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Using the Sixth Edition of the APA Manual: A Guide for Students 1

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Teachers, school counselors, and educational leaders should learn, or become familiar with, APA style because of their important role as consumers and authors of research. By consuming and sharing the results of research in a standardized format, educators are able to efficiently share best practices to a broad audience which in turn helps other educators meta-analyze results and use those findings to coordinate their efforts in improving student learning. The sixth edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) provides the means by which students and educators can communicate. This manual contains considerable information for the student or educator to process. Thus, this manuscript was created as a tool to support those who are learning the style by providing additional examples and also by providing access to a downloadable checklist to assist in meeting APA style requirements. This manuscript represents a supplement to the style manual that will help the reader further consider paper organization, ethical considerations, construction of tables and figures, typing instructions, citing within text, and referencing resources.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Running head: APA STYLE 6
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EDITION
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Using the Sixth Edition of the APA Manual: A Guide for Students
1
John H. Hummel, Mark A. Whatley, David M. Monetti, Deborah S. Briihl, and
Katharine S. Adams
Valdosta State University
Author Note
The authors of this manuscript are all faculty in the Department of Psychology and
Counseling at Valdosta State University.
A similar manuscript, based on the 5
th
edition of the manual, was originally
published in volume 9 (issue 1), pp. 18-21 of Eye on Psi Chi.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to John H. Hummel,
Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA, 31698-0100.
E-mail: jhummel@valdosta.edu
1
Hummel, J. H., Whatley, M. A., Monetti, D. M., Briihl, D. S., & Adams, K. S.
(2009, October). Using the 6th edition of the APA manual: A guide for
students. A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Georgia
Educational Research Association, Savannah.
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Abstract
Teachers, school counselors, and educational leaders should learn, or become familiar with, APA
style because of their important role as consumers and authors of research. By consuming and
sharing the results of research in a standardized format, educators are able to efficiently share
best practices to a broad audience which in turn helps other educators meta-analyze results and
use those findings to coordinate their efforts in improving student learning. The sixth edition of
the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010) provides the means
by which students and educators can communicate. This manual contains considerable
information for the student or educator to process. Thus, this manuscript was created as a tool to
support those who are learning the style by providing additional examples and also by providing
access to a downloadable checklist to assist in meeting APA style requirements. This manuscript
represents a supplement to the style manual that will help the reader further consider paper
organization, ethical considerations, construction of tables and figures, typing instructions, citing
within text, and referencing resources.
APA STYLE 6
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EDITION
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Using the Sixth Edition of the APA manual: A Guide for Students
One of the goals of a researcher is to communicate findings clearly and concisely. Good
writers take the viewpoint of the reader in order to determine or decide how best to clearly
present the information. Effortless reading of information invariably stems from authors putting
forth a lot of work to make it easy to read and understand. To facilitate the understanding of the
intended audience, good writers also give considerable attention to how the content in a
manuscript is organized. By engaging in these activities, good writers become adept at
organizing their thoughts and analyzing information. A fortunate consequence of this process is
that it helps develop critical thinking and writing skills related to the upper levels of the Bloom,
Englehart, Furst, Hill, and Krathwohl (1956) taxonomy of cognitive objectives.
To this end, we believe that the use of the American Psychological Association (APA)
style guide is important for teachers, school counselors, and educational leaders. In helping
practitioners use the style manual, providing an explanation for why there is a need for a system
that guides writing in education and the social sciences is essential. Without a coherent
argument for such a system, practitioners may view writing in APA style as a burdensome hurdle
to navigate instead of as a means to efficiently and clearly communicate within a discipline.
There are at least two plausible reasons why a universal format is helpful. First, papers
organized and executed in a common manner allow the reader to focus his or her time and effort
on understanding and reacting to the content of the writing, not the format. This helps the
readers of your work efficiently consume the written material by being able to anticipate the
information being presented next. For example, if one wanted to know the operational
definitions of the variables mentioned in the abstract or introduction, then one would only need
to turn to the procedure section of the article.
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Second, being familiar with the style guide will not only help a writer, but will also help a
consumer of journal text. By learning the setup and organization of the style, one will
understand the framework and blueprint that other researchers are using. This knowledge should
enable one to more quickly determine the research most relevant to a particular situation. When
systematically written, other researchers are able to properly replicate and, if appropriate, meta-
analyze previous work by knowing which specific sections contain the relevant information.
While we see these two reasons as important, we recognize that students are often
overwhelmed by the APA manual, and learning APA style for the first time seems like a very
daunting task. By summarizing the key aspects of the manual, the learning process for beginners
is simplified by focusing their attention to most relevant aspects of the manual. The purpose of
this paper is to help readers use the newest version of the manual, the sixth edition, in their own
research and writing. We believe this paper will help both writers and readers of research in
education and the social sciences.
This article provides an overview to the latest edition of the Publication Manual. The
fundamental requirements or guidelines are covered to provide a synopsis of APA style. We
extracted what we believe are the fundamental requirements for those required to use this
editorial style of report writing. The information provided in this article reinforces, rather than
replaces, the Publication Manual.
Paper Organization
APA style refers to editorial style rather than how one expresses an idea. Editorial style
involves how manuscripts or papers are formatted; it allows for consistency in presentation
across authors. As such, format of an APA style paper provides rules or guidelines for how
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scientific or academic reports are organized. The standards set forth in the Publication Manual
are widely used in other disciplines.
An APA style manuscript is organized into four main sections (i.e., introduction,
Method, Results, and Discussion). Each of the main sections is typed on continuous pages with
subsections specified in the Method section, which will be described later. The Publication
Manual recommends that one’s writing reflect an economy of expression and the consistent use
of verb tense. These two overall recommendations keep the reader focused and help facilitate
the flow of thought. Past and present perfect tense (e.g., participants had completed) are
suggested for the introduction and Procedure sections when discussing prior events. Past tense
alone and present tense, respectively, are recommended for the Results and Discussion sections.
Although not directly mentioned, the Participants, Apparatus, and Materials sections are
presented in past tense, active voice. There are exceptions to the use of past tense in these, and
other, sections in the Publication Manual. For example, when describing a published instrument
in the materials section, the use of the present tense is appropriate. The Abstract is written using
the same verb tense from the section(s) where the content is obtained.
The use of first person pronouns (I and we) is preferred over more ambiguous third
person pronouns (e.g., the researchers) when referencing the author(s) of the study. The use of
the second person (you) is not explicitly mentioned in the manual, though one should use good
judgment when deciding whether to use it. The manual is explicit in its recommendations to
avoid the use of colloquial expressions, jargon, and ambiguous pronouns. It also makes specific
recommendations on the use of comparisons and attributions (i.e., third person,
anthropomorphism, and the editorial we).
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The current edition of the manual represents somewhat of a departure from previous
editions’ reliance on rules that may have appeared rigid in nature. For example, the current
Publication Manual encourages authors to balance the rules with their own judgment. As
Captain Hector Barbossa so eloquently stated in Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the
Black Pearl, “. . . the code is more what you'd call ‘guidelines’ than actual rules” (Bruckheimer
& Verbinski, 2003). However, there are numerous formatting rules that must be used. All
manuscripts use a running head, 1 inch margins, left-justification, double-spacing throughout,
and two spaces after end punctuation in the body of the manuscript. We created a downloadable
set of instructions for formatting an APA style paper in Microsoft Word 2007. This may be
downloaded from the following URL:
http://mypages.valdosta.edu/mwhatley/3600/apaformat2007.pdf
The first page of an APA style paper is the title page. All APA style papers have a
running head, which consists of a brief title that serves as an article identifier for readers, and
pagination. The running head is located .5 inch down from the top of the page above the 1 inch
margin and is left-justified. The page numbers are typed flush with the right margin. The
remaining parts of the title page are center justified in the upper half of the page, and include the
title, author(s), and affiliation of each of the author(s). In 12 words or less, the title of the paper
should succinctly identify the nature of the investigation and variables/issues studied. In the title,
wording such as investigation of . . . or study of . . . is avoided because such wording
unnecessarily increases the length of the title and can pose problems for indexers. The name(s)
of the author(s) is presented below the title followed by each author’s institutional affiliation(s)
underneath.
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Under the institutional affiliation, an author note is likely to be included for manuscripts
being prepared for publication. The format of the author note is to type the words Author Note
and center them on the page. Although no specific rules exist for how far down from the
institutional affiliation the author note should begin, we suggest spacing down twice. The author
note consists of up to four paragraphs of information, but we suggest that department affiliation
and contact information, at a minimum, be provided. Each paragraph begins with a .5 inch tab
indent. The first paragraph provides information on the department affiliation of each author.
The second paragraph provides information on any changes in the affiliation of an author. The
third paragraph is where acknowledgments are provided for those who assisted in the
development and/or critiquing of the study in a meaningful manner. The last paragraph provides
contact information of the author who should be contacted for additional information.
The Abstract begins on the second page. It is typically a 150-250 word summary of the
manuscript providing an overview of the content. In essence, the abstract is a blocked, single
paragraph representing each of the four main sections of an APA style paper. Because the
abstract contains the first words the reader encounters, the author should take great care to write
in a clear and concise manner because not doing so could result in the reader choosing to avoid
the article altogether. The Publication Manual provides very detailed information on writing the
abstract in section 2.04 (pp. 25-27).
The introduction begins on the third page and is headed by the title of the manuscript
exactly as it appears on the title page (centered using upper and lower case letters). The heading
Introduction is never used. The purpose of the introduction is to provide the rationale for why
the study is being conducted and to address the particular theory or theories being used as a basis
for the study. A well-written introduction can be developed along any number of guidelines or
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strategies. For example, it may present relevant ideas from the general to the specific in a logical
progression or by reviewing increasingly relevant studies as the problem under investigation is
examined. The introduction concludes with a purpose and hypothesis paragraph where the
research purpose and hypotheses and/or predictions are stated. The Publication Manual provides
a set of general guidelines to consider when composing the introduction in section 2.05 (pp. 27-
28).
Method
The next portion of the report is designated by the Level 1 heading Method as illustrated
above. The method section is comprised, minimally, of two subsections: Participants and
Procedure but may have additional subsections as warranted (e.g., Research Design,
Apparatus, Materials). They are designated as Level 2 headings that use upper and lower case
bolded letters, and begin flush with the left margin. If the design, complexity, number, or
sequence of conditions is complicated a Research Design or Summary of Design section may
be used. The Publication Manual provides a set of general guidelines to consider when
composing the method in section 2.06 (pp. 29-32).
The Participants section details the characteristics of the sample, how it was selected,
and the determination of sample size (i.e., power analysis). Authors should use participants
when referring to humans and subjects for animals. One should include the number of male and
female participants, the type of sample (i.e., haphazard, convenience, random, etc.), age range
including descriptive statistics, and the diversity of the sample (i.e., American Indians, Asians,
etc.). If applicable, the method used to assign participants to conditions and number of
participants in each condition can be presented in this section or in the results section dependent
upon author preference. Some authors also include a statement indicating compliance with
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ethical standards at the end of this section (see section 8.04, pp 231-236 of the manual). The
Ethical Considerations section of this manuscript provides additional information about this
topic.
The Apparatus (i.e., equipment) or Materials (i.e., measures and/or covariates used)
section(s) provide descriptive content of the measuring instruments used so that such
descriptions do not interrupt the flow of the procedure section. For apparatus, the description
should identify model number(s) and supplier information. In the case of complex or custom-
made equipment, a drawing or illustration of such equipment can be included in a figure or
appendix. Typical laboratory equipment can be mentioned without going into a detailed
description. For materials, the description should include the trait(s) the instrument was
designed to measure, sample items, response options, items that are reverse scored, the meaning
of a lower or higher score, special instructions, and psychometric information (i.e., past
reliability and validity, if available, and the reliability of the measure in the present sample).
The Procedure section is perhaps the most straightforward part of an APA style paper.
In this section, an exact description detailing how the experiment was conducted is provided. It
specifies what was done in all conditions/phases of the study (e.g., instructions, method of
manipulation, debriefing, etc.). Additionally, the procedure section is typically written in past
tense from the point of view of the participant. The information contained within the procedure
section should provide enough detail so that the procedures could be replicated by the reader.
Results
After the Method section, the Results section begins with a level 1 heading. In this
section, one reports the finding(s) in an unbiased manner. All findings are explicitly stated
without interpretation; as Officer Joe Friday stated in multiple episodes of Dragnet, “All we
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want are the facts” (Hayde, 2001, pp. 72-73). As previously stated in the participants section, the
author(s) may prefer to include the method used to assign participants to conditions and the
number of participants in each condition in this section. If an author prefers to do so, then we
recommend including such information in the first paragraph of this section. We also
recommend specifying which effect size will be reported.
The results are organized with level 2 headings to help the reader navigate the
information provided. When reporting each set of findings, present the analysis conducted, the
measure or dependent variable used, and whether the finding was significant supported by an
appropriate statement (e.g., F-statement). When the results are significant, describe those results
using group means and standard deviations when appropriate. Results that fail to reach
traditional level of significance are usually not discussed, at least not without a more in-depth
critical analysis and/or argument of the role of statistical power.
The findings are often presented in order from most important or relevant to those that
are of lesser importance. If a manipulation check was conducted, as is the case in many
experimental studies, then the results of that analysis should come first as such information
assists in establishing internal validity. When deciding to use tables and/or figures in the results
section, one should organize such information so that it complements the information in the text
rather than duplicates it.
When writing the results section, one should assume the reader has a working knowledge
of statistics. One reports the type of statistic, degrees of freedom, value obtained in the
comparison (magnitude), the exact probability level, and the effect size (e.g., r, d, omega-
squared, etc.). For example, a t test analyzing two groups with 128 degrees of freedom would be
reported as: t(128) = 14.64, p = .002 (r = .79). Because the finding is significant, one would
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describe what was found, for example “Participants reading about an attractive witness rated that
witness as more believable (M = 6.28, SD = 1.45) than participants reading about an unattractive
witness (M = 2.02, SD = 1.37).” Notice that all statistical copy is italicized and numerical values
are rounded to hundredths. In cases where a particular value cannot exceed 1.0 (e.g., Pearson r),
one does not place a zero (i.e., 0) before the decimal point. When reporting a value that can
exceed 1.0 (e.g., F value) but the value is less than 1.0, one places a zero before the decimal
point (e.g., 0.54). When the probability value is .000 or less, one uses “p < .001” instead of
listing smaller values.
The use of tables and/or figures to communicate findings is common. There is a delicate
balance that drives the decision to present information graphically, as well as how many graphics
to include. Too many graphics, at the expense of sparse text, and the reader may be unable to
maintain and comprehend the overall point(s). A basic guideline is to include graphics when
doing so aids the presentation and understanding of the results section. The Publication Manual
presents almost 40 pages of information and details concerning the creation of tables and figures
in an electronic format. As such, addressing the various nuances is beyond the scope of this
paper. However, representing graphical information in the form of tables and figures is a skill
that must be developed to convey data succinctly. While tables and figures are referenced in the
results section, they are presented on separate pages after the references, respectively.
Tables. Tables are used primarily to report quantitative data. The table number, using an
Arabic numeral, appears at the top of the page and is left justified, as is the italicized caption or
title of the table that appears below it. It is explicitly labeled so that the table is easily interpreted
without needing to refer to the text in the results section. Within the text, the table must be
referenced, for example “The means and standard deviations are presented in Table 1.” Below
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each table, table notes may be presented that cover general (e.g., explains abbreviations), specific
(i.e., references a particular table cell with superscript lowercase letters), and/or probability notes
(i.e., defines probability levels with asterisks or other symbols). The Publication Manual
provides numerous layout examples of tables. Table 1 contains a hypothetical sample layout of a
table. As seen in Table 1, the exact probabilities for multiple comparisons are not listed. In
cases where reporting exact probabilities might lead to an unmanageable graphic, return to using
the “p < ” style that was the standard in the fifth edition of the Publication Manual. Also, note
that only the first letter of the first word of a label is capitalized.
Figures. Figures are most often used to illustrate a general pattern of results minus the
quantitative elements found in a table. However, any graphic that is not a table is considered a
figure. Because of the advances in technology, researchers have many options regarding figure
creation. The approach selected to create a figure varies dependent upon the content of the
graphic. Line and bar graphs, though, are more frequently used than others. When creating a
line graph, the independent variable is always plotted on the horizontal axis (x) and the
dependent variable on the vertical axis (y). The measurement scale of the dependent variable is
presented in equal intervals along the y axis as well. To avoid distorting the findings pictorially,
a general guideline is to make the y axis two-thirds the length of the x axis. A notable exception
is a 2 x 2 comparison where displayed results are not distorted by a symmetrical presentation.
For example, Figure 1 illustrates an interaction from a hypothetical 2 x 2 analysis of variance.
The caption is presented below the figure and in the same font as the figure labels (i.e., Arial,
Futura, Helvetica, or other sans-serif font). The label of the independent variable along the
horizontal axis is presented in boldface type using upper and lower case letters as is the
dependent variable label along the vertical axis. The levels of the independent variable along the
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horizontal axis, within the figure itself, and the values along the vertical axis are presented in
regular typeface in upper and lower case letters. The caption begins with the italicized identifier
Figure 1.” followed by a descriptive phrase that serves as the title of the figure. One presents
additional clarifying information after the descriptive phrase, because, as with a table, the figure
should be self-explanatory. A general rule is to use line graphs when illustrating continuous
categories of data and bar graphs to represent discrete categories or data.
As previously stated, the results section contains “just the facts” and any interpretation of
the data is limited to a description of the findings. One may find a description of the results
containing a statement illustrating support of the hypothesis, for example, “Contrary to the
hypothesis regarding attractiveness, an attractive witness was not found more believable than an
unattractive witness.” An inappropriate statement would be: “The results are inconsistent with
Camaro (2010).” The previous statement is an interpretation of the data, which more
appropriately belongs in the discussion section.
Discussion
The Discussion (level 1 heading) begins with an interpretation of the findings as they
relate to the hypothesis(es). In essence, the purpose of this section is to inform the reader what
has been learned in a clear and concise manner. This section may include methodological
limitations, alternative explanations of the findings, theoretical implications, application(s) for
applied settings, and future research suggestions. Some suggest that this section is perhaps the
most difficult part of the paper to write.
Each hypothesis is discussed in a single paragraph to avoid confusing the reader. Often,
the discussion section is opened with an account of how well the data supported the hypothesis.
Then, the results are re-stated describing the pattern of findings for the majority of participants.
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Next, the findings are compared to the relevant literature reviewed in the introduction in terms of
the findings supporting or failing to support past research. There likely will be studies which the
present results support or fail to support; the author(s) job is simply to state which studies are
supported and refuted by the current findings, and perhaps why.
For each investigation, a theoretical framework is typically used to examine the
phenomena under study. As such, the theoretical importance or relevance of the findings must
be discussed. For example, how do the results support and/or refute the theory? The
implications of these findings are often developed in one or more paragraphs. The author(s)
should be reasonable and justified when discussing how the findings impact theoretical or
applied problems.
No single study is perfect. There are always aspects of a study that, in retrospect, we
would change if we could. A discussion of known or plausible or possible concerns of the study
should be addressed. A common concern involves the generalizability of the findings due to the
sample of participants used in the study that may pose problems for replication with other
populations. Research is often criticized on the use of a relatively narrow and/or biased
participant sample (e.g., college students), but such a criticism does not mean that the research is
flawed. In fact, such criticism must present a strong argument why such findings would not be
present in other populations. One benefit to more and varied individuals attending colleges and
universities is that generalizability becomes less of a criticism.
The concluding paragraph of the discussion should be broad and have a closing
statement. This statement should end the discussion on a high note or in a powerful way. The
recommended practice is to focus on the most important findings related to the problem
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statement or hypotheses, limit speculation, and avoid rationalization of statistical results that
were not significant.
The remainder of this paper is divided into the following sections: (a) ethics associated
with research, (b) typing instructions, (c) citations used in the paper, and (d) reference page
construction. Instructions consist of a list of do's and don'ts with examples and referrals to the
Publication Manual where appropriate. A downloadable checklist is available to assist in
meeting APA Style requirements (http://mypages.valdosta.edu/mwhatley/3600/apachck.pdf); an
interactive tutorial on the 6
th
edition of APA style is also available
(http://teach.valdosta.edu/mawhatley/APAStyleInteractiveTutorial.pptx).
Ethical Considerations
With acknowledgement of possible ethical conflicts related to research and scholarship,
the sixth edition of the Publication Manual includes guidelines for protecting the rights and
welfare of research participants, disclosing conflicts of interests, and protecting intellectual
property rights (APA, 2010). This version contains more detail on ethics and copyrights than
previous editions (See sections 1.11-1.16, pp. 16-20, and section 8.04, pp. 231-236).
Participants’ Rights and Welfare
Authors should clearly document their adherence to ethical standards when describing
their participants for data-based manuscripts. For example, clear documentation of ethical
adherence may include: (a) procedures used for obtaining a representative sample, (b) safeguards
used to avoid excessive or coercive incentives to recruit participants, (c) procedures for obtaining
informed consent, (d) efforts made to protect vulnerable or subordinate participants, (e)
justification and/or limitation of the use of deception, and (f) opportunities for debriefing.
Additionally, researchers are expected to maintain confidentiality and avoid exploitation of
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participants. This may prove particularly challenging when presenting case studies within a
manuscript. When using case studies, authors may choose to allow participants to review the
paper and then obtain written consent for publication before submission or change various
aspects of the case slightly to preclude identification of participants. As previously stated,
authors are required to certify in writing that they have followed all ethical standards in
conducting their research when submitting a research study for publication. For more
information on ethical standards, see the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of
Conduct available at www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html
Conflicts of Interest
Conflicts of interest resulting in real or perceived bias may negatively influence research
and scholarship by compromising scientific objectivity. To document research integrity, authors
submitting a manuscript for publication are asked to certify in writing any conflicts of interests
or affiliations with products or services referenced in the manuscript. As an additional
safeguard, authors may choose to disclose any relationship or affiliation that may be perceived as
a conflict of interest in the author note of the manuscript.
Intellectual Property Rights
Authorship credit (i.e., order of authorship) is based upon the individual’s unique
contribution to the publication. Usually, the ordering reflects the contribution of each author
from greatest to least. Minor contributions may be acknowledged and credited in a footnote or
introductory statement of the manuscript. Before a paper is submitted for publication, all authors
must be in agreement with the order of authorship credit as well as the content of the paper.
Typing Instructions
1. Find additional typing instructions in chapter 4, pp. 87-124, of the manual.
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2. Use a serif typeface with 12-point type. The preferred typeface of the Publication Manual is
Times New Roman.
3. Use 1 inch margins for the entire paper.
4. Left-justify all content.
5. End each line of text with a complete word; no hyphens. Double-space after end punctuation
(except in references); single-space after all other punctuation.
6. Double-space all lines including references.
7. Number all pages starting with the title page. Page numbers are flush with the right margin
and located in the upper-right corner of each page’s running head 1 inch in from the right margin
and .5 inch from the top of the page.
8. Include a title page containing the title of the paper (no longer than 12 words), name(s) of the
author(s), and their affiliation(s) (centered left-to-right in the top 1/2 of the page, with each
component on a separate line). All papers must have a running head that is on the same line as
the pagination. Type the phrase “Running head:” flush with the left margin followed by a
descriptive mini-title in all capitalized letters of the paper’s content that is 50 characters or less
including spaces and punctuation. On subsequent pages, the phrase “Running head:” is omitted.
Example of a Title Page
Running head: SELF-MODIFICATION PROJECT 1
Decreasing Nail Biting
Ima A. Student
PSYC 3110A
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8. Term papers and data-based reports have an abstract unless otherwise indicated by the
professor, but article summaries and critiques usually do not have either an abstract or running
head. The abstract, a single paragraph with no indentation summarizing the content of the paper,
is always on page 2 of the paper by itself. Center the word Abstract at the top of the page.
Abstracts range in length between 150-250 words.
9. Indent new paragraphs using the word processor’s default tab setting (i.e., .5 inch) for all
indentations except for long quotes (more than 39 words).
10. Most papers will require headings when changing from one topic to another. Headings
should be as brief as possible. The full title of the manuscript is used as a Level 1 heading, in
plain text rather than bold, at the top of page 3 of all manuscripts; the title functions as the
heading to the introduction/review of literature. There are five levels of headings used in APA-
style manuscripts. Many papers use only one or two levels of headings; most manuscripts
require no more than three levels of headings unless multiple studies are reported. If only one
heading level is needed, it should be Level 1. Level 1 headings consist of centered words that
are capitalized (except for articles, prepositions, and conjunctions) and in bold. Papers needing
two levels of headings should use Levels 1 and 2; those requiring three levels should use 1, 2,
and 3. Level 2 headings are left-justified, with each word capitalized, in bold print. Text
following level 1 and 2 headings begins on the next line. Level 3 headings are indented and
bolded. Only the initial letter of the first word is capitalized and the heading ends with a period.
Text following a level 3 heading begins on the same line as the heading. All headings should be
brief (i.e., 2 or 3 words) and describe the section being introduced. Examples of levels 1, 2, and
3 are presented below.
Level One
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Level Two
Level three. Refer to pp. 62-63 (sections 3.02-3.03) of the Publication Manual for
additional information on headings, including levels 4 and 5.
11. Words and phrases are typically not emphasized through the use of bold print, underlining,
single/double quote marks, or all uppercase characters. Instead, writers must construct sentences
so that emphasis is understood. The exceptions to this rule are described and illustrated in
Section 4.21 (pp. 104-106) of the manual.
Citations
1. Quotations must have a citation that includes the surname(s) of the author(s), the publication
date, and the page(s) where the quotation is located. Follow the 5-word rule: If five or more
words from the source are used and are in the same order, then the rules for quoting need to be
followed. All paraphrased works must also be cited within the body of the paper unless a single
article is being reviewed. Always paraphrase accurately. Citations for paraphrased works
require the surnames of the authors and the date (one is strongly encouraged to also cite the
page(s) where the paraphrased content is located). Cite as early in a paragraph as possible. Once
a source is cited, the reader understands that everything from that point forward is from either
that source or the author, until another source is cited. Cite the appropriate source as you move
from information in one source to information from another source, then back to the original. If
citing a source in a paragraph parenthetically [i.e., name, date], later citations to that source in
the same paragraph require the date of the source. If citing the author(s) in text with the date
given parenthetically, later citations to that source (in the same paragraph) do not require the date
parenthetically.
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When a work has multiple authors, link the last author's name with the others using an
ampersand (&) if the citation is in parenthesis; otherwise the word and is used (see examples
below).
2. Use only the sources that you have actually read. If there is no alternative to the use of a
secondary source, the guideline presented in section 6.17 (p. 178) must be followed. The first
time a work is cited, all authors (if five or less) are cited in order, by their surnames. Sources
with only one or two authors require that their surnames be reported each time the work is cited.
Works with three to five authors, require that all of their surnames are given in the first citation.
Later citations to that source will give the first author's last name followed by the expression et
al., date, and specific page number(s). If the work has more than five authors, all citations to that
source consist of the primary author's surname followed by et al. When a point is made by
multiple sources, alphabetize them using the primary authors' surnames in the parenthetical
citation, and separate each source with semicolons.
Example of a Long Quote with Multiple Sources
Richard Whelan (1998) indicated that “the profession [teachers of students with
disabilities] has not adopted the principles of effective teaching” (p. 53). Gunter and
Denny (1998) suggested that Whelan’s position seems to be supported by the limited
research available; they concluded that the procedures recommended in the steps of
effective instruction are not demonstrated by teachers of students with behavior disorders.
This conclusion is based on a series of investigation conducted in classrooms for students
with emotional and behavioral disorders (e.g., Gunter, Jack, Shores, Carrell, & Flowers,
1993; Shores et al., 1993). In these studies, a sequential analysis technique was used to
APA STYLE 6
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determine interaction patterns between students and their teachers. (Gunter, Hummel, &
Venn, 1998, p. 6)
3. Obtain permission to quote when necessary. APA-copyrighted works require written
permission before using 500 or more words from a single source. Quotations from a single
source should be limited to fewer than 500 words.
4. A complete quotation of 39 or fewer words should be incorporated within the paper's text,
begun and ended with double quotation marks (i.e., " "), and must be followed by a parenthetical
reference citing the author(s), date of publication, and the page(s) where the quotation is printed.
Example A: Embedded Text Reference for Paraphrasing
Although many behavioral scientists feel that punishment should never be used, Deitz
and Hummel (l978) describe two situations where it may be ethical to use the procedure.
Example B: Embedded Text Reference for Paraphrasing
There are two situations where punishment procedures may be warranted: When all
other deceleration methods have failed or when the behavior is a clear and present danger to self
or others (Deitz & Hummel, l978, p. 81).
Example C: Embedded Text Reference for Direct Quotations
Using punishment instead of other procedures to decelerate behavior is problematic.
"Punishment should be reserved for only very serious misbehaviors and should be used only
when other alternatives have been exhausted" (Deitz & Hummel, l978, p. 81).
Example D: Embedded Text Reference for Direct Quotations
Using punishment to decelerate behavior is problematic. According to Deitz and
Hummel (l978), "Punishment should be reserved for only very serious misbehaviors and should
be used only when other alternatives have been exhausted" (p. 8l).
APA STYLE 6
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Long quotes, more than 39 words, must be presented as an indented block. The easiest
way to do this is to use the tab key, though one could also reset the hanging indent (i.e., the lower
triangle on the ruler bar) value to .5 inch. Long quotes are presented without quotation marks
and end with the original punctuation, followed by a parenthetical reference that cites the page(s)
where the quoted materials are located in the original work (the parenthetical citation is not
followed by punctuation).
Example E: Direct Quotation Longer Than 39 Words
In schools, punishment is one of the most widely used procedures to decrease behavior
because teachers are not familiar with other deceleration procedures, and because it works
quickly and effectively.
The decision to use punishment should be made carefully. Special consideration should
be given to whether or not the procedure can be implemented properly. If implemented
correctly, punishment will reduce a misbehavior faster and more efficiently than any
other reductive technique. However, in many cases, once the procedure is stopped, there
is a high probability that the misbehavior will return to its original level unless the child
has been taught alternate, desirable behavior that can be done instead of the misbehavior.
(Deitz & Hummel, l978, p. 96)
Example F: Direct Quotation Longer Than 39 Words
Punishment is one of the most widely used procedures to decrease behavior in school
settings because teachers are not familiar with other deceleration procedures, and because it
works quickly and effectively. Still, Deitz and Hummel (l978) do not advocate reliance on
punishment:
APA STYLE 6
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The decision to use punishment should be made carefully. Special consideration should
be given to whether or not the procedure can be implemented properly. If implemented
correctly, punishment will reduce a misbehavior faster and more efficiently than any
other reductive technique. However, in many cases, once the procedure is stopped, there
is a high probability that the misbehavior will return to its original level unless the child
has been taught alternate, desirable behavior that can be done instead of the misbehavior.
(p. 96)
5. Quotations that cite or quote another copyrighted work should be avoided. However, if
quoting content that cites another source is necessary, then be sure to include the other source(s)
in the verbatim quotation. The other source(s) cited does not have to be referenced if this is the
only place in the paper where it occurs (See Section 6.17, p. 178 of the Publication Manual).
6. The use of spaced ellipsis points (. . .) is not recommended for use in text because such
quotations can be misinterpreted when not in the proper context. These are used when one omits
part of an original source (i.e., when not quoting an entire sentence). Three spaced ellipsis points
(illustrated above) are used to indicate omitted words from the original source and four spaced
ellipsis points (. . . .) are used to indicate omitted information between two or more sentences.
7. Footnotes are usually not needed in most manuscripts. If necessary, their appropriate use is
specified on pp. 37-38, Section 2.12, of the Publication Manual.
8. At times, one may wish to use an idea that does not come from a published source (e.g., ideas
from talks, conversations, etc.). To cite such sources, one constructs a personal communication
citation. Personal communications are excluded from the reference section, because they are not
retrievable data. In personal communications, paraphrase or quote the content then give a
parenthetical citation that gives the person’s initials and surname, the phrase “personal
APA STYLE 6
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communication” along with the month, day, and year of the communication. For example, one
of our colleagues, after reading this manuscript told us that this paper should benefit students
because, “As college students develop problem-solving and analytical skills, technical writing
becomes a primary means of expressing those behaviors using an agreed upon technical
standard” (R. E. L. Bauer, personal communication, September 2, 2009).
Constructing References
1. The list of references is always started on a new page.
2. The word “References” should be centered at the top of the page in regular typeface.
3. References are presented in alphabetical order using the primary author’s surname of each
source only for sources directly cited in the manuscript.
4. Use only a single space after all punctuation in a reference section.
5. The first line of each reference is flush with the left margin. All other lines in a single
reference are indented. Again, use the tab key or move the hanging indent (i.e., the lower
triangle on the ruler bar) value to .5 (i.e., the longer tick-mark halfway to the #1).
6. The general format for a book reference includes the following components. First, all authors
are listed (in the order in which the names appeared on the original manuscript) by their surname
followed by the initials of their first and middle name (if known). The date of publication is
presented in parentheses after the listing of authors, and is followed by a period. The italicized
title follows the publication date, and only the first word of the title is capitalized with two
exceptions: Proper nouns are capitalized and when the complete title of the book has a colon, the
first letter of the word following the colon is capitalized if it is an independent clause. If the
book is a second or later edition, after the title, in parentheses without italicizing, the edition is
indicated using the following type of abbreviations: (2nd ed.). The last component of a book
APA STYLE 6
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reference is publication information including the city and state abbreviation, where the book
was published, and the name of the publisher (separate the publisher from the state abbreviation
with a colon). If the name and location of the city are well-known, the state’s abbreviation can
be omitted. Information about the publisher should be as brief as possible (e.g., do not use Co.,
Inc.). Section 7.02 (pp. 202-205) illustrates the variations of book references (e.g., second and
later editions, edited books, corporate authors).
Example of a Book Reference
Tuckman, B. W., & Monetti, D. M. (2010). Educational psychology. Boston, MA:
Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
7. Journal references include many of the same components used in book references, and begin
with a listing of the surnames and initials for all authors (if the source has 7 authors, list all their
surnames and initials; if there are more than 7 authors, cite the names and initials of the first six
followed by 3 ellipsis points and the last author’s surname and initials.), separating each author
with commas. An ampersand (&) is used instead of the word and before the surname of the last
author (if 7 or fewer). The date of publication, in parentheses, comes after the authors' names,
and is followed by a period. Only the first word in the article's title is capitalized (again, proper
nouns such as a person's name or use of a colon in the title require additional capitalization). The
article title is followed by period. The next part of the journal reference is the name of the
journal, italicized, with each word capitalized except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions
(e.g., a, of, and), followed by a comma, and the numeric volume number, also italicized. When
needed, issue numbers, in parentheses, follow the volume number with no space and typed in
regular typeface. Issue numbers are only used when each issue of the journal begins with page 1.
A comma separates the journal's volume and the inclusive range of pages of the article. If an
APA STYLE 6
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issue number is included, it is presented directly next to the volume number in parentheses with
no spaces [e.g., 22(5)]. Pages 198-202 of Section 7.01 in the Manual illustrate different types of
references for periodicals.
Example of a Journal Reference
Monetti, D. M., Hummel, J. H., & Huitt, W. G. (2006). Educational psychology principles that
contribute to effective teaching and learning. International Journal of Arts and Sciences,
1, 22-25.
Today, many articles from periodicals are downloaded from the Internet. In such cases,
one follows the inclusive range of pages with a sentence that begins “Retrieved from” followed
by a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) address (example A below), or one provides, instead of a
URL, a digital object identifier (DOI) (see example B below).
Example A of a Downloaded Article
Reffel, J. A., Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2004). The impact of interactive computer-based
cases on motivation and achievement. Georgia Educational Research Journal, 1, 1-12.
Retrieved from http://coefaculty.valdosta.edu/lschmert/gera/current_issue.htm
Example B of a Downloaded Article
Briihl, D. S., & Wasieleski, D. T. (2004). A survey of master's-level psychology programs:
Admissions criteria and program policies. Teaching of Psychology, 31, 252-256.
doi: 10.1207/s15328023top3104_5
7. The general format for a conference paper requires that the authors be listed the same way
they are listed in book and journal references. After the authors' names, the year and month of
presentation, separated by a comma, is given in parentheses followed by a period. After the
presentation date, the italicized title of the paper is presented; only the first word of the title
APA STYLE 6
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capitalized (exceptions include proper names and the word following a colon). The title is
followed by a period. The last part of a convention paper reference is a short statement naming
the group to whom the paper was presented and the city and state (abbreviated) in which the
meeting was held. Pages 259-260 of Section 4.16 illustrate 5 types of references for papers,
symposia, and posters.
Example of a Reference to a Paper
Reffel, J., Monetti, D., & Hummel, J. H. (2000, June). Interactive cases enhance classroom
management skills in educational psychology students. A paper presented at the annual
meeting of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.
8. The primary function of all references is to efficiently allow a reader to access the source. Not
all electronic sources provide all of the desirable components associated with a complete
reference. The general format for referencing electronic media is: (a) author surnames and
initials separated by commas in the order in which they appear on the paper, with the last
author’s surname connected to the others with an ampersand (&); (b) the date, in parentheses, of
publication or copyright (if available) followed by a period; (c) the full title, italicized, ending
with a period, and (d) either a retrieved from statement with a URL, or the manuscript’s DOI that
permits a reader to directly access the document. Do not end the reference with a period.
Example of Electronic Media Reference
Huitt, W. G., Hummel, J. H., & Kaeck, D. (1999, January). Internal and external validity:
General issues. Retrieved from http://www.valdosta.edu/~jhummel/psy310/!tchrass.htm
APA STYLE 6
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References
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H., & Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy
of educational objectives, Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay.
Briihl, D. S., & Wasieleski, D. T. (2004). A survey of master's-level psychology programs:
Admissions criteria and program policies. Teaching of Psychology, 31, 252-256.
doi: 10.1207/s15328023top3104_5
Bruckheimer, J. (Producer), & Verbinski, G. (Director). (2003). Pirates of the Caribbean: The
curse of the black pearl [Motion Picture]. United States of America: Walt Disney
Pictures.
Deitz, S. M., & Hummel, J. H. (l978). Discipline in the schools: A guide to reducing
misbehavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Gunter, P. L., & Denny, R. K. (1998). Trends, issues, and research needs regarding academic
instruction of students with emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders,
24, 44-50.
Gunter, P. L., Hummel, J. H., & Venn, M. L. (1998). Are effective academic instructional
practices used to teach students with behavior disorders? [Special issue]. Beyond
Behavior, 9(3), pp. 6-11.
Gunter, P. L., Jack, S. L., Shores, R. E., Carrell, D., & Flowers, J. (1993). Lag sequential
analysis as a tool for functional analysis of student disruptive behavior in classrooms.
Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 1, 138-148.
Hayde, M. J. (2001). My name’s Friday. Nashville, TN: Cumberland House.
APA STYLE 6
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Huitt, W. G., Hummel, J. H., & Kaeck, D. (1999, January). Internal and external validity:
General issues. Retrieved from http://www.valdosta.edu/~jhummel/psy310/!tchrass.htm
Mason, A. (1993). Racial and gender bias on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Third Edition.
Unpublished master’s thesis, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA.
Monetti, D. M., Hummel, J. H., & Huitt, W. G. (2006). Educational psychology principles that
contribute to effective teaching and learning. International Journal of Arts and Sciences,
1, 22-25.
Reffel, J. A., Monetti, D. M., & Hummel, J. H. (2004). The impact of interactive computer-based
cases on motivation and achievement. Georgia Educational Research Journal, 1, 1-12.
Available at http://coefaculty.valdosta.edu/lschmert/gera/current_issue.htm
Reffel, J., Monetti, D., & Hummel, J. H. (2000, June). Interactive cases enhance classroom
management skills in educational psychology students. A paper selected for presentation
at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC.
Shores, R. E., Jack, S. L., Gunter, P. L., Ellis, D. N., DeBriere, T. J., & Wehby, J. H. (1993).
Classroom interactions of children with behavior disorders. Journal of Emotional and
Behavioral Disorders, 1, 27-39.
Tuckman, B. W., & Monetti, D. M. (2010). Educational psychology. Boston, MA: Wadsworth
Cengage Learning.
Whatley, M. A., & Riggio, R. E. (1991, April). Attribution of blame for female rape victims.
Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association,
San Francisco, California.
Whelan, R. J. (1998). Educational practices. In R. J. Whelan (Ed.), Emotional and behavioral
disorders: A 25-year focus (pp. 37-59). Denver: Love Publishing.
APA STYLE 6
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Table 1
Participants Mean Ratings of Self-Esteem as a Function of Ability Feedback and Participant Sex
Self-esteem
Participant sex Ability lower Ability higher
Male
n 23 20
M 31.48
a
35.70
b
SD 5.01 6.74
Female
n 40 25
M 31.78
a
31.64
a
SD 5.01 2.55
Note. Means sharing common subscripts do not differ significantly from one another (p > .05).
Means sharing dissimilar subscripts differ significantly (ps < .05). All comparisons made with
Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test.
APA STYLE 6
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Figure 1. Mean difference ratings of applicant qualifications as a function of college
attended and sex of the participant.
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
Qualification Ratings
Community University
College Attended
Males
Females
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
The present study sought to determine the impact of interactive cases on achievement and motivation compared to a traditional classroom learning experience. Eighty three students in a required course (i.e., educational psychology) volunteered to participate. Participants in the experimental group were asked to view two interactive cases. Participants were evaluated on their level of motivation / participation, and achievement. Participants also completed some open- ended questions to qualitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the interactive technology. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the experimental and control groups on motivation and all aspects of achievement. Both the quantitative and qualitative data supported the position that students benefited academically and motivationally from their experience with the interactive classroom management case studies.
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This paper discusses five principles that contribute to student achievement. For each principle the research upon which it is based is summarized and explanations for how and why teachers could implement the principle are explored. Introduction Preparing children and youth for success in the 21 st century is an issue that is of increasing concern. During the 20 th century, the movement from a national agricultural and industrial-based economy to a global information-based economy placed increasing demands on everyone to develop the necessary knowledge, attitudes, and skills for a rapidly changing world (Huitt, 1995). While much of the effort of educational reform and renewal has focused on the development of students' basic skills (Barrett et al., 1991; No Child Left Behind, 2002), others have argued for the need to establish a larger set of knowledge and skills if students are to be properly prepared (The Secretary [of Labor's] Commission on Necessary Skills [SCANS]), 1991). However, even critiques of that report agree that basic skills are necessary, though they may not be sufficient, preparation (Huitt, 1997). Research has demonstrated that many variables are related to basic skills achievement as measured by standardized tests. In addition to the much discussed variables related to teacher characteristics and classroom practice (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Wenglinsky, 2003), research has also shown that variables such as school size (Howley, 1997), family characteristics (Zill, 1992) and type of community (Coleman et al., 1966; Hatch, 1998) make significant contributions to explaining variances among students' achievement. Some researchers argue that it is the interaction of all of these (Epstein, Coates, Salinas, Sanders, & Simon, 1997) and, therefore each should be held accountable for adding value (Huitt, 1999). In this paper we present several principles that quality research shows teachers can use to make their contribution to student achievement. For each principle we summarize the research upon which it is based, and explain how and why teachers in any grade or academic subject can implement the principle.
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The purpose of this study was to identify significant social stimuli that were associated with prosocial and inappropriate behavior of children classified as severe behavior disordered (SBD). Two children from each of 19 classrooms–10 from integrated and 9 from segregated special classrooms (for children with SBD)–were observed. One student in each classroom was defined as aggressive and one student was defined as nonaggressive. The selection yielded four groups: integrated nonaggressive without SBD (n = 10), integrated aggressive and SBD (n = 10), segregated aggressive and SBD (n = 9), and segregated nonaggressive and SBD (n = 9). An exhaustive behavioral coding system was used to record sequentially the social responses between target students and their teachers and peers. The data from each group were pooled for analysis. Lag sequential analysis was used to identify the significant antecedent and subsequent social responses of each code for each group. The results indicated that most of the teacher/child interactions were composed of teacher mands followed by student compliance, with teacher positive consequences for prosocial behavior rarely occurring. All significant antecedent and subsequent social stimuli of students' aversive behaviors were identified. Results are discussed in relation to the reciprocal–coercive interaction hypothesis (Patterson & Reid, 1970), with implications for additional research.
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Lag sequential analysis of individual interactions was explored as a tool to generate hypotheses regarding the social control of inappropriate classroom behavior of students with severe behavior disorders. Four single subject experiments with two students who displayed high rates of disruptive behavior in special education classrooms were completed using lag sequential analysis to identify antecedent and subsequent social events that were significantly related to their disruptive behavior. Three coded events (student handraise, teacher attention, and the “stop code”) were identified as highly related to the students' disruptive behavior. Three of the four experiments were successful in reducing the students' disruptive behavior by prescribing treatment based upon the lag sequential analysis. The results of these experiments indicated that the lag sequential analysis procedure is potentially a useful tool, but additional research is needed. The results are discussed in terms of the usefulness of the analysis procedures in contributing to the functional analysis of students' classroom behavior.
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