Regulation of epithelial sodium channels by cGMP/PKGII

Departments of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708, USA.
The Journal of Physiology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 05/2009; 587(Pt 11):2663-76. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.170324
Source: PubMed


Airway and alveolar fluid clearance is mainly governed by vectorial salt movement via apically located rate-limiting Na(+) channels (ENaC) and basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases. ENaC is regulated by a spectrum of protein kinases, i.e. protein kinase A (PKA), C (PKC), and G (PKG). However, the molecular mechanisms for the regulation of ENaC by cGMP/PKG remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we studied the pharmacological responses of native epithelial Na(+) channels in human Clara cells and human alphabetagammadelta ENaCs expressed in oocytes to cGMP. 8-pCPT-cGMP increased amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current (I(sc)) across H441 monolayers and heterologously expressed alphabetagammadelta ENaC activity in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, 8-pCPT-cGMP (a PKGII activator) but not 8-Br-cGMP (a PKGI activator) increased amiloride-sensitive whole cell currents in H441 cells in the presence of CFTRinh-172 and diltiazem. In all cases, the cGMP-activated Na(+) channel activity was inhibited by Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP, a specific PKGII inhibitor. This was substantiated by the evidence that PKGII was the sole isoform expressed in H441 cells at the protein level. Importantly, intratracheal instillation of 8-pCPT-cGMP in BALB/c mice increased amiloride-sensitive alveolar fluid clearance by approximately 30%, consistent with the in vitro results. We therefore conclude that PKGII is an activator of lung epithelial Na(+) channels, which may expedite the resolution of oedematous fluid in alveolar sacs.

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Available from: Hong-Long Ji, Feb 17, 2014
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    • "PKG II has long been implicated in several physiological functions, including intestinal secretion, bone growth, learning and memory (15). However, certain new functions of this kinase have been reported, including the regulation of epithelial sodium channels and mechanotransduction of osteoblasts (16–18). A significant observation in studies with regard to PKG II is that this kinase has a role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of cells and is potentially associated with tumorigenesis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous study revealed that Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG II) inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced MAPK/ERK and MAPK/JNK-mediated signal transduction through the inhibition of the phosphorylation/activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR). As EGFR also mediates several other signal transduction pathways besides MAPK-mediated pathways, the present study was designed to investigate whether PKG II was able to inhibit EGF/EGFR-induced phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-mediated signal transduction. The AGS human gastric cancer cell line was infected with adenoviral constructs encoding a cDNA of PKG II (Ad-PKG II) to increase the expression of PKG II, and treated with 8-pCPT-cGMP to activate the enzyme. Western blotting was used to detect the phosphorylation/activation of the key components of the signal transduction pathway, including EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB. The levels of apoptosis-related proteins, including Bax, Bcl-2, caspase 9 and DNA fragment factor (DFF), were also determined by western blotting. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining was used to detect the apoptosis of the AGS cells. The results revealed that EGF treatment increased the phosphorylation (activation) of EGFR, PI3K, Akt and mTOR, and increased the nuclear localization (activation) of NF-κB. EGF treatment also reduced the apoptosis of the AGS cells and increased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2, but had no effect on the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and did not alter the levels of caspase 9 and DFF. Increasing the PKG II activity of AGS cells by infecting them with Ad-PKG II and stimulating them with 8-pCPT-cGMP inhibited the EGF-induced activation of EGFR, PI3K, Akt, mTOR and NF-κB; caused an increase in caspase 9 breakdown (activation) and DFF levels; and reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of EGF. The results suggest that PKG II may also inhibit EGF-induced signal transduction of PI3K/Akt-mediated pathways, and further confirm that PKG II is able to block the activation of EGFR.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Oncology letters
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    • "Thus, we observed no indication of kinase activation leading to the proposed increase in AQP4-mediated water permeability nor of kinase inhibition leading to reduction thereof. With the lack of both PKG-and PKA-induced increase in AQP4-dependent water permeability, we verified the kinase activity in the oocytes by expressing either the epithelial Na þ channel (ENaC) known to be activated by PKG (Nie et al., 2009) or the PKA-regulated voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1, with its ancillary subunit KCNE1 (Dilly et al., 2004; Grunnet et al., 2003). ENaC-expressing oocytes were voltage clamped and the I–V relation was determined (Fig. 2A, left trace). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the mammalian brain and is mainly expressed in the perivascular glial endfeet at the brain-blood interface. AQP4 has been described as an important entry and exit site for water during formation of brain edema and regulation of AQP4 is therefore of therapeutic interest. Phosphorylation of some aquaporins has been proposed to regulate their water permeability via gating of the channel itself. Protein kinase (PK)-dependent phosphorylation of Ser(111) has been reported to increase the water permeability of AQP4 expressed in an astrocytic cell line. This possibility was, however, questioned based on the crystal structure of the human AQP4. Our study aimed to resolve if Ser(111) was indeed a site involved in phosphorylation-mediated gating of AQP4. The water permeability of AQP4-expressing Xenopus oocytes was not altered by a range of activators and inhibitors of PKG and PKA. Mutation of Ser(111) to alanine or aspartate (to prevent or mimic phosphorylation) did not change the water permeability of AQP4. PKG activation had no effect on the water permeability of AQP4 in primary cultures of rat astrocytes. Molecular dynamics simulations of a phosphorylation of AQP4.Ser(111) recorded no phosphorylation-induced change in water permeability. A phospho-specific antibody, exclusively recognizing AQP4 when phosphorylated on Ser(111) , failed to detect phosphorylation in cell lysate of rat brain stimulated by conditions proposed to induce phosphorylation of this residue. Thus, our data indicate a lack of phosphorylation of Ser(111) and of phosphorylation-dependent gating of AQP4.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Glia
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    • "For a long time, in contrast to the well-proved anti-tumor effect of PKG I, no research data clearly indicated antitumor role of PKG II and this kinase was only implicated in several physiological functions including intestinal secretion, bone growth, and learning and memory [14]. However, research interest about PKG II is increasing and some new functions of PKG II have been found recently, including the role of PKG II in regulation of epithelial sodium channel and mechano-signal transduction [15]–[17]. More importantly, accumulating research data indicated that PKG II was related to proliferation and apoptosis in some cells, especially in tumor cells, strongly suggesting the potential role of this enzyme in regulating biological activities of tumor cells [1]–[6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Our previous research results showed that Type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG II) could block the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and consequently inhibit the proliferation and the related MAPK/ERK-mediated signal transduction of gastric cancer cell line BGC-823, suggesting that PKG II might inhibit other EGFR-triggered signal transduction pathways and related biological activities of gastric cancer cells. This paper was designed to investigate the potential inhibition of PKG II on EGF/EGFR-induced migration activity and the related signal transduction pathways. Methodology/Principal Findings In gastric cancer cell line AGS, expression and activity of PKG II were increased by infecting the cells with adenoviral construct encoding PKG II cDNA (Ad-PKG II) and treating the cells with cGMP analogue 8-pCPT-cGMP. Phosphorylation of proteins was detected by Western Blotting and active small G protein Ras and Rac1 was measured by “Pull-down” method. Cell migration activity was detected with trans-well equipment. Binding between PKG II and EGFR was detected with Co-IP. The results showed EGF stimulated migration of AGS cell and the effect was related to PLCγ1 and ERK-mediated signal transduction pathways. PKG II inhibited EGF-induced migration activity and blocked EGF-initiated signal transduction of PLCγ1 and MAPK/ERK-mediated pathways through preventing EGF-induced Tyr 992 and Tyr 1068 phosphorylation of EGFR. PKG II bound with EGFR and caused threonine phosphorylation of it. Conclusion/Significance Our results systemically confirms the inhibition of PKG II on EGF-induced migration and related signal transduction of PLCγ1 and MAPK/ERK-mediated pathways, indicating that PKG II has a fargoing inhibition on EGF/EGFR related signal transduction and biological activities of gastric cancer cells through phosphorylating EGFR and blocking the activation of it.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · PLoS ONE
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