Combined effects of repeated low doses of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin on the Chinese hamster
The aim of this work was to find out how repeated low doses of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and T-2 toxin would influen- ce the Chinese hamster and if the amplifying of these effects would occur with the application of both toxins together. The animals were treated with 10 ml/kg of 7% dimethylsulfoxid (DMSO) in the control group (C), 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1 in group A, 1.0 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in group T2, and 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1 + 1.0 mg/kg of T-2 toxin in group T2/A. All mycotoxins were dissolved in 10 ml/kg of 7% DMSO. These doses were administered intragastrically twice a week for a period of three weeks. General health condition, histological picture of some internal organs, some biochemical blood serum indicators of liver and kidney functions, and leucogram were monitored. No differences in prosperity or weight gains appeared during the course of the experiment. The histological examination did not show any changes in the investigated organs in any experimental group. On the contrary, differences were found in the biochemical blood serum profile. ALT and AST activities decreased significantly in T2/A group animals compared with the other medicated groups (T2 - 24.46 µkat/l; 45.18 µkat/l; A - 18.17; 41.84; T2/A - 4.74; 14.21). A similar decrease appeared in GMT activity as well, but it was significant only in comparison with the T2 group (T2 - 0.6 µkat/l; T2/A - 0.25). ALP activity was increased in the experimental groups compared with the control, significantly in the T2 group (C - 5.0 µkat/l; T2 - 6.92). LDH activity was lower in the T2 and T2/A groups, significantly when the T2/A group was compared with the A group (A - 94.05 µkat/l;; T2/A - 37.48). The cholesterol level was significantly increased in group A compared with the C and T2 groups. A smaller increase in the T2/A group was significant when compared with the T2 group as well (C - 3.05 mmol/l; T2 - 2.85; A - 3.59; T2/A - 3.27). Total and conjugated bilirubin concentrations decreased in group order A - C - T2 - T2/A, when differences among the A, T2 and T2/A groups were significant (T2 - 1.0 mmol/l; 0.36 mmol/l; A - 2.36; 0.85; T2/A - 0.69; 0.21). A glycemia decrease in medicated groups was significant in the T2/A group, while it approached a significant level in the T2 group (C - 10.46 mmol/l; T2 - 9.01; T2/A - 8.91). The main liver condition indicators seemed to be influenced by the T-2 toxin and AFB1 combination more than by individually applied toxins. We assume the amplification of the mycotoxin effects on proteosynthesis. The ALT activity especially was probably influenced more than in the additive manner. All the medicated groups showed a significant increase in the monocyte percent count (T2 - 9.8%; A - 9.62; T2/A - 8.85; C - 6.65). The differences observed in other leucocyte types were not significant. There were no differences in the effects of individual mycotoxins and their combination on the leucogram level.
- "The aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ), is carcinogenic; Ocratoxine A (OTA) and Fumonisins are genotoxic, immunotoxic and recently classified by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2B group of substances possible to human carcinogenic   . Esterigmatocistine (ST) is hepatotoxic; in general most of mycotoxins are immunosuppres- sive , indeed it is important to know their exposure since a chronic exposure to low levels can give diseases like cancers , additionally it is not well known about the possible interaction between multiple mycotoxins ; and on the other hand, fungus and mycotoxins would remain in environment (air, soil, water), due to their stability against degradation  (Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, DAS, Nivalenol, T-2, HT-2, Fusarenona X, Fumonisin B 1 , FB 2 , FB 3 ) and Alternaria alternate, Alternariol (AL) and Methyl ethyl alternariol (AM) . Various methods have been used to isolate and quantify the levels of mycotoxins, such as liquid chromatography with fluorescense detector (HPLC/ FLD), high performance liquid chromatography coupled to system triple-quadruple mass spectrometer (HPLC- MS/MS). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of the present study were (1) to monitor the pattern of excretion of aflatoxinM1 in urine after its conversion from aflatoxinB1 and (2) to observe the effects of different levels of aflatoxinB1 in feed on serum concentrations of key metabolites glucose, total protein, cholesterol and urea as indicators of metabolic status. Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers (n = 12) of similar age and weight were randomly distributed to four groups. Animals in Groups A, B and C were offered a contaminated cottonseed cake-based concentrate ration at 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of bodyweight, respectively. Control animals in Group D were fed with aflatoxinB1-free green fodder. Based on the level of contamination of the concentrate ration with aflatoxinB1 (554 mg/kg), Groups A, B and C consumed 953, 2022, 3202 mg of aflatoxinB1 daily. Feed samples were analysed at Romer Laboratories Pty Ltd, Singapore by high performance liquid chromatography. AflatoxinM1 quantification in urine samples was conducted using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with kits supplied by Helica Biosystems, Inc., USA. Serum samples were analysed for concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol and urea using clinical chemistry kits provided by Human diagnostics (HUMAN, Biochemica und Diagnostica mbH, Germany). Carry-over rate of aflatoxinM1 in urine for Groups A, B and C was 15.51%, 15.44% and 14.04% of aflatoxinB1 while there was no detectable aflatoxinM1 in the urine of the control group (D). There was no significant difference in the concentrations of serum glucose, total protein and cholesterol between treatment groups. However, the concentration of serum urea was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group offered the highest level of aflatoxinB1-contaminated concentrate. This result suggests that mycotoxicosis may compromise protein metabolism and accretion in affected animals. This leaves open the possibility that high concentrations of aflatoxins in milk may ultimately affect the health status of human milk consumers.0Comments 1Citation
- "The concentrate ration used in the present study contained 50, 166, 230, 31.2 and 18 mg/kg of aflatoxinB2, deoxynivalenol, fumonisinB1, ochratoxinA and zearalenone, respectively. Various studies (Pozzi et al. 2001; Rajmon et al. 2001; Gelderblom et al. 2002) have reported synergistic effects of AFB1 with other mycotoxins at cellular and hepatic levels in different animals: similar effects may have occurred in the present study also. Mean concentrations of glucose and cholesterol observed in this study were all higher than the concentrations reported by Hagawane et al. (2009). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and T-2 toxin (T-2) are important food-borne mycotoxins that have been implicated in human health and as potential biochemical weapons threats. In this study the acute and combinative toxicity of AFB1 and T-2 were tested in F-344 rats, mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), immortalized human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Preliminary experiments were conducted in order to assess the acute toxicity and to obtain LD50, LC50 and IC50 values for individual toxins in each model, respectively. This was followed by testing combinations of AFB1 and T-2 to obtain LD50, LC50 and IC50 values for the combination in each model. All models demonstrated a significant dose response in the observed parameters to treatment. The potency of the mixture was gauged through the determination of the interaction index metric. The results of this study demonstrate that these two toxins interacted to produce alterations in the toxic responses generally classifiable as additive; however, a synergistic interaction was noted in the case of BEAS-2B. It can be gathered that this combination may pose a significant threat to public health and further research needs to be completed addressing alterations in metabolism and detoxification that may influence the toxic manifestations in combination.0Comments 38Citations
- "However, the globalization of food markets affords the opportunity for co-exposure, and both toxins are known to have been potentially developed as biological weapons, hence justifying the study of combination effects from the public health, military and regulatory perspectives. Previous studies in male broiler chicks, male albino rats and Chinese hamsters have yielded results ranging from significant synergistic effects to less than additive effects on various endpoints (Huff et al., 1988; Tamimi et al., 1997; Rajmon et al., 2001). In this study this combination gave mixed results between models. "