neuroprotective, although the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. Based on our previous observation that progesterone elicits the phosphorylation of ERK and Akt, key effectors of the neuroprotective mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3-K) pathways, respectively, we determined whether activation of either of these pathways was necessary for progesterone-induced protection. With organotypic explants (slice culture) of the cerebral cortex, we found that progesterone protected against glutamate-induced toxicity. Furthermore, these protective effects were inhibited by either the MEK1/2 inhibitor UO126 or the PI3-K inhibitor LY294002, supporting the requirement for both the MAPK and PI3-K pathways in progesterone-induced protection. In addition, at a concentration and duration of treatment consistent with our neuroprotection data, progesterone also increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), at the level of both protein and mRNA. This induction of BDNF may be relevant to the protective effects of progesterone, in that inhibition of Trk signaling, with K252a, inhibited the protective effects of progesterone. Collectively, these data suggest that progesterone is protective via multiple and potentially related mechanisms. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Progesterone facili-tates the acquisition of avoidance learning and protects against subcorti-cal neuronal death following prefrontal cortex ablation in the rat
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Trichostatin A is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with potent antitumor activity against breast cancer in vivo
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Sustained hippocampal chromatin regulation in a mouse model of depression and antidepressant action
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