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# Bernoulli's Principle and the Theory of Flight

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## Abstract

When a body moves through an elastic medium so as to cause a differential transverse stress on either side of the body, a force will be induced at right angles to the direction of motion. This induced force which is observed to be acting on the planets in orbit, on electric currents in a magnetic field, and on aeroplanes in flight, can be traced to centrifugal force acting between the vortices of the elastic medium. I. The classical planetary orbital equation indicates that centrifugal force is a radial inverse cube law repulsive force which is a function of transverse motion. It follows therefore that centrifugal force in this respect must be an electromagnetic effect arising in a sea of electric dipoles. This conclusion follows from the fact that electric dipoles are associated with an inverse cube law force field. It means that what is in fact a significant physical force is being masked out of view in terrestrial situations under the guise of Euclidean geometry. Maxwell proposed that space is filled with a solenoidally aligned sea of molecular vortices. He demonstrated that it is differential centrifugal pressure in this sea of molecular vortices which causes the force that acts on a current carrying wire. This is explained on page 172 in part I of his 1861 paper 'On Physical Lines of Force'.(1) As such we can conclude that space is densely packed with rotating electron-positron dipoles in which the electrons act as aether sources, and the positrons act as aether sinks. These dipoles will be solenoidally aligned in a double helix fashion such that the alternate stacking of the electrons and the positrons gives rise to magnetic lines of force and the associated tension along those lines.(2) The Coriolis force which occurs due to the centrifugal barrier in the transverse direction in a planetary orbit exhibits the relationship H = 2ω where H is vorticity and ω is angular speed. This means that the electron- positron sea must be a rigid solid. This solid will be permeated with an
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Bernoulli’s Principle and the Theory of Flight
Frederick David Tombe,
Northern Ireland, United Kingdom,
sirius184@hotmail.com
28th December 2007, Manila, Philippines
Abstract. When an aeroplane moves horizontally through the air, the air pressure
below the wings is greater than the air pressure above the wings. This causes a
force to act vertically upwards on the aeroplane, at right angles to its direction of
motion. Likewise when an electric current flows through a wire in a magnetic
field, a differential pressure is exerted on either side of the wire, causing a force
to act at right angles to the wire. In the former case the pressure arises from the
centrifugal force that is being exerted by the air molecules, whereas in the latter
case the pressure arises from the centrifugal force that is being exerted by the
tiny molecular vortices that form the medium for the propagation of light.
Centrifugal Force
I. The classical planetary orbital equation indicates that centrifugal force
is a radial inverse cube law repulsive force which is dependent on angular
momentum. The inverse cube law relationship is indicative of a dipole
field, and so centrifugal force must be an electromagnetic effect arising in
a sea of electric dipoles.
Maxwell proposed that space is filled with a solenoidally aligned sea
of molecular vortices. He demonstrated that it is asymmetric centrifugal
pressure in this sea of molecular vortices which causes the force that acts
on a current carrying wire. This is explained on page 172 in part I of his
1861 paper “On Physical Lines of Force.[1] Combining these two lines
of reasoning, we can conclude that space is densely packed with rotating
electron-positron dipoles in which the electrons act as aether sinks, and in
which the positrons act as aether sources. Each dipole will entail an
electron and a positron undergoing mutual circular orbit. These dipoles
will be solenoidally aligned along their mutual rotation axes in a double
helix fashion such that the alternate stacking of the electrons and the
positrons gives rise to magnetic lines of force and the associated
Coulomb tension along those lines of force.[2] The electron-positron sea
will be referred to as “The Electric Sea”. As regards aerodynamic lift, the
source of the centrifugal force will be on a larger scale. Air pressure
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arises because of the repulsive force that exists between the air molecules
due to their vorticity.
Compound Centrifugal Force
II. Compound centrifugal pressure is the resultant of two opposing
centrifugal pressures in a medium that is comprised of molecular vortices.
It can be either written as v×H or as (A.v), where H is vorticity, A is the
momentum per unit volume of aether, and A.v is the centrifugal potential
energy. See The Coriolis Force in Maxwell’s Equations”.[3]
In the radial field of a planetary orbit, the gravitational tail on the far
side of the planet ensures that no inward centrifugal pressure acts on that
side. The outward pressure in this case is therefore a simple centrifugal
pressure with formula ½(A.v). The compound centrifugal force is
however observed in the transverse motion of a non-circular planetary
orbit. The gravitational field of planetary bodies will entrain an extended
region of the electric sea when they are undergoing translational motion.
Motion of a planet and its entrained gravitosphere through the wider
electric sea causes an interaction at the interface region which will
generate an inertial aether pressure (kinetic energy). The radial
component of the non-circular motion causes a differential between the
inertial pressure on the windward side of the transverse motion and the
inertial pressure on the leeward side of the transverse motion. This
pressure differential reverses directions according to whether the planet is
moving upwards or downwards. The relationship H = 2ω in the
compound centrifugal force term 2mv×ω, where ω is angular speed,
indicates that the electric sea must be a rigid solid. This solid will be
permeated with an aether juice which oils the interface regions as the
planetary bodies and their gravitospheres move through it. An effusion of
aether pressure from the positrons will cause a hovercraft effect at the
interfaces in line with Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.
If we increase the volume of a sample of gas, the molecules will
dilate and the centrifugal pressure being exerted by the molecules will
reduce. When an aeroplane is moving forwards, the camber on the upper
side of the wings will cause the air above the wings to expand. The air
pressure above the wings will therefore be less than the air pressure
below the wings and a compound centrifugal pressure will induce an
upward vertical force at right angles to the forward motion.
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The Angle of Attack
III. The lift effect in aerodynamics can be enhanced by tilting the wings
relative to the horizontal. This results in extra compression beneath the
wings as well as an additional force due to the wind. However, while
increasing the angle of attack creates these additional effects, it also
reduces the vertical component of the reaction force against the underside
of the wings. There is therefore an optimum angle of attack, and if the
angle of attack becomes too large, the aeroplane will stall.
Conclusion
IV. The principle of flight is compound centrifugal force. The air
molecules exert a centrifugal pressure, and they exert it differentially
above and below the wings. This induces a resultant force at right angles
to the forward motion of the aeroplane. The camber on the upper side of
the wings causes a rarefaction and hence a reduction in the air pressure
above the wings as compared to below the wings. The fact that in the
process, the centrifugal potential energy of static compression (the
potential energy) converts to kinetic energy is incidental. The kinetic
energy of the air molecules is their inertial pressure, and it combines with
the static pressure to cause the total pressure. Kinetic energy is the
centrifugal aether pressure that is induced by virtue of motion through the
luminiferous medium. The temperature of a gas is the kinetic energy of
the molecules per unit volume, but the pressure of the gas on the other
hand is the total energy per unit volume, hence it makes no difference to
the total pressure when potential energy converts into kinetic energy.
Bernoulli’s principle is merely a statement of the law of conservation of
energy, but it is not the underlying cause of flight. The theory of flight is
analogous to the force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field. In
the latter case, the compound centrifugal force arises because of the
molecular vortices that form the luminiferous medium. These vortices
cause an asymmetrical pressure and hence a net force across the current
carrying wire. When the compound centrifugal force acts in the
transverse direction in a radial field, we call it the Coriolis force. The
Coriolis force has strong parallels to the case of an electric current that is
induced when a wire moves at right angles through a magnetic field.
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References
[1] Clerk-Maxwell, J., “On Physical Lines of Force”, Philosophical
Magazine, Volume 21 (1861)
http://vacuum-physics.com/Maxwell/maxwell_oplf.pdf
[2] Tombe, F.D., “The Double Helix Theory of the Magnetic Field”
http://www.wbabin.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-
[3] Tombe, F.D., “The Coriolis Force in Maxwell’s Equations”
and also “Archimedes’ Principle in the Electric Sea”, Galilean
Electrodynamics, Volume 20, Number 1, page 19 (2009)
24
th
October 2011 amendment
... It's on the wing and the orbitals where the centrifugal force is experienced. See "Bernoulli's Principle and the Theory of Flight" [8]. In the case of the atom, angular momentum already exists as a matter of course, but when the background electric sea flows by at an arbitrary angle of attack, the aerodynamic P-factor results in a pressure asymmetry which results in a torque, which in turn causes the atoms to precess with their precession axes aligned in the direction of the electric sea current. ...
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A sea level object that is moving horizontally at a speed greater than 8km/sec is already in orbit and it will rise upwards due to centrifugal force. Two such objects tethered together while moving in opposite directions should therefore spiral upwards like a helicopter. It will be proposed that the atom is a dipole, and that it is the fundamental helicopter.
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The Coriolis force is a consequence of Newton's first law of motion and it can be observed in a radial force field as a transverse deflection of the radial component of the motion by an amount required to conserve angular momentum. It is a physical reality most commonly associated with atmospheric cyclones, but it can also be observed deflecting the effect of gravity on a comet or causing a pivoted gyroscope to defy gravity. In a paper which he wrote in 1835 in connection with water wheels, French scientist Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis referred to its mathematical formula 2mv×ω as the "compound centrifugal force". This is an interesting choice of name which suggests that it is the sum of two centrifugal forces, yet without giving any indication as to how this might be. The physical origins of the Coriolis force will now be traced to differential centrifugal pressure in the dense background sea of tiny aethereal vortices which serves as the medium for the propagation of light.
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The historical linkage between optics and electromagnetism can be traced back to the year 1855, when Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Rudolf Kohlrausch, by discharging a Leyden Jar (a capacitor), demonstrated that the ratio of the electrostatic and electrodynamic units of charge is equal to c√2, where c is the directly measured speed of light. Although not initially aware of the connection to the speed of light, Weber interpreted c√2 as a kind of mutual escape velocity for two elements of electricity in relative motion, such as would enable the induced magnetic force to overcome the mutual electrostatic force. A few years later, James Clerk Maxwell converted this ratio from electrodynamic units to electromagnetic units, hence exposing the speed of light directly. On connecting Weber’s ratio to the dielectric constant in an all-pervading elastic solid, Maxwell concluded that light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium that is the cause of electric and magnetic phenomena. The differing perspectives of Weber and Maxwell can be reconciled by linking the speed of light to the circumferential speed of the electric particles surrounding the tiny molecular vortices that Maxwell believed to be the constituent units of the luminiferous medium. If we consider these molecular vortices to be tiny electric current circulations, mutually aligned along their rotation axes to form magnetic lines of force, magnetic repulsion can then be explained in terms of centrifugal pressure acting sideways from these field lines. And if these molecular vortices should take the more precise dipolar form of an electron and a positron in mutual orbit, we can then further explain magnetic attraction, this time in terms of the more fundamental electrostatic force being channeled along the double helix of electrons and positrons that forms a magnetic line of force.
Archimedes' Principle in the Electric Sea
• F D Tombe
Tombe, F.D., "The Coriolis Force in Maxwell's Equations" http://www.wbabin.net/Science-Journals/Research%20Papers-Astrophysics/Download/3161 and also "Archimedes' Principle in the Electric Sea", Galilean Electrodynamics, Volume 20, Number 1, page 19 (2009)